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【經文資訊】藏外佛教文獻 第二冊 No. 20《法華經文外義》
W02n0020_p0293a01║
W02n0020_p0293a02║  法華經文外義
W02n0020_p0293a03║    整理者 李際寧 張曉娟
W02n0020_p0293a04║
W02n0020_p0293a05║  〔題解〕
W02n0020_p0293a06║  《法華經文外義》,中國僧人所撰佛教經典疏釋,作者不詳,一
W02n0020_p0293a07║卷。
W02n0020_p0293a08║  本文首殘尾全,卷尾有尾題及題記:「法華經文外義一卷,一校
W02n0020_p0293a09║竟,大統十一年歲次乙丑九月二十一日,比丘惠襲於法海寺寫訖,
W02n0020_p0293a10║流通末代不絕也。」原卷啟功題籤。本疏以問答的形式,對鳩摩羅
W02n0020_p0293a11║什譯《妙法蓮華經》的思想,多有引申發揮。由於卷首殘,不得見其
W02n0020_p0293a12║全貌,但據文內尚存的不同層次的內題:如「料簡文經理經」、「二
W02n0020_p0293a13║智」、「次明因緣」、「燒舍宅者」、「淨土者」、「五百由旬險難道者」、
W02n0020_p0293a14║「次明二依」、「十地者」等,可以看出本文的脈絡及作者的關注點。
W02n0020_p0293a15║本文對南北朝時期的中國佛教及《法華經》思想在中國的流傳,具
W02n0020_p0293a16║有重要的研究價值。
W02n0020_p0293a17║  本文一個顯著的特點,是通卷頗多口語化。文字亦多通假、俗
W02n0020_p0293a18║寫。對研究該一時期文字語言具有一定的意義。文內似有數處錯
W02n0020_p0293a19║簡,詳情待考。
W02n0020_p0293a20║  本文未為我國歷代經錄記載,亦未為歷代大藏經收錄。根據
W02n0020_p0293a21║各敦煌文獻收藏單位公佈的目錄,僅見上海博物館藏此一件,編為
W02n0020_p0293a22║3317號。本次整理,以上海古籍出版社出版之該號影印本為底
W02n0020_p0293a23║本,無校本。
W02n0020_p0294a01║
W02n0020_p0294a02║  〔錄文〕
W02n0020_p0294a03║
W02n0020_p0294a04║法華經文外義
W02n0020_p0294a05║
W02n0020_p0294a06║  (前殘)
W02n0020_p0294a07║
W02n0020_p0294a08║大義。復云:何為在相續,復通實法也?
W02n0020_p0294a09║  又解:一念之善,是乘而不運,是火而不燒。
W02n0020_p0294a10║  復有一解:火本相續中有燒,實法之中則無用也。
W02n0020_p0294a11║  又問:若實法中無用,何故名火也?
W02n0020_p0294a12║  又解:熱多色等眾成,故名之為火。以因來解,義四大類解不
W02n0020_p0294a13║異也。
W02n0020_p0294a14║  更有一解:火一運中有用,乘要在相續中有用。
W02n0020_p0294a15║  又問:若爾,一運之火實法,則有燒用之義;我一念之善,則有
W02n0020_p0294a16║運載之義。若一念之善則無乘義,一運之火則無燒義也。
W02n0020_p0294a17║  又解:火是一時因成假,故實中有;乘是相續緣成假,故相續中
W02n0020_p0294a18║有用,實中無也。
W02n0020_p0294a19║  問:眼識一念中有用以不?
W02n0020_p0294a20║  又解:眼識一念之中,則能了別青黃也。又解:一念眼識,
W02n0020_p0294a21║攬三相相續而成,此一念亦是相續緣成之假,而實中有用者。善亦
W02n0020_p0294a22║是相續緣成假,實法中亦應有乘義。等是相續緣成假,所以眼識一
W02n0020_p0294a23║念中有了別之義,善則無用也。又解:眼識亦相續緣成假,但三相
W02n0020_p0294a24║實法之位,實位相續,有來對境,根塵相順起,則了別青黃,故實
W02n0020_p0295a01║中有用也。乘本要就假位相續,故相續中有用,實中無也。
W02n0020_p0295a02║  又問:根塵相順實中有用者,若爾,善本起則順理,實中亦應有
W02n0020_p0295a03║乘也。
W02n0020_p0295a04║  又解:不同。起則順理,實中得有善義,不得有乘義也。
W02n0020_p0295a05║  又問:相續義云何?
W02n0020_p0295a06║  又答:解義不同。一解:前能感後,前與後作因,不得續名;後
W02n0020_p0295a07║必赴前,後不絕前,後念上得其續名也。
W02n0020_p0295a08║  又問:前能感後,前得作後。後必赴前,後得作前以不?
W02n0020_p0295a09║  又解:前能感後,前得作後。後者正者,正得赴前,不得作前
W02n0020_p0295a10║也。何以得知?金剛心感種智,得與種智作因,故得作種智。種智
W02n0020_p0295a11║赴金剛,不得作金剛也。所以如此,金剛是因,無常不滿;種智是
W02n0020_p0295a12║果,常而滿足。正以無常不滿足,故得作常;種智常而滿足,故不得
W02n0020_p0295a13║作無常不滿足也。復又一解:前能感後,後必赴前。前後相續,中
W02n0020_p0295a14║間得不絕之名。此一[糸*(一/旦)]就兩頭得名也。
W02n0020_p0295a15║  又問:攬常無常、明無明,成相續一。問此一為是常、為無常
W02n0020_p0295a16║也?為是明、為無明也?
W02n0020_p0295a17║  又解:此一不得名常,不得名無常;不得名明,不得名作無明。
W02n0020_p0295a18║正得名非常非無常、非明非無明。何以得知?攬常成故,不得名
W02n0020_p0295a19║無常;攬無常成故,不得名常。為大明成故,不得名無明;為無明成
W02n0020_p0295a20║故,不得為明也。
W02n0020_p0295a21║  又問:若攬常無常,成此相續一,得不名常無常者,攬金剛
W02n0020_p0295a22║已還無常神慮,金剛已後常神慮,成此相續,此一得名非慮非不慮?
W02n0020_p0295a23║  又解:此一正得名大慮,不得名非慮非不慮也。
W02n0020_p0295a24║  又問:若爾,正應得名常也,正得名大明,不得名非常非無常
W02n0020_p0296a01║也,非明非無明。
W02n0020_p0296a02║  又解:不類。常無常、明無明別不通,故所感一,不得名常無
W02n0020_p0296a03║常、明無明也。慮名是通,所成相續一,得名慮也。何以得知?因
W02n0020_p0296a04║亦是慮,果亦是慮,是以所成一,得名是慮。不得因是無常,果亦無
W02n0020_p0296a05║常;因是無明,果亦無明。以是義故,正得道非常非無常、非明非無
W02n0020_p0296a06║明也。
W02n0020_p0296a07║  更有一解:此一亦得名常,亦得名無常。何以得知?攬常成
W02n0020_p0296a08║故,從後作名,名為常也;為無常成故,從前作名,名為無常也。明
W02n0020_p0296a09║無明亦如此解。此問攬常無常,成相續一。
W02n0020_p0296a10║  問:此一,二諦作判,落在何諦所攝?
W02n0020_p0296a11║  又解:二諦所不攝。何以得知?橫截而言,二諦往判,唯二無
W02n0020_p0296a12║一;以一諦往[糸*(一/旦)],始終相續,唯一無二也。故經言「相續一實諦」,明
W02n0020_p0296a13║義各異,何相關也。問:「何諦所攝也!」
W02n0020_p0296a14║  復有一解:此一為二諦所攝也。何以得知?以二諦往分,從後
W02n0020_p0296a15║故為第一義諦所攝,從前故世諦所攝。
W02n0020_p0296a16║  又問:若為二諦所攝,云何道非常、非無常也?
W02n0020_p0296a17║  又答:若如前解,不得名常無常。若依後解,亦得名常,亦得名
W02n0020_p0296a18║無常;亦得名明,亦得名無明也。為常所感,從後故名為常也;為無
W02n0020_p0296a19║常所成,從前故名為無常也。明無明亦如此也。
W02n0020_p0296a20║  又問:此相續一慮,照何境而起?
W02n0020_p0296a21║  又答:解有二種。
W02n0020_p0296a22║  一解言:照一境而起。何以得知?前境常無常,相續一慮,那
W02n0020_p0296a23║得有別境可照也?以是義故,得言「照一境」也。復有一解:亦得緣
W02n0020_p0296a24║常無常,二諦理也。何以得知?金剛是因心不滿,由常緣二諦理
W02n0020_p0296a25║起,豈況果心滿足而不照也!此解當就後念上得續名也。
W02n0020_p0297a01║  又問:眾生作佛,佛續眾生者,涅槃是假以不?
W02n0020_p0297a02║  又答:諸師解義不同。一解:涅槃是續而非假也。
W02n0020_p0297a03║  又問:涅槃所以得置於續,何故不得安假也?
W02n0020_p0297a04║  又解:續名與常相順。何以得知?常以不斷為義,續義復是不
W02n0020_p0297a05║斷。二名相順,是以果頭得安續名也。假義與常相違。何以得知?
W02n0020_p0297a06║涅槃是實,絕於假誑,假是虛偽不實。二義相背,故不得安假也。
W02n0020_p0297a07║  更有一解:金剛以還,是續而是假;金剛以後,是續而非假。何
W02n0020_p0297a08║以得知?金剛心與種智為因,有赴前而感後,故是續而是假也;種
W02n0020_p0297a09║智但有赴前而無感後之義,是以續而非假也。
W02n0020_p0297a10║  復有一解:涅槃得言是相續相待假,而非下地因生因成也。眾
W02n0020_p0297a11║生修行作佛,佛得續眾生,故是相續假也。經言「有心,故所以有其
W02n0020_p0297a12║當性」,此詎不性待於心也。有如來藏故,生死相續不斷,此生
W02n0020_p0297a13║死待如來藏也。此是相待假也。是以涅槃是續而是假也。
W02n0020_p0297a14║  又問:涅槃體絕百非,云何是假也?
W02n0020_p0297a15║  又答:涅槃絕者,絕於下地之相體,絕下地之假也。絕下地之
W02n0020_p0297a16║非,絕下地之是。金剛以還,百是不能是,百非不能非。體正是
W02n0020_p0297a17║大相也。體正是大非,是大是也。體非金剛以還生死之是,故稱為
W02n0020_p0297a18║非;體絕金剛已還生死之非,故稱為是也。
W02n0020_p0297a19║  又問:涅槃若是假,應是無常?
W02n0020_p0297a20║  又答:何必是無常也。何以得知?如虛空結盡,是相待假,而
W02n0020_p0297a21║非是無常。涅槃假之中極,非是無常也。
W02n0020_p0297a22║  又問:言無明,此義云何?
W02n0020_p0297a23║  又一解:就相續道中,本時行地,無明闇惑之心,今變作果
W02n0020_p0298a01║頭大明。
W02n0020_p0298a02║  又問:明解既起,斷去無明,云何得相作也?
W02n0020_p0298a03║  又解:解起惑喪,理不相作。但明解之生,沒他無明心後起,
W02n0020_p0298a04║道言「作」也。
W02n0020_p0298a05║  更有一解:明闇相連,不得相作。就相續道中,本時無明所成
W02n0020_p0298a06║續,今作果頭大明所成續也。續名是通,得相作也。故經言「本
W02n0020_p0298a07║時鹿王,今則我身」是也。就寬時中,本時鹿王成續,今作佛續。
W02n0020_p0298a08║  又問:金剛已還,離心之續;金剛已後,即心之續。云何非心得
W02n0020_p0298a09║續於心?若非心得續於心,金剛已還,色亦應得續於心。若色不得
W02n0020_p0298a10║續心,金剛已還,非色非心者,不得續於果頭心也。
W02n0020_p0298a11║  又解:續義非心義,所以得相續也。
W02n0020_p0298a12║  更有一解:金剛以還,有二種之續,有即心續,有離心續。今言
W02n0020_p0298a13║「續」者,即心續;續於果頭者,離心續。齊金剛已還,謝滅不通,果
W02n0020_p0298a14║頭也。續名是通,慮亦是通,得相作也。常無常時、明無明別,不得
W02n0020_p0298a15║相作也。
W02n0020_p0298a16║  又問:眾生修行作佛,為當一中得佛,為當異中作佛?
W02n0020_p0298a17║  又解:正眾生與佛相續一,故就相續一中,眾生修行得作佛也。
W02n0020_p0298a18║  復有一解:若苕然異,不得作佛;若冥庭一,亦不作佛也。正以
W02n0020_p0298a19║有一有異,故就一異之中,眾生修行得作佛也。
W02n0020_p0298a20║  又問:乘體之義,如上所論。乘之齊畔,竟復云何?
W02n0020_p0298a21║  又答:經論師解義各自不同。
W02n0020_p0298a22║  一解:要取性地以上善以為乘體,乾慧以還,非為乘體也。
W02n0020_p0299a01║何以得知?性地以上無漏空解,直感菩提運載行人,必故不退,此
W02n0020_p0299a02║善是強,得為乘體也。乾慧以還,退沒不定,進趣無恆,非為乘體
W02n0020_p0299a03║也。就大乘中,習種性深廣心以上得為乘體。自此以前,非為乘體
W02n0020_p0299a04║也。何以得知?經言「世間諸善,不動不出,有相沈沒,無相出世」,
W02n0020_p0299a05║亡相無報也。以此驗知,世間善非為乘體也。
W02n0020_p0299a06║  又問:若世間善非為乘體者,何以經言「是乘微妙,從三界出,
W02n0020_p0299a07║至薩婆若住」?復言「積世間善滿,得出世間善」。下經言「低頭舉
W02n0020_p0299a08║手,童子壅沙,一毫之善,皆得成佛」。以此驗知,有相諸善,
W02n0020_p0299a09║都得以為乘體,云何道言「世間善非為乘體」也?
W02n0020_p0299a10║  又解:道言「從三界出」者,三界善與乘為因,故能遠生於乘,道
W02n0020_p0299a11║言「從出」,道言「積世間善滿」也。「低頭舉手,有相諸善,皆得成
W02n0020_p0299a12║佛」者,世間有相諸善能發生於乘,與乘為因、為緣。何以得知?五
W02n0020_p0299a13║戒十善,感得人天果起。此善理數滅盡,更無所感,故知非正乘體
W02n0020_p0299a14║也。
W02n0020_p0299a15║  又問:若世間有相諸善與乘為因、為緣,非正乘體者,問此見諦
W02n0020_p0299a16║一念惑中,得與修道為因,與三界外恆沙為因,與無明住地作因,得
W02n0020_p0299a17║與處處為因。今且問:見諦與修道作因者,此因為當屬見諦,為屬
W02n0020_p0299a18║修道也?
W02n0020_p0299a19║  又解:見諦與修道為因,以修道果未緣,屬於修道,名為修道惑
W02n0020_p0299a20║也。
W02n0020_p0299a21║  又問:若見諦與修道作因,此因屬修道,不名見諦者,我世間有
W02n0020_p0299a22║相諸善,與出世無漏作因,應屬於出世,應名相善得為乘體也。
W02n0020_p0299a23║若世間善與出世無相作因,不得屬於無相;見諦與修道為因,不應
W02n0020_p0300a01║屬於修道,名修道惑,應名見諦。
W02n0020_p0300a02║  又解:不類。惑本同是違理取性,障解不殊為一,無礙解脫所
W02n0020_p0300a03║除。是以見諦中為因者,得名修道惑。善本相無相異,漏無漏別,
W02n0020_p0300a04║伏除有異。雖與無相作因,不得漏於無相,得為乘體也。
W02n0020_p0300a05║  又問:乾慧以前,此善為因,不為乘體,此事可解。今問:乾慧
W02n0020_p0300a06║與性地為因者,此因云何?
W02n0020_p0300a07║  又解:乾慧終心與性地作因者,此善得言屬「無相」,以為正乘。
W02n0020_p0300a08║自此以前,但有資發之義,非正乘也。
W02n0020_p0300a09║  復有一解:莫問有相無相,但使一毫諸善,皆能運載行人,都得
W02n0020_p0300a10║以為乘體也。何以得知?經言「是乘微妙,從三界出,至薩婆若
W02n0020_p0300a11║住」。經復言「低頭舉手,童子壅沙,皆得成佛」。以此驗知,都
W02n0020_p0300a12║得以為乘體也。若世間有相善不能運載外化,凡夫乘何善來,得至
W02n0020_p0300a13║性地?性地既不到,初住乃至十住,何由可階?眾生從無始已來,
W02n0020_p0300a14║無有修行得佛者。若爾,法古已來無有諸佛聖人。正以眾生從無
W02n0020_p0300a15║始以來修善,來至性地,乃至十住,修行作佛。以此都驗,故知世間
W02n0020_p0300a16║有相諸善皆能運載,得為乘體也。
W02n0020_p0300a17║  又問:若世間善都以為乘體者,世間善有動出,何以經言「世間
W02n0020_p0300a18║諸善,不動不出,有相沈沒,無相出世」也?此解詎不違經文也?
W02n0020_p0300a19║  又解:「道言相善不動不出」者,靈山以前不了義說,為修五
W02n0020_p0300a20║戒十善,得人天果報,屬於人天,名人天乘。道品等行,因緣觀智,
W02n0020_p0300a21║屬於二乘,名聲聞、緣覺乘也。行六波羅蜜,名菩薩乘。為欲彰五
W02n0020_p0300a22║乘教別故,道言「不動不出」也。又來,世間有相善中,有二種因,有
W02n0020_p0300a23║遠有近。近者感人天果報,遠感於佛。道言「有相諸善,不動不出」
W02n0020_p0300a24║者,但道感人天義強,感佛義弱。隱他感出世義邊,故道「不動」,道
W02n0020_p0301a01║理有出世義邊也。雖復相、無相相異,同能運不殊,故得為乘
W02n0020_p0301a02║也。
W02n0020_p0301a03║  道言「相善進退無恆」者,泛論因果之道,要果起則因發。人天
W02n0020_p0301a04║乘退,退,非佛乘有退也。何以得知?本修五戒十善,情期人天。
W02n0020_p0301a05║修因有局,果報有限,是以退。感佛之因,大果未就,為因不忘,永
W02n0020_p0301a06║無退理。修世善未滿,佛乘義弱,遇緣則退。若修世間滿,佛乘強
W02n0020_p0301a07║者,乘此善故,永無退也。
W02n0020_p0301a08║  又問:上來所論佛法理中,所修諸善得為乘體也。未量外道
W02n0020_p0301a09║修禪伏結,所修諸善,得為乘不?
W02n0020_p0301a10║  又人解言:不得為乘也。何以得知?外道修善,情標別趣,是
W02n0020_p0301a11║以不得為乘也。
W02n0020_p0301a12║  又問:若就情期不得為乘者,修五戒十善亦情期人天;二乘修
W02n0020_p0301a13║道品等行,因緣觀智,情期灰身涅槃以為究竟。
W02n0020_p0301a14║  又解:若當就情期,二俱情有所標;若當就理,皆應有感
W02n0020_p0301a15║佛之義。所以人、天二乘所修諸善,獨得為乘;外道所修諸善,所以
W02n0020_p0301a16║不得為乘也。以如斯往伏,不見有解。今且依一師解,意存前解
W02n0020_p0301a17║也。就理論乘,不就情期也。何以得知?本修五戒十善,道品觀
W02n0020_p0301a18║智,論情各有所期。理而言之,皆有感佛之義。是以道言「汝等所
W02n0020_p0301a19║行,是菩薩道」。故知不就情也,就理得為乘也。
W02n0020_p0301a20║  又問:若當就理為乘,不就情期者,何由得有內外之別也?
W02n0020_p0301a21║  又解:論五戒十善,非不情有所期。但以順佛教生善,故不名
W02n0020_p0301a22║外道。外道修禪伏結,生在非想,起於斷常,不依佛教而生,故名外
W02n0020_p0302a01║道。雖內外有異,皆有遠感之義,莫非是乘也。
W02n0020_p0302a02║  又問:道義乘義,有何等異?
W02n0020_p0302a03║  有一解:道亦相續運通,乘亦相續運載也。論其能都在相續,
W02n0020_p0302a04║不異也。
W02n0020_p0302a05║  更有一解:有異。道停而通物,乘是相續運載,故所以有異
W02n0020_p0302a06║也。何以得知?道是停而通物,一念之解,能除相續之結,故知實
W02n0020_p0302a07║中有用。乘本要攬前後善相續,得有運載之義,假中有用。故知二
W02n0020_p0302a08║義有異也。
W02n0020_p0302a09║  又問:上來所解因乘,粗可如此。果乘之義,竟復云何?
W02n0020_p0302a10║  又答:諸師解義不同。
W02n0020_p0302a11║  又一解:果頭無乘義。何以得知?唯有因中不足,境中有進趣
W02n0020_p0302a12║運載,得有乘義。果頭滿足,更無進趣,無有乘義也。何以得知?
W02n0020_p0302a13║《勝鬘經》言:得究竟法身者,於上更無說一乘法事。若果頭有乘
W02n0020_p0302a14║義,應道說一乘法事。正以經言「更無說一乘法事」,故知果頭無有
W02n0020_p0302a15║乘也。
W02n0020_p0302a16║  又問:若果頭無乘義者,《一乘章》末言「一乘者,即第一義乘」,
W02n0020_p0302a17║此為是因乘,為果乘也?
W02n0020_p0302a18║  又答:「一乘者,即第一義乘」,第一義諦,能發生於乘。此是緣
W02n0020_p0302a19║中說乘也。
W02n0020_p0302a20║  又問:若作此解,果頭無乘義者,若爾,唯因中不足,境中有惡
W02n0020_p0302a21║可防,得有戒義;果頭無惡可防,無有戒義。因中有苦可代,得有樂
W02n0020_p0302a22║義;果頭無苦可代,無有樂義。如是類難,萬義可知。果頭無乘,復
W02n0020_p0302a23║無戒義、常樂義。若爾,唯因中得有萬義,果頭無也。云何經言「大
W02n0020_p0302a24║涅槃體備萬義」也?如此之難,云何可解?此解難存也。
W02n0020_p0302a25║  又一解:果頭有乘義。果體滿足,雖無進趣,得此滿足之理,能
W02n0020_p0303a01║運度蒼生。下接解乘義也。
W02n0020_p0303a02║  復有一解:運載行人,代苦得樂,名之為乘。如似世人乘於車
W02n0020_p0303a03║馬,代於馳驟之苦。萬善相續,載行人離苦得樂,名為乘也。因中
W02n0020_p0303a04║代苦不極,猶尚得有乘義;果頭代苦之極,特得乘義也。是以果
W02n0020_p0303a05║頭亦得有乘義。
W02n0020_p0303a06║  又問:代苦得樂解乘義者,代無常得常亦得解乘義以不?若代
W02n0020_p0303a07║無常得常,不得解乘義者,代苦得樂,亦不得解乘也。我淨亦爾,類
W02n0020_p0303a08║難不異也。
W02n0020_p0303a09║  又答:代無常得常,亦得解乘義。無我得我,不淨得淨,都得解
W02n0020_p0303a10║乘義也。何以得知?苦以逼切為義,樂以適悅為能,乘以運載為
W02n0020_p0303a11║義。苦、樂義非是乘義,而得解乘義。常以不遷為義,無常以遷流
W02n0020_p0303a12║為義,乘以運載為義。常、無常亦非乘義,何以不得解乘義也?以
W02n0020_p0303a13║此驗知,代無常得常,無我得我,不淨得淨,都得解乘義也。
W02n0020_p0303a14║  又問:若都得解乘義者,何以不道代無常得常,無我得我,不淨
W02n0020_p0303a15║得淨,乃道苦樂也?
W02n0020_p0303a16║  又答:苦樂是眾生報之主,分報之精,功由苦樂。又來,但
W02n0020_p0303a17║舉於果,不通於因。且就顯處語無常義,漫通於因果。不淨義亦
W02n0020_p0303a18║爾。彰乘義不顯,故不道也。
W02n0020_p0303a19║  更有一解:代苦得樂,不解乘義,運載解乘義。但乘義於善惡
W02n0020_p0303a20║無由取別,將代苦得樂,來欲標善惡乘別。何以得知?運載行人,
W02n0020_p0303a21║代樂得苦,以知不善乘;運載行人,代苦得樂,以知是善乘也。以是
W02n0020_p0303a22║義故,得知善惡乘別也。
W02n0020_p0304a01║  復有一解:運載解乘義。因中不足,境中進趣運載,解於因乘;
W02n0020_p0304a02║果頭運載之極,解於果乘也。何以得知?如人乘車遠來,至家停
W02n0020_p0304a03║住,雖無有去,由故名為車來到。果頭雖無進趣,但運載極故,由故
W02n0020_p0304a04║得名善能運也。以是義故,果頭得有乘義也。
W02n0020_p0304a05║  又問:因、果乘同能運載,何由取別?
W02n0020_p0304a06║  又答:因中進趣運載,解於因乘;論果頭也運載物,解於果乘。
W02n0020_p0304a07║所以有別也。因中行者,何由不墜落三途?良由有乘可乘,故
W02n0020_p0304a08║行者不墜不沒也。果頭行者,何由湛然常住?正以有乘可乘,故以
W02n0020_p0304a09║無常窮極之善,運無窮行者,是以湛然常住。
W02n0020_p0304a10║  又問:「果頭運載之極,得有乘義;止惡之極,得有戒義」者。若
W02n0020_p0304a11║爾,果頭止惡之極,應名大護,何故名為三不護也?
W02n0020_p0304a12║  又答:因中止惡不極,事須三業防護。果頭止惡極故,不須防
W02n0020_p0304a13║護,故得不護之名也。
W02n0020_p0304a14║  又問:能乘所乘,何以得知?
W02n0020_p0304a15║  又答:如似車是能載,人是所載也。
W02n0020_p0304a16║  更有一解:人能柄法。人是御乘之人,善是所乘之法。
W02n0020_p0304a17║  又問:乘既如此,一義復云何?
W02n0020_p0304a18║  又答:一解,一義唯在於果,不通於因。何以得知?大果無二,
W02n0020_p0304a19║可得名一;因中參差,不得為一。唯果頭得一名,因中無也。
W02n0020_p0304a20║  更有一解:因雖萬差,同感一果,始終相續,運義不殊,名為一
W02n0020_p0304a21║因。果雖有萬義差別,同是滿足,訓因義不殊,名為一果。故經言
W02n0020_p0304a22║「因無異趣,果無別從」。天下道理,唯有一因一果。是以乘通因
W02n0020_p0304a23║果,一亦通因果,故言「一乘」也。
W02n0020_p0305a01║   料簡文經理經
W02n0020_p0305a02║  又問:唯取能詮為經,所詮亦是經也?
W02n0020_p0305a03║  又答:解義不同。
W02n0020_p0305a04║  一解言「唯取能詮為經,不取所詮也」。何以得知?若取所詮
W02n0020_p0305a05║為經,何由得有三寶體別?能詮佛文是經,所詮佛事復是經;能詮
W02n0020_p0305a06║僧文是經,所詮僧事復是經。若爾,唯一法寶。以是義故,無有三
W02n0020_p0305a07║寶異也。今明三寶歷然,故知所詮非經也。又來,若取所詮為經
W02n0020_p0305a08║者,經言狐狼野干不淨等物,豈可是經?若是經者,煞狐狼野干,應
W02n0020_p0305a09║得煞法寶之罪。今煞狐狼野干,不得煞法寶之罪。以是義故,所詮
W02n0020_p0305a10║前事,體非是經也。又復,《涅槃經》七善中言「知十二部經,名為知
W02n0020_p0305a11║法」,是其能詮;前理名為知義,是其所詮。若取所詮為經者,何由
W02n0020_p0305a12║得有七善體別?便應正有六善!又來,四無礙中,初明達於能詮,
W02n0020_p0305a13║名為法無礙;知於所詮,以為義無礙。若以所詮為經,唯有三無礙,
W02n0020_p0305a14║不應有四也。四依中言,以「能詮」之教以為初依,教下所詮之理以
W02n0020_p0305a15║為第三依。若取所詮為經,何由得有四依義別?正應唯三,無四。
W02n0020_p0305a16║今時正以有四依義殊,四無礙體別,七善有異。以此眾驗,故知唯
W02n0020_p0305a17║取能詮為經,不取所詮也。
W02n0020_p0305a18║  復又一解:能詮所詮,俱皆為經也。何以得知?經言「泥洹是
W02n0020_p0305a19║真法寶」。理處精高,益物中勝,故知理為經也。如人不識月,以指
W02n0020_p0305a20║指月,欲使尋指以得月。若論先識者栖於月上,何用指為?教亦如
W02n0020_p0305a21║是。正以耳目之徒不達於理,聖人佈教萬差,正欲使行者尋教得
W02n0020_p0305a22║理。若能同於法身以上,冥心會理,豈復假此粗教?及其會理,要
W02n0020_p0305a23║必亡詮。夫聖人設教之來,正欲引汲不逮之流,是故說以名
W02n0020_p0306a01║相。名相既陳,道在方寸。故知教是接俗之近詮,非是至聖環
W02n0020_p0306a02║中之妙旨。論其理,益物之本,法寶中精。棄本以存末,何異宋
W02n0020_p0306a03║氏之守株。
W02n0020_p0306a04║  又復《涅槃經》言「正以經之威力,便令夢睹羅剎,墮於地獄,加
W02n0020_p0306a05║怖發心,永隔闡提」,故知所詮為經也。若當唯文為經,不取理者,
W02n0020_p0306a06║昔日三乘經,亦是金口所說,名字句為體。今《涅槃經》亦是名字
W02n0020_p0306a07║句,色法以之為體也。等是其文,有何所以昔日對文不能發菩提道
W02n0020_p0306a08║心,今日對文能發菩提道心?故知由二常之理,察機分明,應感
W02n0020_p0306a09║而作。能使夢睹羅剎、地獄,加怖發心,故知正是理之能也。
W02n0020_p0306a10║  又來,復言卿若遲晚者,對文不悟,復以理加怖發心,故言「自
W02n0020_p0306a11║往」。以此來驗,故知所詮是其經也。又復,下六念中言三世諸佛,
W02n0020_p0306a12║同有秘密之藏。迦葉菩薩因即發問:「若三世諸佛同有秘密之義,
W02n0020_p0306a13║迦葉佛時有是經不?」如來答言:「有。」迦葉復問:「迦葉佛法,七日
W02n0020_p0306a14║便滅,云何有也?」如來答言:「但爾時眾生利根,但假四依,七日流
W02n0020_p0306a15║通。七日以後,不假文經,理行於心。文經雖滅,理經常存。」若理
W02n0020_p0306a16║非是經,何故道「理經不滅」?故知文、理俱皆為經也。
W02n0020_p0306a17║  又來,復驗若理非是經,下經言「此《法華經》藏,深固幽遠,無
W02n0020_p0306a18║人能到」。欲明理深幽遠,唯佛獨究,十地不逮。若但以文為經,
W02n0020_p0306a19║讀誦得者便到,何故道人無能到,十住不詣?以此驗知,理為經也。
W02n0020_p0306a20║  又問:若以理為經者,唯一法寶,何由得有三寶體別?
W02n0020_p0306a21║  又答:據理而言,唯一法寶。就法寶中離出佛、僧,因中除僧,
W02n0020_p0306a22║果頭除佛,二諦有為無為,都是法寶。以是義故,三寶有別也。
W02n0020_p0307a01║  又問:若以理為經者,狐狼野干不淨諸物,是所詮前事,都應是
W02n0020_p0307a02║經也?
W02n0020_p0307a03║  又答:都是所詮前事。就事中有精有粗。精者是事而是經,粗
W02n0020_p0307a04║者是事而非經也。凡經文自有宗途。若論昔經,以空為宗,二諦理
W02n0020_p0307a05║精,得以為經,餘者是事而非經也。向引狐狼野干不淨物者,是事
W02n0020_p0307a06║而非經。何以得知?為鈍根人故,不能深識其患,故借世物事,以
W02n0020_p0307a07║沈無明煩惱濁亂。其心不堪聞大,是以施三。引此物事,正為
W02n0020_p0307a08║廣釋施三之意,何關理事?故知非經耶。若論事別不同,皆是其
W02n0020_p0307a09║事。下經言「一大事」者,此是一乘之事。事之中精者,是事而是經
W02n0020_p0307a10║也。
W02n0020_p0307a11║  又問:若以理為經者,何由得七善義別?正應有六善。又來,
W02n0020_p0307a12║正應有三無礙,不應有四也。正應有三依,則無有四。
W02n0020_p0307a13║  又答:夫聖人說法,為物故作,或合或離。彼中為欲彰七善義
W02n0020_p0307a14║別,文之以理,分為二善;此中道經者是總,文理合為一也。為欲彰
W02n0020_p0307a15║四無礙義別,四依體異,故能詮所詮,分為二也。
W02n0020_p0307a16║  又解:十二部經,唯校於文。經首之經,文、理通為經也。何以
W02n0020_p0307a17║得知?從「如是」卒至「歡欣奉行」,直說語言,名修多羅。理非語
W02n0020_p0307a18║言,故知唯在於文。《妙法蓮華經》、《涅槃經》,此是經首之經,文、
W02n0020_p0307a19║理通是也。
W02n0020_p0307a20║  更有一解:莫問十二部經、經首經,文、理通為經也。
W02n0020_p0307a21║  又問:解義唯一,更有異釋?
W02n0020_p0307a22║  又答:解義不同,非唯一種也。
W02n0020_p0308a01║  又一解:經者,是逕。此法逕由聖心之所由履,亦稱為
W02n0020_p0308a02║經。
W02n0020_p0308a03║  又問:若爾,金口所說,可名為經,餘四種人所說,云何得名
W02n0020_p0308a04║經也?
W02n0020_p0308a05║  又解:雖非金口所說,為聖述成。逕由聖述,亦得名經。佛去
W02n0020_p0308a06║世後,諸弟子造論,不為聖述,不在經例也。
W02n0020_p0308a07║  又復解言:經之言,由三乘聖人由之得道,故曰經也。
W02n0020_p0308a08║  又復解言:經者是徑,如世間徑路,通人遠遊之。詣法亦如
W02n0020_p0308a09║是,由履此徑,遠之佛果,故名徑路也。
W02n0020_p0308a10║  更有一解:經者,常也。雖復古今有殊,而覺道不改。三世諸
W02n0020_p0308a11║佛,履之不變,恆為益物,故曰常也。
W02n0020_p0308a12║  又問:修多羅可翻以不?
W02n0020_p0308a13║  又答:不可翻也。如似涅槃含萬,羅漢、比丘各含於三,修多羅
W02n0020_p0308a14║含五,皆是總意,不可翻也。別意可翻。何以得知總不可翻,別
W02n0020_p0308a15║名可翻也?就胡音,自有總別,能喚於萬,總別斯收。此間漢地,發
W02n0020_p0308a16║言是別,但能喚別,不能一音喚於萬,故知不翻也。別名可翻,如胡
W02n0020_p0308a17║言「般若」,秦言是「智」。此相收得盡,得論翻也。
W02n0020_p0308a18║  又問:若修多羅不可翻,何以經言「直說語言,名修多羅」?若
W02n0020_p0308a19║爾,語言翻修多羅,云何不翻也?
W02n0020_p0308a20║  又答:修多羅體是語言,非是語言翻修多羅也。
W02n0020_p0308a21║  又問:若依《百論》,胡音名「修多羅」,漢言「經本」。若爾,經本
W02n0020_p0309a01║翻修多羅也。
W02n0020_p0309a02║  又答:修多羅體中有此本義,故道言「本」也。何以得知?語言
W02n0020_p0309a03║以本,不翻修多羅。本以出生為義,語言以詮談法相為義。修
W02n0020_p0309a04║多羅以五為義,何關本事?如似柱體上有方圓義,何關解柱義?柱
W02n0020_p0309a05║以[槎-工+目][木*彔]為義。正以修多羅體上有此出生義,故道言「本」。本義實
W02n0020_p0309a06║不翻修多羅也。修多羅更無別義解,五義盡,即是解修多羅義也。
W02n0020_p0309a07║如涅槃更無別義解,萬義周盡,即解涅槃義也。
W02n0020_p0309a08║  又問:修多羅含五,所以修,以常名[肆-聿+頁]修多羅處。
W02n0020_p0309a09║  又答:解有二種。
W02n0020_p0309a10║  一解,常義是萇,觀通於五,所以代也。何以得知是萇?或能
W02n0020_p0309a11║流潤,或不能流潤,非真涌泉。正以備有常義成故,萇能流潤,是真
W02n0020_p0309a12║涌泉,故知是萇也。或能莊嚴,或不能者,非真華鬘。正以備有常
W02n0020_p0309a13║義故,萇能莊嚴。餘義類解異也。
W02n0020_p0309a14║  更有一解:常義一在五義之外,彷彿似總。云何似總?五義是
W02n0020_p0309a15║別,修多羅是總,總別有異,得言總在別外。經復是五義之外,故常
W02n0020_p0309a16║名代修多羅處也。
W02n0020_p0309a17║  復有一解:若依論解,語言翻修多羅。何以得知?涅槃七善中
W02n0020_p0309a18║言,始從「如是」,終至「歡喜奉行」,名修多羅。復道「直說語言,名
W02n0020_p0309a19║修多羅」。以此來驗,故知語言翻修多羅。胡音名「修多羅」,秦言
W02n0020_p0309a20║「直說語言」。若作此解,以何為修多羅義?胡音何以名修多羅?
W02n0020_p0309a21║詮談前理,名修多羅義。此間漢地,何以名「直說語言」?詮談法
W02n0020_p0309a22║相,名為「語言」義也。以是義故,得論翻也。
W02n0020_p0309a23║  又問:若以語言翻修多羅者,何以道修多羅含其五義也?
W02n0020_p0310a01║  又答:若寧馨解時,修多羅不道含五也。但修多羅體中有此五
W02n0020_p0310a02║義,不以五義解修多羅義也。如似陰體有無常義,無常義不解陰
W02n0020_p0310a03║義。修多羅體上有無量義,但道於五義。如似涅槃體有萬義,略列
W02n0020_p0310a04║三事:法身、般若、解脫,可以知萬。以此來驗,略道於五,可以
W02n0020_p0310a05║知萬也。
W02n0020_p0310a06║  更有一解:若依《百論》解,「本」翻修多羅。何以得知?胡音名
W02n0020_p0310a07║「修多羅」,此間漢地名為「經本」。胡何以名「修多羅」?能出生十
W02n0020_p0310a08║一部,名「修多羅」義。此間漢地何以名「經本」?出生十一部,名之
W02n0020_p0310a09║為「本」。雖復名異義同,故知正相翻也。
W02n0020_p0310a10║  又問:若以經本翻修多羅者,何故經言「直說語言,名修多羅」?
W02n0020_p0310a11║  又答:經言「直說語言」者,出修多羅體,故知不以語言翻修多
W02n0020_p0310a12║羅也。
W02n0020_p0310a13║  又問:文、理俱皆為經者,所詮之理是善可解,能詮之文是如來
W02n0020_p0310a14║口業,亦是善以不?
W02n0020_p0310a15║  又答:解有二種。一解言:能詮之文是如來口業,亦是其善也。
W02n0020_p0310a16║  問:能詮之文,是名字句。為音聲性成,是其色法,體是頑礙,
W02n0020_p0310a17║云何是善?
W02n0020_p0310a18║  又答:即返質問,無作體亦是頑法,而是善惡。論其經是如來
W02n0020_p0310a19║口業,是其善,竟復何慊?經復言「三業供養」,故知口業是善也。
W02n0020_p0310a20║  更有一解:音聲所成名字句體是色法,是其無記。為過因所
W02n0020_p0310a21║得,復是頑法,故知非善非惡。然是口業,能通善惡,名為善惡,體
W02n0020_p0310a22║非善惡也。然經道「三業供養」者,因中說果,故言善惡。身業亦
W02n0020_p0310a23║然。
W02n0020_p0310a24║  又問:若爾者,善惡無作體是頑法,亦應非是善惡也。
W02n0020_p0310a25║  又答:不類。何以得知?雖復同由意地而發,然而有異。身口
W02n0020_p0310a26║業,善心亦能作動,惡亦能發動,無記心亦能作動。三性通者,驗無
W02n0020_p0311a01║可求。論其無作,不爾。要善心能發,惡亦發,無記之心不能發,於
W02n0020_p0311a02║善惡無作,故知有異也。無作體正是善惡。復有一事:一發常有。
W02n0020_p0311a03║何以得知?要心發得,要心即謝,無作終身。而《勝鬘經》言:我從
W02n0020_p0311a04║今日乃至菩提,於所受戒,不起犯心。此身遷流無常,論其無作,恒
W02n0020_p0311a05║存不滅。修縱萇短,皆由善惡。心有寧馨異故,故知無作體是善
W02n0020_p0311a06║惡,不類身口。如似揮刀奪命,詎得名刀為善惡也。遠近雖異,同
W02n0020_p0311a07║是無記,動轉諸業,三性通有,不同無作也。
W02n0020_p0311a08║  又問:若善惡唯心,不在於色。色以質礙為義,心以能緣為義,
W02n0020_p0311a09║善以順理為義,惡以違理為義,始卒同類,善惡義非是心義。云何
W02n0020_p0311a10║善惡唯在意地,不在身口也?
W02n0020_p0311a11║  又答:法相有通有塞,經言「即意」,是意業。如似無記之心,無
W02n0020_p0311a12║記義非心義,得言「即心無記」,無記體即是心也。善惡義雖非心
W02n0020_p0311a13║義,得言「善惡」,體即是也。故經言「心為天堂」、「心為地獄」,故知
W02n0020_p0311a14║善惡正在於心,不在於色也。
W02n0020_p0311a15║
W02n0020_p0311a16║   二智
W02n0020_p0311a17║  二智者,權實雙明,稱之為二。決判分明,故名為智。大聖一
W02n0020_p0311a18║念靈解,照萬境朗然,何限於二。但府就化宜,略判有二。其二者
W02n0020_p0311a19║何?實智、方便智。但就經教,明二智各自不同。若就昔經,明空
W02n0020_p0311a20║有二智者,第一義空,絕於假誑,名之為實,緣此實理而起,名實智;
W02n0020_p0311a21║世諦假誑不實,名為方便,緣此假誑理起,名為方便智也。此解二
W02n0020_p0311a22║智,皆從境得名也。
W02n0020_p0311a23║  更有一解:實智從境得名,方便智就功能得稱。何以得知?世
W02n0020_p0311a24║諦華薄,誑凡眼目,生人染著之心;聖慮高解,照而不著,故得巧之
W02n0020_p0311a25║名。是以方便智,就情得稱也。空理是實,實智緣實理而生,故知
W02n0020_p0311a26║實智一向從境得名也。
W02n0020_p0312a01║  又問:世諦華薄,凡應生著,照而無染,得巧之名,故就情得名
W02n0020_p0312a02║者,我第一義空生患處深,聖者照而不著,亦應得巧之名。若爾,實
W02n0020_p0312a03║智亦就功能得名。云何實智從境、方便智就情?
W02n0020_p0312a04║  又答:二諦皆能生患,但世諦生患處重。又來,是生惑根
W02n0020_p0312a05║本,於此世諦生患根本處,照而不染故,是以得巧之名。第一義空
W02n0020_p0312a06║生患處薄,正以禪脫因緣,流浪至於空上。又來,生惑之末從多,故
W02n0020_p0312a07║不得巧名也。依《維摩經》明二智復異。直緣二諦理起,實智所照;
W02n0020_p0312a08║緣巧智所為者,方便智照也。如似借坐燈王,室苞乾像,大小相
W02n0020_p0312a09║容,修縱萇短,香積取餐。緣如斯之者,是方便智境。方便智境,小
W02n0020_p0312a10║隱難見。空如空而緣,有如有而緣;大如大而照,小如小而照。如
W02n0020_p0312a11║似須彌極大,芥子絕小,如大小而緣故,是實智所緣也。小能容大,
W02n0020_p0312a12║作如斯照者,是方便智境。實智從境得名,方便智就功能得稱也。
W02n0020_p0312a13║依《涅槃經》明二智復異。二常之理,絕於百非,稱之為實。緣此實
W02n0020_p0312a14║理而起,故稱實智。金剛已還,生滅流動,假誑不實,稱為方便。緣
W02n0020_p0312a15║此方便理起,名為方便智也。
W02n0020_p0312a16║  又問:金剛以後有性空,何智所緣?
W02n0020_p0312a17║  又答:果頭有性空故,是方便智所緣也。
W02n0020_p0312a18║  更有一解:果頭無性空。何以得知?果體凝然常住不可空,乃
W02n0020_p0312a19║問何智所緣也!
W02n0020_p0312a20║  又問:果頭有互無,何智緣也?
W02n0020_p0312a21║  又答:果頭有二種互無。何以得知?涅槃中無二十五有,二十
W02n0020_p0312a22║五有中無涅槃。此無不成涅槃,落在世諦,為方便智所緣也。復一
W02n0020_p0312a23║種互無成涅槃,涅槃體非二十五有,此無即成涅槃,二十五有體非
W02n0020_p0312a24║涅槃,此無即成二十五有。若寧馨解時,果頭互無,為實智所照也。
W02n0020_p0312a25║如牛中無馬,此無馬之無,不關於牛。牛體非馬,此無即成於牛也。
W02n0020_p0313a01║昔日性空二諦,今常住二諦。往判落在世諦,為方便智照也。
W02n0020_p0313a02║  又問:若道第一義空,落在世諦者,第一義空絕於假誑,名之為
W02n0020_p0313a03║實。若爾,方便智亦緣實理而起,云何一向道言「方便智所緣,故名
W02n0020_p0313a04║方便」也?
W02n0020_p0313a05║  又解:有中參差不等,空理均精,是一從多,故道言緣方便亦有
W02n0020_p0313a06║緣實也。又來,世諦萬有,是空之詮。就詮語故,道言緣方便名方
W02n0020_p0313a07║便智也。今此《法華》明復異也。一乘絕於三虛,名實。緣此實理
W02n0020_p0313a08║起,名為實智。三乘之教,無而說有,稱方便。緣此三教而起,稱為
W02n0020_p0313a09║方便智也。若作此解,《法華》明二智極狹。
W02n0020_p0313a10║  更有一解:緣一乘、緣一理起,及以乘之境界,皆是實智所緣。
W02n0020_p0313a11║緣五乘之教,丈六如來,猿猴鹿馬權智所為者,是方便智所緣也。
W02n0020_p0313a12║若依後解,《法華》明二智極寬。何以得知?莫問昔日空有二諦、常
W02n0020_p0313a13║住二諦,皆能發生於乘,故知寬也。
W02n0020_p0313a14║  又問:得智名云何?
W02n0020_p0313a15║  又答:二智得名,各自不同。實智從境得名,方便智就情得稱。
W02n0020_p0313a16║何以得知?方之言善,便之言巧,正以善巧故,能權施三教。教是
W02n0020_p0313a17║色法,若為得論巧也。正如人善知作車,人巧故善知作車,可得名
W02n0020_p0313a18║車為巧。得巧之名,人上得目也。以此驗知,方便就情得名,實智
W02n0020_p0313a19║一向從境也。
W02n0020_p0313a20║  又問:二智緣境云何?
W02n0020_p0313a21║  又答:二智皆緣境起,若不緣境時,知名是何物智?如似有木
W02n0020_p0313a22║在山臥地,不知名作何木。亦有巧匠繩默揣握,名某都盡。智亦如
W02n0020_p0313a23║此。以境來彰智,得有萬智差別也。緣黃故名為黃智,緣青故名為
W02n0020_p0313a24║青智。餘萬境類可知也。以此驗知,緣一,故名為實智;緣三,故名
W02n0020_p0313a25║為方便智也。
W02n0020_p0313a26║  又問:方便之義,唯有一種,更有異也?
W02n0020_p0314a01║  又答:方便有多種,自有前道方便,自有誑相方便,有進趣方
W02n0020_p0314a02║便,復有善巧方便也。
W02n0020_p0314a03║  又問:此經明何等方便也?
W02n0020_p0314a04║  又答:此經大意明進趣,及以善巧。何以得知?引汲小心,趣
W02n0020_p0314a05║向大理,故知是其進趣方便。能使無而說有,權假施三。良由巧
W02n0020_p0314a06║故,所以能爾,故知是其善巧方便也。
W02n0020_p0314a07║  又問:三乘方便,聖者無而說有,惑情不達,執以為實。若爾,
W02n0020_p0314a08║以往實無小機,云何得言稱機說法?
W02n0020_p0314a09║  又答:實如所問。本來無其小機,正是一大乘機根。但就大乘
W02n0020_p0314a10║機根中,自有強弱差別不同,自有感六度之機,有感十二因緣機,有
W02n0020_p0314a11║感四諦之機。但小情念果,機非是情,但情上有此機義。今時以念
W02n0020_p0314a12║來約,得言稱機說法也。何以得知?以聲聞念來約四諦機,得言稱
W02n0020_p0314a13║機說四諦。以緣覺念來約十二因緣機,得言稱機說十二也。以菩
W02n0020_p0314a14║薩念來約此六度機,故得言稱機說六度。
W02n0020_p0314a15║  又問:緣一故名為實智,緣三故名為方便智者,今問:聖智靈解
W02n0020_p0314a16║照時,為知本來有三可照,為知本來無三可照也?
W02n0020_p0314a17║  答:聖智照時,知本來無三可照。何以得知?此三曲遂物情,
W02n0020_p0314a18║故所以有,非是道理有之。以此來驗,知本來無也。
W02n0020_p0314a19║  又問:若聖照知本無三者,云何緣三,故名為方便也?
W02n0020_p0314a20║  又答:聖智知本來無三,但三乘人所念,有三究竟。緣他三乘
W02n0020_p0314a21║人所念,有三究竟邊故,得言「有三可照」也。
W02n0020_p0314a22║  又問:三乘人所念三究竟心,為是惑、是解也?
W02n0020_p0314a23║  又答:是其惑心,非是解也。
W02n0020_p0314a24║  又問:三乘人念三究竟,以為惑者;如來能緣之心,亦應是惑
W02n0020_p0314a25║也。何以得知?如來知本來無三,緣他三乘人所念有三,得言「有
W02n0020_p0314a26║三可照」。三乘人所念「有三」,既是惑心,如來能緣之心,那得非惑
W02n0020_p0315a01║也?如似邪見人謗無三寶、四諦。此緣無之心,是其邪見。如
W02n0020_p0315a02║來今緣他邪見所緣無,如來能緣之心,亦應是邪見也?
W02n0020_p0315a03║  又答:不得作如此難也。何以得知?如來緣三,反照己智,即
W02n0020_p0315a04║知此三非三。是以如來能緣之心是其解,非是惑也。三乘緣三,不
W02n0020_p0315a05║能反照己解,即知此三非三。是以三乘執三究竟,是其惑非是解
W02n0020_p0315a06║也。邪見之難,亦如此解。如來緣邪見所緣無,反照己智,即知此
W02n0020_p0315a07║無非無。是以如來能緣之心是解,非是邪見。邪見之人不能反照
W02n0020_p0315a08║己解,即知此無非無,是以是其邪見,非是解也。
W02n0020_p0315a09║  又問:三乘人執三究竟心,為是惑,為是非惑也?
W02n0020_p0315a10║  又答:解者不同。
W02n0020_p0315a11║  又一解言:是其相善。何以得知?三寶四諦,虛假不實,凡情
W02n0020_p0315a12║不達,執為定實,此是相善。以此來驗,緣實三究竟,此亦是一相善
W02n0020_p0315a13║也。
W02n0020_p0315a14║  復有一解:執三之心,一向是不善。何以得知?道理有三寶四
W02n0020_p0315a15║諦,於此上計定實心,是其相善;道理無三,妄執為三究竟,無三
W02n0020_p0315a16║究竟可以當心,故知一向不善也。
W02n0020_p0315a17║  又問:三乘同執,為斷結處齊,為當有異也?
W02n0020_p0315a18║  又答:二乘根鈍,要斷三界結盡,然後方覺。菩薩根利,但布位
W02n0020_p0315a19║至習種向也,而不斷結。但三乘習菩薩行,同在習種性中也。
W02n0020_p0315a20║  又問:此經明二智,唯有一種,更有異也?
W02n0020_p0315a21║  又答:若作無常解,但有一種二智;若作常解,有二種二智。
W02n0020_p0315a22║《安樂》以來,明其因乘。緣此因乘,名為實智。緣三乘虛教,名為
W02n0020_p0315a23║方便智也。《踴出》已下緣《壽量》常果,名為實智。緣金剛已還,生
W02n0020_p0316a01║滅理起,名為方便智也。若如此解,與《涅槃》同。然復小異,《涅
W02n0020_p0316a02║槃》緣二常理起,名為實智。此經緣於現果報不明當性,故所以異
W02n0020_p0316a03║也。
W02n0020_p0316a04║  更有一解:此經明二智,苕然與《涅槃》異。何以得知異也?經
W02n0020_p0316a05║教宗徒,各自不同。《涅槃》二常為宗,常、無常兩判。此經以一乘
W02n0020_p0316a06║為綱,不以常、無常兩別。明義既不同,故知除患亦異。靈山以前
W02n0020_p0316a07║空、有以相對,《涅槃》常、無常以相對,此經一、三以相對。昔經所
W02n0020_p0316a08║以空、有以相對者,正以眾生不達萬法虛假,計為定性。是以如來
W02n0020_p0316a09║為說空、有二諦,明世諦因緣故有,實義故無,破眾生計性之患,故
W02n0020_p0316a10║空、有以相對也。所以《涅槃》常、無常以相對者,正以眾生八倒在
W02n0020_p0316a11║懷,金剛已還有漏法中,妄計神我以為常樂我淨。以此邪倒在懷
W02n0020_p0316a12║故,是以如來為說金剛以還苦空無常,除彼常樂我淨倒也。於無為
W02n0020_p0316a13║法中妄計苦空無常倒在懷故,是以如來為說金剛以後常住湛然
W02n0020_p0316a14║第一義諦,除彼苦空無常倒也。是以常、無常以相對也。今日此經
W02n0020_p0316a15║所以一、三以相對,正以三乘眾生執己所得,以為究竟。是以如來
W02n0020_p0316a16║顯明,一乘是實,三乘是虛,破除眾生對三之患。是以一、三以相對
W02n0020_p0316a17║也。以是除患不同,明義有別,故所以異也。然《涅槃》緣金剛以後
W02n0020_p0316a18║名為實智,金剛以還名為方便智。今日此經明一乘,乘通因果。莫
W02n0020_p0316a19║問因之以果,但使緣一乘理起,名為實智;緣五乘教起,丈六如來,
W02n0020_p0316a20║猿猴鹿馬,名為方便智也。
W02n0020_p0316a21║  又問:此經具有二智以不?
W02n0020_p0316a22║  又答:他人有一種解。此經不具二智,何以得知?昔日施三,
W02n0020_p0316a23║但有方便智,無實智。今日破三無三,但有實智,無方便智也。
W02n0020_p0316a24║  又問:若爾,如來二智不具足也。若道昔日施三,但有方便,無
W02n0020_p0316a25║實智。昔日但言是實,不道方便。要今日顯大,彰昔是權,得稱方
W02n0020_p0316a26║便。昔時不得道方便,亦無方便智。今日時破三無三,但有實智,
W02n0020_p0317a01║無方便者。問:今日時中,聖智緣此像正法中三乘教,何智所緣?
W02n0020_p0317a02║  解言:是方便智所緣也。若爾,云何破三無三,無方便智也?
W02n0020_p0317a03║又來,縱使破三無三,緣三世諸佛三乘教,復是何智所緣?故是方
W02n0020_p0317a04║便智所緣也。以此來驗,云何道今時破三無三無方便智也?
W02n0020_p0317a05║  更又一解:如來道王樹下時,二智雙然並有,乃可就教中顯有
W02n0020_p0317a06║難易、有顯不顯也。何以得知?如來無始不緣三權三,無始不緣三
W02n0020_p0317a07║為一。緣三權三,方便智照;緣三為一,是實智所照也。故知如來
W02n0020_p0317a08║二智恒並有,未曾暫廢也。
W02n0020_p0317a09║  又問:智之以慧為同緣一境,為有異緣也。
W02n0020_p0317a10║  又答:依經教,明義各自不同。若依昔經,緣空為慧,緣有為
W02n0020_p0317a11║智。
W02n0020_p0317a12║  復有一解:緣空亦得名智,亦得名為慧也。何以得知?決了名
W02n0020_p0317a13║智,觀達名慧。於二諦理,決了分明,名之為智。觀達二諦理原,名
W02n0020_p0317a14║之為慧。若爾,二智皆同緣二諦境起也。依如前解,《法華》、《涅
W02n0020_p0317a15║槃》,緣境有異也。若依後解,《涅槃》、《法華》,智慧緣境不異也。
W02n0020_p0317a16║
W02n0020_p0317a17║   次明因緣
W02n0020_p0317a18║  又問:因緣之義,為當一體義殊,為當別體義異也?
W02n0020_p0317a19║  又答:諸師解義,各自不同。
W02n0020_p0317a20║  有一解言:萬善強而辨果,名之為因;萬善弱而助發,名之為
W02n0020_p0317a21║緣。若作此解,因緣別體也。
W02n0020_p0317a22║  更有一解:因緣一體。萬善無而能變當佛果,此是親故,名
W02n0020_p0317a23║之為因也。可有當佛道理故,萬善能變;若晝無當果道理,萬善何
W02n0020_p0318a01║由能變?是以無而能變,說之為因;可有而有,說之為緣。若作此
W02n0020_p0318a02║解,因緣一體而義異也。如似胡麻中道理有油,故後時人功搗押,
W02n0020_p0318a03║能使出油。道理無油,頗能使有油?如似沙中無油,縱使人功搗
W02n0020_p0318a04║押,頗能出油也?永無許理也。
W02n0020_p0318a05║  又問:無而能變名為因者,為當變無作有,為當變有作有也?
W02n0020_p0318a06║  又答:故是變有作有。若無善惡因時,當果晝無。如似二頭三
W02n0020_p0318a07║手、龜毛兔角,此是畢竟無,不可變使有也。正以有一念善因起,變
W02n0020_p0318a08║果在當也。是以故,變有作有,非是變無作有也。
W02n0020_p0318a09║  復有一解:現在善惡能親而變果,名之為因。此因不固,流動
W02n0020_p0318a10║過去,迴曾因以之為緣。未有善惡因時,當果晝然有因,故果在當。
W02n0020_p0318a11║親故,說之為因。果已在當,要須曾因扶故,果體顯現。故說曾
W02n0020_p0318a12║因,以之為緣也。到指現現時因以為曾因,以之為當,是以張寫為
W02n0020_p0318a13║言。
W02n0020_p0318a14║  更有一解:無而能變,目之為因。此因體即有,疏而助發,名為
W02n0020_p0318a15║緣。一體之中,具有因緣義也。
W02n0020_p0318a16║  又問:因緣之義,粗可如此。因緣齊畔,竟復云何?
W02n0020_p0318a17║  又答:諸師解義,各自不同。依如先舊宿德解:初一念善感佛
W02n0020_p0318a18║義不足,要萬善備感佛義圓滿。如似眾系繫象,初一系不能制象,
W02n0020_p0318a19║要多系能制象也。
W02n0020_p0318a20║  又問:初善感佛義不足,眾善感佛義滿者,若爾,佛果有優
W02n0020_p0318a21║劣。何以得知?果頭萬義,有其勝如,在前感者,不滿為不如;在後
W02n0020_p0318a22║感者,滿足以為勝也。豈非勝如也?
W02n0020_p0318a23║  又答:若作萬善為緣因,佛性為正因,可有許理。何以如此?
W02n0020_p0318a24║萬善是緣,緣有強弱,正因恆滿也。若作萬善作正因,此解難存也。
W02n0020_p0319a01║  復有一解:無始以來,曾起一念善以為正因。自爾以來,既至
W02n0020_p0319a02║金剛,所修諸善皆為緣也。
W02n0020_p0319a03║  更有一解:從無始以來卒至金剛,就大寬時中,束為一因,感佛
W02n0020_p0319a04║義圓滿。但因不頓發,要須次第而起也。始從習種,終至金剛,起
W02n0020_p0319a05║因盡故,種智現前也。
W02n0020_p0319a06║  復有一解:最後金剛,一念善心,感佛果圓滿,得為因義。自此
W02n0020_p0319a07║以前,感佛義不滿足,但相資發,都名為緣也。故經言「漸漸積功
W02n0020_p0319a08║德,具足大悲心」也。
W02n0020_p0319a09║  又問:金剛以前,但次第緣發,無有因義者。若爾,見諦惑中,
W02n0020_p0319a10║不應得與修道為因,復不應與三界外恆沙無明住地為因。若言見
W02n0020_p0319a11║諦得與處處惑為因,復感苦樂之果,我解中何不得與處處解為因,
W02n0020_p0319a12║復與佛為因也?
W02n0020_p0319a13║  又答:明義不同。惑本從粗以至細故,得與處處為因。解本從
W02n0020_p0319a14║微至著故,但有次第發起之義,無有越感,不得為因也。
W02n0020_p0319a15║
W02n0020_p0319a16║   告諸聲聞眾及求緣覺乘者
W02n0020_p0319a17║  又問:略說中何等人於中得解?
W02n0020_p0319a18║  又答:解義不同。
W02n0020_p0319a19║  一解:略說中有三,菩薩、利根、辟支於中得解。何以得知?略
W02n0020_p0319a20║說中文略義隱,自非利根,何由得解?故知利根於中得解也。
W02n0020_p0319a21║  更有一解:此中無有緣覺之人,何以得知?經中道言:譬如彗
W02n0020_p0319a22║星夜現,時人以為不祥之相。辟支出世,亦復如是。有此人時,
W02n0020_p0319a23║無有佛出;有佛時,無有此人。云何道言緣覺於略說中得悟?此事
W02n0020_p0319a24║謬也。何以得知此中無有此人得悟?三根人得理在懷,要先領解,
W02n0020_p0319a25║聖與授記。何以如此?但二乘諸人從昔以來,對教情重。要須破
W02n0020_p0320a01║教,執心則喪,惑心既除,得勝理在懷,其必領解。若當領解,聖應
W02n0020_p0320a02║授記。何以得知?如似舍利弗廣說得解,《譬喻品》初領解,後聖與
W02n0020_p0320a03║授記。四大聲聞於火宅得悟,窮子領解,後聖與授記。下根人亦如
W02n0020_p0320a04║此。三根得解,要須領解、授記。此中若有此人得解,應有領解、受
W02n0020_p0320a05║記。今時一不見領解,二不見受記,以此事來驗,故知二乘於略說
W02n0020_p0320a06║不解,廣說方悟也。
W02n0020_p0320a07║  又問:若爾,菩薩得勝理在懷,亦應有領解、受記。何故經不
W02n0020_p0320a08║道?
W02n0020_p0320a09║  又解:《大品》座上已與別記分明,今更不復受記。菩薩
W02n0020_p0320a10║利根,執心處薄,但得理在懷,不須領解也。
W02n0020_p0320a11║  又問:若當無中乘人,聖者徒設此中乘之教,竟有何益?
W02n0020_p0320a12║  又解:聖者非無有益。但中乘有二種人:一緣覺緣覺,二聲聞
W02n0020_p0320a13║緣覺。今但有聲聞緣覺,無緣覺緣覺。
W02n0020_p0320a14║  又問:若無彼人,今何故經中道「及求緣覺乘」?
W02n0020_p0320a15║  又解:今時座上有此仰習辟支人,故道「及求緣覺乘」也。
W02n0020_p0320a16║  又問:假設有辟支,山中獨悟竟,然後值佛出世,欲使並當,此
W02n0020_p0320a17║人置在何許?
W02n0020_p0320a18║  又答:此人昔日在聞思慧中,本願無佛出世,因緣獨悟。既有
W02n0020_p0320a19║此願心,願心既強,縱使有,此人不來佛邊聽法也。
W02n0020_p0320a20║  又問:若爾,畢竟可不解大乘也?
W02n0020_p0320a21║  又答:今時雖不悟,盡此報身,未來世中,餘方淨土中值佛,得
W02n0020_p0320a22║聞大乘,必能解悟也。從初住既至六地,感聲聞得悟,皆是聲聞地。
W02n0020_p0320a23║七地已上,不復假教,名辟支佛地也。但使聞音聲得解,都名聲聞,
W02n0020_p0321a01║就聲聞中更作累名。菩薩本曠兼天下,就行析名。緣覺利根,從境
W02n0020_p0321a02║得目也。聲聞根鈍,存其本稱也。
W02n0020_p0321a03║  又問:未知何者是緣覺,何者是聲聞?
W02n0020_p0321a04║  又答:事亦難知。身子利根,在先得道,應是緣覺人。何以得
W02n0020_p0321a05║知?緣覺根利,在先得悟。今時舍利弗法說得解,故知是緣覺人
W02n0020_p0321a06║也。又復,舍利弗、目連在外道法中,與沙然為弟子。沙然去世後,
W02n0020_p0321a07║以五百弟子委付目連、舍利弗:「為我匠,令成就。」如來知彼根熟時
W02n0020_p0321a08║至,遣阿鞞比丘往化:「汝今日入城乞食,值一非常之人,應略為說
W02n0020_p0321a09║法。」舍利弗朝樓上觀看,見阿鞞比丘持缽挾錫,威儀詳序,來入城
W02n0020_p0321a10║乞食。「此人既有如斯威儀,必有好師,我當往問。」是以即問阿鞞
W02n0020_p0321a11║比丘:「汝既有如斯威儀,必有好師。師為是誰?」阿鞞比丘即答:
W02n0020_p0321a12║「吾師天中天。」舍利弗言:「我師亦天中天。」「乃至拔斷十二
W02n0020_p0321a13║根」。舍利弗聞道拔斷十二根,此人解悟,外道但能伏,不能斷也。
W02n0020_p0321a14║是以問阿鞞比丘:「為我說法。」比丘謙讓:「我年既幼稚,學日有初
W02n0020_p0321a15║淺,何能宣至真如來廣大義。」舍利弗問:「何以名沙門?」阿鞞比丘
W02n0020_p0321a16║為解:「一切諸法本,因緣空無主,息心達本原,故號為沙門。」舍利
W02n0020_p0321a17║弗於是悟解,即成初果。後來至佛邊,佛為說法,道成羅漢。聞道
W02n0020_p0321a18║因緣空無主,復聞道拔斷十二根,正是十二因緣。以此驗知,舍利
W02n0020_p0321a19║弗應是緣覺人也。舍利弗既緣覺,還來為目連說。復得初果,後得
W02n0020_p0321a20║羅漢,故知目連亦是緣覺人也。迦旃延亦是緣覺。何以得知?以
W02n0020_p0321a21║藥來驗病。迦旃延計常,十二因緣本為除斷、常二見。以此驗知,
W02n0020_p0321a22║是緣覺人也。唯有迦葉一人,經有成文:王舍城中為大迦葉具說十
W02n0020_p0321a23║二因緣也。故知是緣覺人也。
W02n0020_p0321a24║  更一解:舍利弗是聲聞人。何以得知?經道言舍利弗等,於小
W02n0020_p0321a25║涅槃而般涅槃,緣覺之人於中涅槃而般涅槃。若是緣覺人,經何以
W02n0020_p0321a26║不道於中涅槃而般涅槃?以此驗知,舍利弗定是聲聞人。其餘者,
W02n0020_p0322a01║未可定判也。菩薩中有三根:上根者,於無量義座上得解;中根人,
W02n0020_p0322a02║略說得悟解;下根者,於廣說與身子同解。緣覺中亦有三根:利根
W02n0020_p0322a03║者,於廣說中解;中根,火宅得悟;下根微弱,假化城然後方解。聲
W02n0020_p0322a04║聞亦有三根:上根,廣說得解;中根,火宅得解;下根者,正假化城微
W02n0020_p0322a05║末生解,未能迥灼,要得記分明,方能得解也。
W02n0020_p0322a06║
W02n0020_p0322a07║   若二若三者
W02n0020_p0322a08║  又一解:若二者,無聲聞緣覺;若三者,無菩薩,三乘都破。何
W02n0020_p0322a09║以得知?就道理之中,唯有平等大乘,萬善得佛,何處別修六度行
W02n0020_p0322a10║得佛?以此驗知,三教都破也。道言「修六度得佛」者,亦是方便說
W02n0020_p0322a11║也。下經言:「十方世界中尚無二乘,何況有三」者,天下道理,
W02n0020_p0322a12║尚無聲聞、緣覺乘,何況菩薩乘也。下偈中經文,亦如此解。
W02n0020_p0322a13║  更有一解:若三教都破,違下經文。何以得知?下經文言:「唯
W02n0020_p0322a14║此一事實,餘二則非真」。若當三教都破,應道「餘三非真」也。
W02n0020_p0322a15║下窮子領解中,密遣二人。若三教都破,應道密遣三人。乃至化城
W02n0020_p0322a16║中,息處故說二。若三都破,應道息處說三也。以此三處經文來
W02n0020_p0322a17║驗,故知但破二乘教,不破菩薩。何以得知但破二乘,不破菩薩也?
W02n0020_p0322a18║明聲聞二乘,情標別趣,對果心重,常行捨心,不欲化物,是以患由
W02n0020_p0322a19║教生。要須破教,執果情息,然後迴心向於大理,故須破教。菩薩
W02n0020_p0322a20║本執心處微,今言破者,但破執心。正以昔日道言:「我獨成佛,聲
W02n0020_p0322a21║聞不得」。有此存大之心,是以須破也,不破於教也。何以得知?
W02n0020_p0322a22║菩薩修六度行,道理作佛,教中復言「向佛」。今若破菩薩教,更向
W02n0020_p0322a23║何路?以是驗知,但破二乘,不破獨大也。菩薩乃可行有廣略。初
W02n0020_p0323a01║始機根微弱,不堪聞大,備修萬行,但說六度進德,遠標佛果。
W02n0020_p0323a02║然後機根成就,為說萬行,得佛道品等行。雖復理中向佛,教中不
W02n0020_p0323a03║道,得佛是虛。今日破使向佛,以是義故,但破執心,不破於教。
W02n0020_p0323a04║  若爾,何故言破三?本道理唯一大乘,就一上施二,通本數
W02n0020_p0323a05║故,所以有三。今言「破三」者,破三之名數,故言「破三」也。
W02n0020_p0323a06║  又言:五濁故施三。本為五濁眾生,一上施二,通本數故,道言
W02n0020_p0323a07║「施三」。今既遣其二,何處有三?故下經言:無二亦無三也。今言
W02n0020_p0323a08║分一為三者,分何等一以為三乘?若論果體真實,理無優劣,不
W02n0020_p0323a09║可得分。就因乘解,有深淺優劣不同,得論分於一乘,以為三乘
W02n0020_p0323a10║也。合三為一者,本正是一大乘行,今就教中,分道品等行以為聲
W02n0020_p0323a11║聞因,因緣觀智以為緣覺因,六度等行以為菩薩因,分一因以為三
W02n0020_p0323a12║因。今時合三為一者,合三因以為一因。本有三果,可為三因所
W02n0020_p0323a13║剋。今既破無果,三因竟何所剋?是以合三因以為一向佛因也。
W02n0020_p0323a14║今言「理中無三」者,若就昔經,第一義空理中無三者;若就今經,一
W02n0020_p0323a15║乘以為第一義諦,三乘以為世諦。今言「理中無三」者,一乘第一義
W02n0020_p0323a16║理中,無有三乘也。
W02n0020_p0323a17║  又問:破三歸一者,歸何等一也?為歸果一,為歸因一?
W02n0020_p0323a18║  又一解:歸於因一也。何以得知?本分一因以為三因,今時破
W02n0020_p0323a19║三歸一,破三因以為一因,故知歸因一也。
W02n0020_p0323a20║  復有一解:歸於果一也。何以得知?本三因向於三果,以為究
W02n0020_p0323a21║竟。今三果既無,更有歸趣,唯有一果,故知歸於果一也。
W02n0020_p0323a22║  又問:二乘生患,竟在何處?
W02n0020_p0324a01║  又解:良由佛教而生也。
W02n0020_p0324a02║  又問:佛教竟有何偽,而致生惑也?
W02n0020_p0324a03║  又解:佛教言近而意遠,是以二乘執近而乖遠,故致生惑。
W02n0020_p0324a04║  又問:聖教偽在何處?
W02n0020_p0324a05║  又解:聖教但道斷三界惑盡,身亡智喪,有為苦盡,無為涅槃以
W02n0020_p0324a06║為大樂,更不道有當法身而續。是以二乘從凡向聖,修行得果,情
W02n0020_p0324a07║期最後身盡無為,以為大樂,執為究竟。生患故稱偽也。
W02n0020_p0324a08║  又問:此對果之心,為是惑、為是解也?
W02n0020_p0324a09║  又解:是惑心也。
W02n0020_p0324a10║  又問:若是惑者,云何惑復能斷惑也?
W02n0020_p0324a11║  又解:初執果之心是惑,從此心後,修道品等行,是其解。心通
W02n0020_p0324a12║前道故,得言是惑。就後也,得言是解,所以能斷惑也。是以解能
W02n0020_p0324a13║斷惑,非是惑能斷惑也。
W02n0020_p0324a14║  又問:二乘執果之心,既言是惑,未識為是何惑也。為是三界
W02n0020_p0324a15║中惑,為是三界外惑也?
W02n0020_p0324a16║  又解:此惑不定,隨凡聖有異。若外凡夫貪心執教,此外凡惑。
W02n0020_p0324a17║若內凡執教,是內凡惑。若三果執教,是三界思惟惑。若羅漢執
W02n0020_p0324a18║教,是三界外惑。何以如此?三學已還,未斷三界惑盡,是以執教,
W02n0020_p0324a19║是三界內惑;羅漢見諦思惟惑盡故,由有執果之心,是三界外惑也。
W02n0020_p0324a20║  又問:起惑既如此,今聞大乘,得斷此惑以不?
W02n0020_p0324a21║  又答:諸師解義不同。
W02n0020_p0324a22║  又一解:今聞大乘,但伏使不起,不能永斷也。何以得知?三
W02n0020_p0324a23║乘被破,今修菩薩行,乃在習種性中。若當聞大乘,但使斷三界外
W02n0020_p0324a24║一毫惑者,後修行得登七住時,增其勝解,結應更斷,三界外惑盡。
W02n0020_p0324a25║若爾,便應在前成佛。八住已上,何須一阿僧祇劫,行行方登正覺。
W02n0020_p0324a26║以如斯來驗,故知三學及羅漢聞大乘,但言伏也。
W02n0020_p0324a27║  又問:今聞大乘,但能伏者,何處、時方得斷也?
W02n0020_p0324a28║  又答:斷惑自有次第,不可越也。若依大乘斷惑極自難知。以
W02n0020_p0325a01║小乘來准,無望可以得知。小乘經中,燸、頂以來伏惑,無相已上
W02n0020_p0325a02║永斷者,准於大乘中,住前伏惑不起;初住已上,作無相行,以為永
W02n0020_p0325a03║斷也。何以得知?《涅槃經》中,是人出世,具煩惱性,故知住前伏
W02n0020_p0325a04║惑不斷也。
W02n0020_p0325a05║  復有一解:言生空以上,得一毫空解在懷,永斷煩惱;乾慧地
W02n0020_p0325a06║中,伏惑不起也。若寧馨解時,燸、頂以來,方斷三界外凡見諦惑
W02n0020_p0325a07║盡;從無相以上,斷三界內凡見諦惑盡,道成須陀洹果。以此來類,
W02n0020_p0325a08║大乘中住前性地、解行,斷外凡見諦惑盡;習種性中但能伏惑,不能
W02n0020_p0325a09║永斷也。初住以上,斷內凡惑也。初住斷欲界內凡惑盡;二住斷色
W02n0020_p0325a10║界內凡惑盡;三地斷無色界內凡惑盡,名須陀洹菩薩;四住斷欲界
W02n0020_p0325a11║思惟;五住斷色界思惟;六住斷無色界思惟,名斯陀含菩薩;七住、
W02n0020_p0325a12║八住斷欲界習;九住斷色界習盡,名阿那含菩薩;十住斷無色界
W02n0020_p0325a13║惑盡,名羅漢菩薩。諸佛斷萬惑斯盡,名大阿羅漢也。依大乘斷
W02n0020_p0325a14║結,粗可如此。今二乘執教生患,修行得登何處也?若外凡執教
W02n0020_p0325a15║惑,修行得登性地、解行地,住前得斷盡也。內凡執教惑,修菩薩行
W02n0020_p0325a16║得登初住,乃至三住以來,方斷盡也。三果執教惑,修行得登四住,
W02n0020_p0325a17║至六住以來得斷盡。若羅漢執教惑,修行得登七住,以上方得斷
W02n0020_p0325a18║也。
W02n0020_p0325a19║  更有一解:二乘人、三果、四向及羅漢執教,今聞大乘,得論斷
W02n0020_p0325a20║也,不得論伏。
W02n0020_p0325a21║  又問:若爾,還指前解成難。結應在前成道也。
W02n0020_p0325a22║  又解:藥病相當,非不斷也。一毫執有之患,解空則遣;對三之
W02n0020_p0325a23║惑,解一則遣。理數相違,何由可背。但三界外惑細而難遣,要多
W02n0020_p0325a24║劫修行,方得斷除也。三界惑粗,容有頓遣。何以得知?聲聞一形
W02n0020_p0325a25║修道,道成羅漢,故知容有頓遣也。是以二乘始從習種訖七住以
W02n0020_p0326a01║來,但修有中諸行,得登八住,斷結處齊,無有前後也。
W02n0020_p0326a02║  又問:經言「下下智斷上上煩惱,上上智斷下下煩惱」。今二乘
W02n0020_p0326a03║人習菩薩行,乃在習種性中後七心中安。今問,此習種菩薩,何如
W02n0020_p0326a04║性地以上、乃至六住菩薩智?六住菩薩正斷三界、四住惑盡,習種
W02n0020_p0326a05║菩薩不如百千倍校,云何乃斷三界外細惑?以此格量,何由可解?
W02n0020_p0326a06║後解難立也。又人解:破聲聞,無聲聞,亦無四諦;破緣覺,無緣覺,
W02n0020_p0326a07║亦無十二因緣。若爾,境界亦無,云何涅槃座上故具明四諦、十二
W02n0020_p0326a08║因緣?以此來類,此解難存。
W02n0020_p0326a09║  有一解:破有,所以《華嚴》座上為大根大行,頓明一切法相,說
W02n0020_p0326a10║四諦、十二因緣是菩薩境界;道品等行、因緣觀智、六度諸行是
W02n0020_p0326a11║菩薩加行;滅結無為、菩薩滅諦、四果之名是菩薩之果。名
W02n0020_p0326a12║五戒十善,皆得於佛,為菩薩頓明一切法相,得作根本法輪。漸教
W02n0020_p0326a13║中四階說法廣他,《華嚴》座上以為條末。後為聲聞小行,不堪
W02n0020_p0326a14║聞說深理,割四諦、十二因緣,屬二乘境界;道品等行、因緣觀
W02n0020_p0326a15║智,屬二乘觀行;滅結無為,以為二乘寂滅諦,四果之名,割屬二乘。
W02n0020_p0326a16║析果之名,五戒十善,得人天樂果。是以四乘諸人順教修行,各有
W02n0020_p0326a17║所得。如來三十年中說空宗《般若》等經,柔伏其心,長養道機,今
W02n0020_p0326a18║始成就。今時靈山中還伏流明義,屬在菩薩,故言「破三」。五濁
W02n0020_p0326a19║者,名雖有五,語體有三。煩惱以見,及以命濁據神慮為體;眾生非
W02n0020_p0326a20║色非心為區;劫濁不定。
W02n0020_p0326a21║  一解:以色為體。
W02n0020_p0326a22║  復有一解:通於色心,及以非色非心,斯皆為體也。何以得知?
W02n0020_p0327a01║劫是其寬,餘四是別,道劫通權於四也。如似時、方,要就法以辨,
W02n0020_p0327a02║時、方通於色、心、非色非心。萬法莫非是時,方亦如此也。以此來
W02n0020_p0327a03║驗,就濁以辨劫,不就劫以明濁,故知劫是寬,故通於四也。餘四是
W02n0020_p0327a04║狹,不通於劫也。
W02n0020_p0327a05║  又復解言:劫非是濁,劫中有此濁事,道劫為濁。眾生亦爾,非
W02n0020_p0327a06║是其濁,以濁法成於眾生,名眾生為濁也。
W02n0020_p0327a07║  又問:五濁煩惱,障何處解?為當但障大乘解,亦障小乘解?
W02n0020_p0327a08║  又解:大小乘解俱障也。但障有近遠,五濁煩惱,近障小乘
W02n0020_p0327a09║解,遠障大乘道也。
W02n0020_p0327a10║  又問:大小俱障,何以得說於小,不得說大?
W02n0020_p0327a11║  又解:小乘理淺惑粗,乾慧解想伏除,故所以得說生解斷除。
W02n0020_p0327a12║大乘理深,要須善強惑薄,方能取悟。正由眾生失解起惑,五濁在
W02n0020_p0327a13║懷,惑重垢深,翳障大解,不得說故。今時斷粗惑以盡,解強惑弱,
W02n0020_p0327a14║方得說也。
W02n0020_p0327a15║  又問:五濁大小俱障者,為是事障,為是性障也?
W02n0020_p0327a16║  又解:小乘初道,但有事障,無有性障也。第三無礙解脫以後,
W02n0020_p0327a17║有事有性。大乘解亦有事、性也。
W02n0020_p0327a18║  又人解:障常之解,唯事無性。小乘解,事、性俱有。依如一
W02n0020_p0327a19║家,不存此解也。
W02n0020_p0327a20║  又問:以何為事、性也?
W02n0020_p0327a21║  又解:事、性無定。有解言:八禪之定,以之為事;性空之理,稱
W02n0020_p0327a22║之為性。亂惑障定,以為事惑;煩惱障理,名為性惑也。
W02n0020_p0327a23║  又復一解:現起紛紜,稱之為事;過、未冥伏不起,目之為性。
W02n0020_p0328a01║  又問:五濁是其障,三濁可見。劫以眾生。云何是障?
W02n0020_p0328a02║  又解:亦得論障。煩惱以見,乃至於命,此之三濁,是煩惱障
W02n0020_p0328a03║也。眾生是其報障,劫是時節障也。亦應道業障,經文略,故不道
W02n0020_p0328a04║也。
W02n0020_p0328a05║  又復解言:唯有三濁是障,餘二非障也。何以得知非障?攬此
W02n0020_p0328a06║濁法,以成眾生,名眾生濁,眾生非濁也。煩惱是障,以障法成於眾
W02n0020_p0328a07║生,名眾生障,眾生非障也。劫亦如此也。
W02n0020_p0328a08║  又問:更以異方便者,破人天與二乘何異?
W02n0020_p0328a09║  又一解:破二乘,無二乘;破人天,無人天。四乘都齊。
W02n0020_p0328a10║  今時有一解:破人天,異二乘,人天因果道理有之。修五戒十
W02n0020_p0328a11║善是人天因,因果都是其實。就此一相,一向非虛,何故道虛?明
W02n0020_p0328a12║一念善中有其二感。昔日但道招人天報是實,不道向佛邊是虛,是
W02n0020_p0328a13║以人天因果,亦實亦虛。二乘一向是虛,果既不實,因解那得是實。
W02n0020_p0328a14║是以二乘因果,俱皆是虛也。
W02n0020_p0328a15║  又問:若人天因果道理有之,是實。不道向佛邊虛。明二乘亦
W02n0020_p0328a16║然。盡無生智,三界惑盡,報身盡處,無為名為滅諦,亦實有之。不
W02n0020_p0328a17║道向佛邊是虛。若爾,亦有是實。云何二乘一向是虛?
W02n0020_p0328a18║  又解:人天因果,道理有之,因果俱皆是實,道理有此。二乘
W02n0020_p0328a19║因果,道品等行,盡無生智,滅結無為,四果之名,菩薩家觀行,
W02n0020_p0328a20║二乘何處有此?以此來驗,知二乘一向是虛,人天因果有實有虛。
W02n0020_p0328a21║以是義故,破人天異於二乘也。
W02n0020_p0328a22║
W02n0020_p0328a23║   燒舍宅者 道根者
W02n0020_p0328a24║  夫為世間,舍以蔭覆為義,宅以安身之處。有漏五陰能蔭覆行
W02n0020_p0328a25║者,喻若於舍;道根栖託之處,喻若於宅。世間身命,一形中貴;道
W02n0020_p0329a01║根,出世中勝。喻身命、道根軀命寄在蔭形宅中也。以何為道根?
W02n0020_p0329a02║王子時曾聞《法華》,得生大乘想解,能伏除煩惱,名之為道。復能
W02n0020_p0329a03║發生後善,名之為根。指道作根,故稱道根也。此想解變今日無
W02n0020_p0329a04║漏,名之為因。能感今日教,亦名感也。能與今日無漏作其基圴,
W02n0020_p0329a05║亦名為機也。此解可貴,名之為珠也。從王子以來,所修諸善有其
W02n0020_p0329a06║強弱,強善發於勝道,下善發於弱道。雖復強弱有異,皆能發生後
W02n0020_p0329a07║解,都得為道根。
W02n0020_p0329a08║  今時何故但道王子時者?但王子是發解之初。為因義成,不
W02n0020_p0329a09║可改更,是以但道始也。道理但使發道,皆得為根也。煩惱能燒燃
W02n0020_p0329a10║善根,喻若於火。道根是所燒,煩惱是能燒。所燒有二種,能燒亦
W02n0020_p0329a11║有二種。所燒二者:一是蔭身,二是道根。能燒二者:一舊,二新。
W02n0020_p0329a12║何者為舊、何者為新?舊者是九十八使煩惱;新火者,大邪見,斷善
W02n0020_p0329a13║根。舊火但燒蔭身,不傷道根;新火亦燒道根,亦燒蔭身也。
W02n0020_p0329a14║  又問:何處火以為舊火,何處以為新火也?
W02n0020_p0329a15║  解有二種。
W02n0020_p0329a16║  一解王子以來,其人近出以前,以為舊火;其人近出以來,既至
W02n0020_p0329a17║鹿野,以為新火也。
W02n0020_p0329a18║  又問:舊火但燒陰身,不燒道根。其人近出以來,既至鹿野以
W02n0020_p0329a19║前,此亦燒道根以不?
W02n0020_p0329a20║  解言:不燒道根。要鹿野中起大邪見火,喪王子時為因義,故
W02n0020_p0329a21║得燒也。
W02n0020_p0329a22║  又問:若爾,等不傷道根,何故一得舊名,一與新稱?
W02n0020_p0329a23║  又解:等不傷道根,但其人近出以前,機根微弱,未可是名,是
W02n0020_p0329a24║故起惑,但與舊稱。從其人近出以來,一應出世教,修諸微善,資助
W02n0020_p0329a25║道根漸增,中間起惑,鄰近道根,與其新名。故言道隆則魔盛也。
W02n0020_p0330a01║正以道根強,故煩惱熾也。
W02n0020_p0330a02║  更有一解:但使燒陰身火者以為舊火,燒道根火者以為新也。
W02n0020_p0330a03║要今日鹿野中起大邪見火,燒喪王子因義不感,果道不續,得論新
W02n0020_p0330a04║火。夫為世間火,本能焚燒物,有改變之義,名之為火。諸結煩
W02n0020_p0330a05║惱及以重邪見,能改利為鈍,改好為醜,能令神明昏昧,得有改變之
W02n0020_p0330a06║義,故名為燒。夫為燒斷之法,要舉相續道中得有燒斷也。若論實
W02n0020_p0330a07║法道中,王子時一念解心,當體自滅,惑心自生,不名為燒。要就相
W02n0020_p0330a08║續道中能改利為鈍,改好為醜,能使神明昏昧,有改變之義,名之為
W02n0020_p0330a09║燒斷也。
W02n0020_p0330a10║  復有一解:能燒據實法,所燒就相續;能斷就一念,所斷要舉相
W02n0020_p0330a11║續道中也。
W02n0020_p0330a12║  又問:若實法中有燒斷者,經中何故言「實法道中無燒無
W02n0020_p0330a13║斷」也?
W02n0020_p0330a14║  又解:經言「無燒無斷」者,就前所燒、所斷法中,就實道之中,
W02n0020_p0330a15║終不可得燒斷也。論王子時大乘想解現前,莫問粗細之惑,一切皆
W02n0020_p0330a16║伏。邪見是惑中之重,唯有王子時解之力強,故共相對治,能伏大
W02n0020_p0330a17║邪見,使令不起。其餘諸使煩惱,非重對治。是以從王子以來得起
W02n0020_p0330a18║九十八使煩惱,修五戒十善,伏也。
W02n0020_p0330a19║  又問:依如斷結來驗,上上智斷下下煩惱,正應王子時大乘解
W02n0020_p0330a20║伏九十八使輕微煩惱,五戒十善應伏大邪見重惑不起。今時王子
W02n0020_p0330a21║勝解,伏其粗惑。自爾以來,修諸微善是弱,伏於細惑也。若爾,豈
W02n0020_p0330a22║可不違斷結義也?
W02n0020_p0330a23║  又解:伏惑不同理解斷,事中相違使伏。如似曠劫以來,修得
W02n0020_p0330a24║乾慧想解,現在一身中粗惑不起;發得生空之解,解起則能斷除。
W02n0020_p0330a25║何以得知?事中相違便伏,不同理解斷也。如戒律中第一遍罪,粗
W02n0020_p0331a01║而易斷,愍心懺悔,然後方除。九十事波逸提惑細而難除,對手便
W02n0020_p0331a02║遣。此是伏惑,非是理解斷時,要從粗至細也。以此驗知,王子時
W02n0020_p0331a03║大乘解,伏大邪見火不起。自爾以來,修五戒十善,伏九十八使輕
W02n0020_p0331a04║微煩惱也。王子時大乘一念想解,永伏大邪見火不起。自爾以來,
W02n0020_p0331a05║故起九十八使輕微煩惱也。何以得知?如《涅槃經》中正以二常威
W02n0020_p0331a06║力,能使夢睹羅剎,墮於地獄,發菩提道心,生毛孔信,永隔闡提。
W02n0020_p0331a07║唯除闡提,經力所不及。論毛孔信人與今日繫珠人相似,皆能
W02n0020_p0331a08║伏邪見不起。唯起三種惡、四重五逆、謗方等經,正不作闡提也。
W02n0020_p0331a09║論其闡提位人,雖在現不起大邪見,皆名闡提。所以得知,此人成
W02n0020_p0331a10║就邪見因果,已成當成,皆在闡提位中也。縱使十身、五身不起大
W02n0020_p0331a11║邪見,非是伏故不起,根鈍不起。不同毛孔信人,伏故不起也。後
W02n0020_p0331a12║《迦葉》中明恆河七人,各自當位處別。第一名常沒人,第二暫出還
W02n0020_p0331a13║沒,是其繫珠人。常沒者,起大邪見,不免闡提。暫出還沒
W02n0020_p0331a14║者,雖復遇惡知識,不起大邪見,永隔闡提,正是王子時繫珠人也。
W02n0020_p0331a15║何以得知?下合言正旨舍利弗等諸聲聞是。以此驗知,王子大
W02n0020_p0331a16║乘解伏大邪見不起也。
W02n0020_p0331a17║  又問:王子時大乘想解,為當永伏,為當暫伏也?
W02n0020_p0331a18║  又解:解有二種。
W02n0020_p0331a19║  一解永伏不起。何以得知?大聖含慈,何曾不欲救拔物苦,與
W02n0020_p0331a20║眾生樂?何有驗道之際,聖不救接?今言起者,假設之言。假設聖
W02n0020_p0331a21║不救接,容有起理也。
W02n0020_p0331a22║  更有一解:暫伏非是永伏。王子時大乘解,伏大邪見,勢力正
W02n0020_p0332a01║至今時。若聖不救接,大邪見必起,喪王子因義,斷善根,成闡提,
W02n0020_p0332a02║永輪生死,無有出期也。何以得知?王子時大乘想解,為因義
W02n0020_p0332a03║成,伏邪見,果雖不起,為因猶存背。王子失解以來,流浪生
W02n0020_p0332a04║死,或時起九十八使煩惱,或時修五戒十善伏,番覆迭起。起九十
W02n0020_p0332a05║八使煩惱,資助邪見因熾;修五戒十善,資助道根義增。既至今日
W02n0020_p0332a06║鹿野中,二力正停,凡聖交際,在於今時。若遭遇良緣,得道成聖。
W02n0020_p0332a07║若值惡知識,必起大邪見火,喪滅道根也。何以得知?下經言「或
W02n0020_p0332a08║當墮落,為火所燒」,故知暫伏也,非是永也。明今時何以不起?此
W02n0020_p0332a09║人修善來久,積集想解,神機爽利。從六師受學,習之不難,未逕幾
W02n0020_p0332a10║時,已習得彼法。如是遍學六師,都不得道。既求理不得,即便生
W02n0020_p0332a11║謗:「若有聖道,我應得之。我今不得,故知無有聖道。」即謗無因
W02n0020_p0332a12║果,起大邪見。何但遇惡知識起謗,縱使聖為良緣,說不應機,亦起
W02n0020_p0332a13║大邪見。故上經言:「若但讚佛乘,眾生沒在苦」,「破法不信故,
W02n0020_p0332a14║墜墮三惡道」也。以是故知非永伏也。如來玄知畔齊,乘機
W02n0020_p0332a15║救接,得無漏空解,斷除邪見,粗細俱盡也。
W02n0020_p0332a16║  又問:永伏、永斷,有何等異?
W02n0020_p0332a17║  又解:永名雖同,然而有異。永伏者,雖復不起,因果不除。永
W02n0020_p0332a18║斷者,喪滅因果也。如似以大石蓋其小草,永無生理,由有根株不
W02n0020_p0332a19║去,喻於永伏。撥石卻根,永無生性,喻若永斷也。就經文中,何者
W02n0020_p0332a20║燒陰身火,何者是燒道根火?焚燒舍宅者,此舍以為大火所燒,宜
W02n0020_p0332a21║時疾出,此是舊火燒於陰身也。長者見是大火:「或當墮落為火
W02n0020_p0333a01║所燒,我及諸子若不時出,必為火焚。但令諸子,得免火難。」此是
W02n0020_p0333a02║新火,燒道根也。舊火已起,新火未起也。
W02n0020_p0333a03║  即脫瓔珞者,一師解意:為利根人,樹王下見;為中根人,法身
W02n0020_p0333a04║城中見;為下根人,王子來見。正由見有遠近,彰根有利鈍。上火
W02n0020_p0333a05║宅中為中根人說法,見患四思惟,盡在法身城中,事要法身中說之。
W02n0020_p0333a06║方法一一,叩機相應,竟非形無以通化。捨真妙法身,應為丈六。
W02n0020_p0333a07║法身精妙,若似瓔珞細濡上服。丈六色根是粗,望如法身,若似粗
W02n0020_p0333a08║弊之衣。上來至此,皆領法身中事。今明即脫瓔珞,捨真妙法身,
W02n0020_p0333a09║現丈六之容,樹王成道。自此已下,都領應道中事。若爾,違上經
W02n0020_p0333a10║文。第二思惟言「驚入火宅」,第三思惟言「具告諸子」,乃至具陳上
W02n0020_p0333a11║事。何故有此經文?若言「盡在法身城中」,法身城中絕於言相,那
W02n0020_p0333a12║得言有「具告陳說」。
W02n0020_p0333a13║  又解:經文若言「驚入火宅」、「具告陳說」者,將入,故名「入法
W02n0020_p0333a14║身城中」。作告說方法,故言「具告陳說」也。若言為利根人言一應
W02n0020_p0333a15║見者,經言「諸佛唯以大事出世」,復言「以五濁故出世」,以知所從
W02n0020_p0333a16║來遠。云何道言「一應見」也?今一師不如此解。依上經文,第二
W02n0020_p0333a17║思惟言「驚入火宅」,復言「我始坐道場」,以此來驗,故知三根人見
W02n0020_p0333a18║患起悲,盡在法身城中。第二思惟已下,皆是應跡中事。今四大聲
W02n0020_p0333a19║聞如理而解,還領法身城中,見患起悲。第二思惟乃至第四思惟,
W02n0020_p0333a20║理中教領樹王下事;口告為說,領鹿野中事。若爾,今言「即脫瓔
W02n0020_p0333a21║珞」者,捨丈六之身,現老比丘,同形以勸進。何以得知?王舍城中
W02n0020_p0333a22║有三億人,一億人見如來丈六形,有一億人見如來老比丘,復有一
W02n0020_p0333a23║億人見如來默聚,良由眾生感悟不同。或見盧舍那佛如為瞿師羅,
W02n0020_p0333a24║現三尺形,如斯非一。正由感有濃淡,致令見有精粗。故知捨丈六
W02n0020_p0333a25║之形,作老比丘也,正以聲聞懈怠,不勤修道,是以現作老比丘,同
W02n0020_p0333a26║習小乘,勸進修道。進行逾猛,十二年中有如斯事。今日解故,是
W02n0020_p0333a27║以通領。今四大聲聞所領,作何等法身解?一師解:十二年中,但
W02n0020_p0333a28║謂悉達太子六年苦行,人中實成,正以丈六為真。到三十年中,明
W02n0020_p0334a01║義漸深。道六十小劫,行菩薩行,報身中得一切種智。《大品》
W02n0020_p0334a02║以後,知有法身,能為應本。但作菩薩為本,應為丈六,意謂如似彌
W02n0020_p0334a03║勒,一生人中成道。今因經中,亦作此解。三根授記,皆作菩薩身
W02n0020_p0334a04║為本,應為華光。至《踴出》中略說一周,明成佛來遠,得此常住一
W02n0020_p0334a05║切種智,故知菩薩應身中方始得也。何以得知應身成道?若法身
W02n0020_p0334a06║成佛,無形無相,於物無益。為益物故,菩薩發願,人中成佛。應身
W02n0020_p0334a07║中得一切種智。上玄談四句,真常為本。下明伽耶娑婆是得常處
W02n0020_p0334a08║所。若爾,上經文言「佛眼觀」,復言「諸佛出世」,若菩薩法身為本,
W02n0020_p0334a09║應為丈六者,何以不道「菩薩眼觀」、「菩薩出世」?以此驗知,非是
W02n0020_p0334a10║菩薩法身為本。
W02n0020_p0334a11║  今一師解意不爾。《大品》以前,所解不異。《大品》中言「我不
W02n0020_p0334a12║以此身名為佛,以一切種智名為佛」,明義以顯。自《大品》以後至
W02n0020_p0334a13║《維摩》座上,知有法身為本,應為丈六。何以得知?佛身者,即法
W02n0020_p0334a14║身也,從戒定慧解脫生。又言:佛身無為,不墮諸數,非方不離方。
W02n0020_p0334a15║一解言:虛盡環中,不在方;俯應六道,不離方。
W02n0020_p0334a16║  復問:八住以上,不思議大士有真妙法身,能為無方之應。現
W02n0020_p0334a17║作魔王者,多不思議解脫菩薩。意謂大聖,亦當如是。到今《法華》
W02n0020_p0334a18║座上,因經之中,聞道諸佛出世而生三界,驚入火宅。尋此經文,知
W02n0020_p0334a19║有佛法身能為應本。三根授記,解知佛法身為本,應為華光。凡論
W02n0020_p0334a20║授記,要就應跡道中得有受記。真處冥寞,不論記也;應跡道粗,
W02n0020_p0334a21║得有記也。為作常法身,為作無常法身?解意道理,正是真常法身
W02n0020_p0334a22║為本,應為丈六。何以得知?《維摩》中以漏照明常,何況《法華》座
W02n0020_p0334a23║上而不明常也?但聲聞習無常教來久,猶作生滅法身解,意謂同八
W02n0020_p0335a01║住以上菩薩法身也。若爾,菩薩法身、佛法身竟有何異?
W02n0020_p0335a02║  又解:八住以上結習未盡,未能具足清淨。如來結習覆亡,具
W02n0020_p0335a03║足清淨,雖具足、不具足異,生滅處同。故知三根人決定,知有佛法
W02n0020_p0335a04║身為本也。
W02n0020_p0335a05║  又問:今因經中三根人領解,作生滅無常法身者,生滅無常解
W02n0020_p0335a06║心,是其惑道之心,下如來云何《藥草》述成也?
W02n0020_p0335a07║  又解:四大聲聞,昔來不達二乘是權,對以為實。今日因經中
W02n0020_p0335a08║既明理無二、三,計實心亡,方領如來二萬佛所化導功德,善得其
W02n0020_p0335a09║宜,故知如來述成也。無常上作無常解,此是惑心,是以聖者不述
W02n0020_p0335a10║也。
W02n0020_p0335a11║  復有一解:以義來分,取法身上還作法身解,故如來述成。作
W02n0020_p0335a12║生滅解邊,所以不述成也。
W02n0020_p0335a13║  更有一解:迦葉是權行大士,何不栖心常住?是故今者,但述
W02n0020_p0335a14║迦葉也。何以得知?此品中長行及偈皆是迦葉語,故知述迦葉也。
W02n0020_p0335a15║今《踴出》中還非前解,何有人中會得常佛?今論理數成佛,從初發
W02n0020_p0335a16║心,廣修諸行,得登七住,斷三界惑盡,絕其分段粗形。八住已上,
W02n0020_p0335a17║大無生相續,訖至金剛終心,修因備滿,照理周盡。金剛心謝,爾時
W02n0020_p0335a18║會得常佛。爾時無形無相,十住不逮,此是理數成佛,何有人中得
W02n0020_p0335a19║也?既得此真常為本,應在樹王現成正覺。下經言初得菩提者,明
W02n0020_p0335a20║應成佛,爾時教化。《踴出》從我發心。若爾,《踴出》中生疑者,如
W02n0020_p0335a21║來實成,知法身為本,能為丈六。但事中不達,意謂今日伽耶成道,
W02n0020_p0335a22║化爾許踴出菩薩。三根人事中不達,是故執跡生疑也。
W02n0020_p0335a23║  更有一解:三根聖人,於中不疑也。凡夫八部,於中生疑。如
W02n0020_p0335a24║來實成,踴出菩薩從其發心。何以得知凡夫八部生疑?下《壽量》
W02n0020_p0336a01║中言「汝等天人修羅,皆謂今日釋迦娑婆成道」者非是,故知是凡夫
W02n0020_p0336a02║八部生疑也。有疾自知者,疾者是死寂緣,世人將欲死,故先現
W02n0020_p0336a03║其疾。三乘丈六何由廢,正由機感盡所以廢。是以機根與如來為
W02n0020_p0336a04║疾也。機根漸成,以之為疾;機根轉著,名為死也。昔日王子一發
W02n0020_p0336a05║之善為因,自爾以來修諸微善,資助機根轉著,鹿野之中,得說三乘
W02n0020_p0336a06║等教。藉此三乘無漏,資助根機轉熾,得說《法華》大乘。因此一乘
W02n0020_p0336a07║之解,資助根機最熾,雙林之中,得說《涅槃》始終相續一機根。今
W02n0020_p0336a08║言「疾」者,《大品》座上機根漸成,將廢權不久,喻若疾時;亦機根轉
W02n0020_p0336a09║著,廢三乘丈六,喻如死時。
W02n0020_p0336a10║  更有一解:三乘機、大乘機別也。有多種因,自有次第,相感
W02n0020_p0336a11║招邊自有越義也。昔日王子一發之善,有與鹿苑之中為因,與
W02n0020_p0336a12║靈山之中為因,有與雙林之中為因。今道《大品》座上,三乘機根將
W02n0020_p0336a13║盡,大乘漸增,喻若疾時。亦靈山之中,三乘機盡,大乘機根著,廢
W02n0020_p0336a14║其權教,名為死時。故道三乘丈六盡在此經,言權盡於三說。今言
W02n0020_p0336a15║盡《化城》者,就終處語,亦應言實顯於三說,但不道實邊也。身權
W02n0020_p0336a16║盡於《壽量》。道言「盡」者,非是事盡故言盡,但識權盡故言盡也。
W02n0020_p0336a17║身權盡於《壽量》者,識身權盡,故言盡,非謂滅身也。亦應身實顯
W02n0020_p0336a18║於《壽量》,道理都應雙明。今時但道權邊,不道實。此盡為當惑上
W02n0020_p0336a19║得名,為當解上得其盡稱也?若論惑上置盡者,三乘丈六是實,皆
W02n0020_p0336a20║是惑心。聞法說一周,身子一人,雖得除遣,中下二根計實之心,猶
W02n0020_p0336a21║未得除,不與盡名。要聞三周說法,三根之人計實心盡,方與盡名。
W02n0020_p0336a22║到《踴出》中略明。常住大士雖復於先領悟,始行未解,猶執丈六是
W02n0020_p0336a23║實,不與盡名。為說《壽量》,廣明法身常住,解知丈六是權,計實心
W02n0020_p0336a24║盡,方得盡名。依此一解,盡名置在惑上。若論置在解上,三根識
W02n0020_p0336a25║權盡,聞法說一周,身子一人,雖解權盡,中下未悟,不與盡名。要
W02n0020_p0337a01║三周說法竟,三根盡解權盡,故方與盡名。到《踴出》中略說一周,
W02n0020_p0337a02║大士利根,於先解悟;小行未解,不與盡名。為說《壽量》,解法身常
W02n0020_p0337a03║住,丈六是權,利鈍同解,方得盡名。
W02n0020_p0337a04║  又問:因經之中,以知有法身,識身權分明,何以不與盡稱,要
W02n0020_p0337a05║《壽量》中方與盡名?
W02n0020_p0337a06║  又解:因經之中,雖復識知身權,大意正明於言權,不欲明於身
W02n0020_p0337a07║權。舉身權來,為欲明言權也。是以不與盡稱。要《踴出》已下,顯
W02n0020_p0337a08║明常果,方與盡名。
W02n0020_p0337a09║  復有一解:因經中雖知有法身,但作生滅之解,未識真本,所以
W02n0020_p0337a10║達應不明,不與盡稱。要《踴出》已下,顯常住法身識真故,能達應
W02n0020_p0337a11║分明,故得盡稱也。
W02n0020_p0337a12║
W02n0020_p0337a13║   淨土者
W02n0020_p0337a14║  眾生純修善業,報得七珍,體性光潔,名之為淨。安身置形,目
W02n0020_p0337a15║之為土。論其土雖眾,不出於二:一是圓應變化淨土,二是實報淨
W02n0020_p0337a16║土也。圓應者,眾生感悟不同。應見淨者,應為淨土;感見穢者,應
W02n0020_p0337a17║為穢土。故經言:「或現作僮僕,或復作風火,國師及大臣,以有利
W02n0020_p0337a18║眾生」。故知應為淨穢也。經言「我淨土不毀而眾見燒」者,道圓應
W02n0020_p0337a19║淨土也。變土者,欲明大聖、眾生悟緣不同,受道有異,應見變土得
W02n0020_p0337a20║益者,聖人即以神力變穢為淨,亦得隱穢彰淨,隨物改變。變者,守
W02n0020_p0337a21║質改形,異於本色,名之為變。隱穢者,如來神力,以足指案地,隱
W02n0020_p0337a22║穢顯淨,非是變土也。化者,無而忽有,稱為化也。就實報中有四
W02n0020_p0337a23║種:第一純淨,第二純穢,第三半淨半穢,第四淨多穢少、穢多淨少。
W02n0020_p0337a24║第一純淨者,欲明眾生修彼淨土業時,其善純精,更無惡間。所得
W02n0020_p0337a25║之土,純是精妙,不為沙礫所雜,名之為淨。以此淨色,安身置形,
W02n0020_p0337a26║目之為土。第二明其純穢者,欲明眾生不修善業,唯是其惡,更無
W02n0020_p0338a01║善間。所感之土,唯是土石鄙惡,既不為淨間純穢,以此粗色,安身
W02n0020_p0338a02║置形,以之為土。第三半淨半穢,修業之時,善惡並有。因既不均,
W02n0020_p0338a03║所感之土,半淨半穢。四淨多穢少、穢多淨少者,過去修因之時,善
W02n0020_p0338a04║業是強,不善業弱,所感之土,淨多穢少;修業之時,惡業是強,善業
W02n0020_p0338a05║微弱,所感得土穢多淨少。四土論眾生實因所得,變土非眾生實因
W02n0020_p0338a06║而得。何以得知?大聖知眾生應悟淨穢以受道者,如來神力能變
W02n0020_p0338a07║穢顯淨,亦能隱淨彰穢。是以得知非眾生實報之土。就實報土中,
W02n0020_p0338a08║大意不過有二:第一明異質而同處,二者一質而異見。何者是異質
W02n0020_p0338a09║而同處?論淨穢二土皆遍三千,淨土亦遍三千,穢土亦遍三千。此
W02n0020_p0338a10║是異質而同處。土本形礙,俱遍三千而不相妨礙,欲明眾生果報,
W02n0020_p0338a11║不可思議。如似阿鼻無間地獄,一人受苦,身亦遍滿;多人在中,身
W02n0020_p0338a12║亦不小;一人在中,身亦不大。俱遍阿鼻而不相妨礙,罪業不可思
W02n0020_p0338a13║議。若爾,阿鼻地獄粗惡果報,猶尚不相妨礙,何況淨穢俱遍三千,
W02n0020_p0338a14║精粗同處而有妨礙?故知眾生業力不可思議。第二,一質而異見
W02n0020_p0338a15║者,眾生造業,有共有別。共業因緣,同在一質;別業因緣,淨穢有
W02n0020_p0338a16║異。自有感見而從用者,自有感見而不從用者。若修業之時,善業
W02n0020_p0338a17║力強,感見淨色,感而有用;不善業弱者,雖感見穢而無用。若不善
W02n0020_p0338a18║業強,感見穢色,感而有用;善業弱者,亦復如是。彼見穢者,即我
W02n0020_p0338a19║之淨;我見淨者,即彼之穢。我用淨時,發彼之穢;彼用穢時,發
W02n0020_p0338a20║我之淨。若二業均等,用即共用,不用即置。正由業有強弱,用為
W02n0020_p0338a21║興廢。此一質見異者,難解也。土雖有四,不過此二。論土果可
W02n0020_p0338a22║爾,其因云何?經言十善是菩薩淨土,三十七品是菩薩淨土,故知
W02n0020_p0338a23║道品等行,皆感得淨土。
W02n0020_p0338a24║  他人非此解。解言:三十七品無漏,感得淨土。得此淨土,為
W02n0020_p0338a25║當是無漏,為是有漏?若因是無漏,所感之土亦是無漏不?因既是
W02n0020_p0338a26║無漏,所感之土那得非無漏。經言「無漏自在不繫」,云何感得有漏
W02n0020_p0339a01║果報?他人以此為妨,更作異解:欲明三十七品是無漏,若為感於
W02n0020_p0339a02║無情?若非淨土因,何故經言「三十七品是菩薩淨土」?
W02n0020_p0339a03║  解言:經道「三十七品感得淨土」者,實非淨土因。但以修此三
W02n0020_p0339a04║十七品,得彼常住法身,故能應為淨土。有如斯緣由之義,故言「道
W02n0020_p0339a05║品感得淨土」。由無漏故,感得淨土,無漏實不感淨土。若爾,以何
W02n0020_p0339a06║為淨土因?正以十善為淨土因。何處人修此淨土因?欲明性地已
W02n0020_p0339a07║上內凡修淨土因。經言:「聖人畢故不造新」,云何修淨土之行?今
W02n0020_p0339a08║言修土者,性地以前外凡夫修淨土因。欲明外凡夫中所修精勝十
W02n0020_p0339a09║善,感彼淨土;性地已上一切,不造淨土之因。
W02n0020_p0339a10║  此是一家解淨土,今論經師不存此解。向難言三十七品是無
W02n0020_p0339a11║漏因,既得是無漏,所感之土,哪得非無漏。寧馨難者。若
W02n0020_p0339a12║為五戒十善感得人天,因既是善,所感之果亦是善不?五戒十善悉
W02n0020_p0339a13║是其善,所感人天果報,果是無記,非是其善。三十七品雖是無漏,
W02n0020_p0339a14║所感之土非無漏,竟有何患?君家不解經意,道三十七品便是無
W02n0020_p0339a15║漏,所得淨土亦是無漏。自有是無漏者,自有非無漏者。經中道言
W02n0020_p0339a16║三十七品感得土者,非是一人修。住前性地、解行,亦修道品。初
W02n0020_p0339a17║住已上,亦修道品。雖同修道品等行,有其勝如。是以今道無漏不
W02n0020_p0339a18║感淨土時,初住以上,真空無漏,唯感常住,不招淨土。何以得知?
W02n0020_p0339a19║經言:「聖人畢故不造新」,何由修真無漏感於淨土?是以《涅槃》後
W02n0020_p0339a20║迦葉問言:「世間第一法,相似相續生,何以不為道品?」如來答言:
W02n0020_p0339a21║「世第一法是世間心,不免相間,與無漏不相似,故不名道品。」
W02n0020_p0339a22║以此來驗,故知三十七品有其勝如。始從外凡,終訖解行,都名世
W02n0020_p0339a23║間,非真道品。所得無漏,非真無漏,但是名字相似而已。故知初
W02n0020_p0339a24║住已上所修三十七品是勝,真為道品。是以今言:聖人不造新者,
W02n0020_p0340a01║正是初住已上不造淨土之行。今論修淨土行,何處人修淨土因?
W02n0020_p0340a02║欲明此土精勝,住前三十心人,所修諸善,亦感得淨土。論其成就
W02n0020_p0340a03║淨土之行,要性地已上方始得成。如人造立舍宅,依空依有,舍宅
W02n0020_p0340a04║得成。若一向依空,不得成舍;一向依有,亦不得成。要須依空依
W02n0020_p0340a05║有,舍宅得成。修淨土行亦然。若一向處有,同於凡夫;一向處空,
W02n0020_p0340a06║則同聲聞。處有,淨土行不成;處空,亦不得成。是以五不求中,但
W02n0020_p0340a07║念空、無相、無作,成眾生淨國土,都無忻樂。故知空中亦不得成。
W02n0020_p0340a08║今明修淨土行,要須空、有並修。進不同聲聞,一向處空;退不同凡
W02n0020_p0340a09║夫,一向處有。要藉空解道達,有中行成,假空藉有,淨土行成。是
W02n0020_p0340a10║以經言:三十七品是菩薩淨土。若論解之深淺,修業強弱,所感之
W02n0020_p0340a11║土,階降不等。逐解而言,乃有階差。今但就前三十心,約略束為
W02n0020_p0340a12║三品。若論習種性中,相心尤重,善業微弱,所感之土,最是不如。
W02n0020_p0340a13║性地以上,相心漸薄,所修業勝,感彼淨土,次勝於前,名之為中。
W02n0020_p0340a14║論其解行,相心轉得微薄,所修諸行,增明於前,所感淨土,最是其
W02n0020_p0340a15║勝,故得上名。正由相有輕重,業有精粗,致令有其優劣、階降不
W02n0020_p0340a16║同。若論六住以還,報身未亡,要須假土而居。
W02n0020_p0340a17║  問:七住以上及以諸佛,為有土不?
W02n0020_p0340a18║  又人解言:菩薩亦有土,諸佛亦有土。何以得知?經自成言:
W02n0020_p0340a19║「妙色湛然常安隱,不隨時節劫數遷。」既有其色,那得無土?欲明
W02n0020_p0340a20║佛身精妙之色,所感之土,純是精妙,土中最勝。以此淨色,安置身
W02n0020_p0340a21║形,目之為土。經言:「大火所燒時,我此土安隱」。諸佛猶尚有土,
W02n0020_p0340a22║何況菩薩不假土而居?故知菩薩亦有土也。
W02n0020_p0340a23║  今時不存此解。六住以還,猶有父母報身,可假土而居。七住
W02n0020_p0340a24║菩薩斷三界惑盡,無父母報身,唯有法身,無其色根,何處假土而
W02n0020_p0340a25║居?欲明四禪地人,猶尚患色聲煩,求於無色,豈況大聖由假土而
W02n0020_p0340a26║居?君家不解經文,聞道妙色湛然,便謂法身,為土可居。凡解色
W02n0020_p0340a27║法,顯現故名色。若論下地,青黃顯現可見,故名為色。論其佛地,
W02n0020_p0340a28║何處有此青黃可論?果頭萬惑斯盡,眾德普備,靈智顯現,義同於
W02n0020_p0341a01║色。他人見經文道「因無常色,獲得常色」,受想行識,亦得如是,意
W02n0020_p0341a02║謂果頭有其五陰。果頭何處猶有識?識是無記,想是無記。若
W02n0020_p0341a03║論下地,識本對色,想取假名。向言果頭有受想行識義中,解作欲
W02n0020_p0341a04║明大聖究竟之果,無實而不知義。若於識無,假而不達,義同於想,
W02n0020_p0341a05║果頭至極大樂義。若於受法身,正是大善,行中之極,名之為行。
W02n0020_p0341a06║果頭有萬德故,一一義解,故道佛地有受想行識。論其大聖,靈智
W02n0020_p0341a07║獨存,何處有此受想行識可論?故知果頭亦無其色,那得有土。若
W02n0020_p0341a08║爾,何故經言「菩薩佛土」?解意欲明眾生修淨土行,要由諸佛、菩
W02n0020_p0341a09║薩教化,方能修淨土行。眾生既有淨土,感得諸佛、菩薩在中施化。
W02n0020_p0341a10║若爾,此之淨土由聖化故有,從化主作名。故菩薩佛土,理實則無。
W02n0020_p0341a11║淨土名教,粗略如此。
W02n0020_p0341a12║
W02n0020_p0341a13║   五百由旬險難道者
W02n0020_p0341a14║  此中還與法說經文作喻。上為利根說於五濁,正以五濁在懷,
W02n0020_p0341a15║濁亂其心,不得說大。為中根借火宅為喻,正以火宅之難,故以三
W02n0020_p0341a16║車汲引。此為鈍根人借險道喻,正以險道長遠,故須施三中息。上
W02n0020_p0341a17║法說中道言諸佛,火宅中借長者為喻,此中名為導師。上言三乘,
W02n0020_p0341a18║火宅中引三車為喻,此中名為化城。上為利根明破三歸一,為中根
W02n0020_p0341a19║借大車為喻,今為下根明其滅化。為三根說法,雖借事有異,皆大
W02n0020_p0341a20║意為明煩惱在懷,濁亂其心,不得說大。
W02n0020_p0341a21║  然今解以何為五百?
W02n0020_p0341a22║  一種解:以五道為五百。何以得知?三界內生死粗重,煩惱亦
W02n0020_p0341a23║粗,能與假名行人作其留難。三界外變易生死苦輕,怖畏處微,無
W02n0020_p0341a24║明住地惑細,力能自斷,不與假名人為留難。是故,但與三界內為
W02n0020_p0341a25║喻,不與三界外為喻。依此一種解義,今言「曠絕無人」者,無無漏
W02n0020_p0341a26║聖人。何以得知?無漏本不繫屬三界。六住以還,非不有分段報
W02n0020_p0342a01║形,本不以分段果報以為聖人。要得無漏者名為聖人。是故今言:
W02n0020_p0342a02║天人中無無漏聖人。下言過三途,在人天中,施二乘言教。何以得
W02n0020_p0342a03║知?三途報障,非受道之器。諸龍雖復受持一日之戒,一形之中,
W02n0020_p0342a04║終不得道。是以施二乘言教,要在人天。是故今言「五百」者,但與
W02n0020_p0342a05║五道為喻。
W02n0020_p0342a06║  更有一解:若言「三界外變易苦微,不能與假名人作留難」,故
W02n0020_p0342a07║不須道。為據有識,為據凡夫無識?若論無識,凡夫雖遭大苦,
W02n0020_p0342a08║不以為患。若論有識,無相以上深識行苦。經言「聖人覺苦,如睫
W02n0020_p0342a09║入目」,又言「阿羅漢怖畏生死,如人執劍欲來害己」,云何言「變易
W02n0020_p0342a10║生死怖畏處微」?又復言「無明惑細,力能自除」,故不須道。何以
W02n0020_p0342a11║經言「下下智斷上上煩惱,上上智斷下下煩惱」?要當上智能斷細
W02n0020_p0342a12║惑,下智能遣粗結者,云何言「三界外惑細,不能與假名人為留難」?
W02n0020_p0342a13║經言「無明住地,其力最大,聲聞辟支所不能斷,唯佛菩提智方能得
W02n0020_p0342a14║斷」。那得言道「惑細,力能自斷」?若言「三界惑粗,能與假名人作
W02n0020_p0342a15║留難」,故須道。電光之人,一入空觀,摧三界結,斷之不難。云何
W02n0020_p0342a16║言「三界惑粗能與假名人為留難」?又復一事:若以五道為五百者,
W02n0020_p0342a17║經言「若有多眾,欲過此道,至珍寶處」,本王子時一發大解,情標佛
W02n0020_p0342a18║果,常可情期過五道而已。若當情期過於五道,於聲聞行何
W02n0020_p0342a19║異?聲聞之人,本亦情標出於三界,今雖道成羅漢,去佛果故,喻遼
W02n0020_p0342a20║喻遠。經言「阿羅漢二萬劫到」,到何處?到於性地。若道成羅漢,
W02n0020_p0342a21║竟二萬劫中修行,方始到性地。故知去佛果喻遼喻遠。又言「若情
W02n0020_p0342a22║期過於五道」,何由得彰中息之義?
W02n0020_p0342a23║  今明險道長遠,難可越度,欲明生死路遙。菩薩勇猛,情標佛
W02n0020_p0343a01║果,一往欲越度生死,不論中息。聲聞疲極之人,情無遠標,不欲一
W02n0020_p0343a02║往遠涉夷途,是以於其中路說二乘涅槃,彰中息義顯。又言「至
W02n0020_p0343a03║珍寶處」,何者為珍寶處?豈可以二乘涅槃為珍寶處?故知正以佛
W02n0020_p0343a04║果為珍寶處。欲表生死長遠,聲聞懈怠,不能越度,要須化城中息。
W02n0020_p0343a05║又來,何以得知三界外變易無明,通以為險道?是以今言「五百」
W02n0020_p0343a06║者,正以三界為三百;七住二乘,同斷三界惑盡,束為一百;八住以
W02n0020_p0343a07║上,終至金剛,此一段生死,復束為一百,以為五百。
W02n0020_p0343a08║  他人難言:若當險道終盡金剛者,上法說中有其五濁,為中根
W02n0020_p0343a09║引火宅為喻。此之二種,亦通三界外不?若當不通,有何所以為鈍
W02n0020_p0343a10║根人說法,偏明其遠?解者言:良有所以。上為身子,先以法相道
W02n0020_p0343a11║理明義,然後舉五濁者,釋三之所以。正以五濁在懷,濁亂其
W02n0020_p0343a12║心,故一上作三解。五濁是施三因緣,是以不通。三界外惑非是施
W02n0020_p0343a13║三因緣,不能一上作三解,那得相決?為中根借火宅喻,但明能燒
W02n0020_p0343a14║道根,復能燒陰身,以之為火。三界外惑,不燒道根。火本能燒、改
W02n0020_p0343a15║變,名之為火。三界惑粗,障解處重,能改利為鈍,喻若於火;三界
W02n0020_p0343a16║外惑,非不障解,乘理不明,不能改利為鈍,是故不得名為火也。今
W02n0020_p0343a17║為鈍人借險道為喻,欲明險道長遠,從始發心,終於金剛,三大阿僧
W02n0020_p0343a18║祇修行,方始得佛。欲明生死路遠,聲聞疲極,不能越度,要須化城
W02n0020_p0343a19║中息。
W02n0020_p0343a20║  又復言:眾又清淨,無有三界粗濁翳障,名為清淨。若義通三
W02n0020_p0343a21║界外,云何得道「眾又清淨」?何以得知火不通。經言:「三界無安,
W02n0020_p0343a22║猶如火宅。」復言:「見諸子等,安隱得出,到無畏處。」若火通三界
W02n0020_p0343a23║外,正是可怖可畏,云何道言「到無畏處」?今者險道何以知通?經
W02n0020_p0343a24║文但言「既得止息,無復疲倦,即滅化城」,不言「無復險道」。若以
W02n0020_p0343a25║三界為險道,何以不道「無復險道,即滅化城」?故知險道通三界
W02n0020_p0344a01║外。經文前後明義不同,今為下根,要須借道路遠事,宜彰於遠。
W02n0020_p0344a02║若道三界為險道,未足表險難長遠。欲明生死路遙,難可越度,菩
W02n0020_p0344a03║薩勇猛,一往越度生死,不論中息。聲聞疲極之人,不能一往越度,
W02n0020_p0344a04║要須化城。若當道近,何由得彰中息之義?是以為彰中息義,顯事
W02n0020_p0344a05║須道。
W02n0020_p0344a06║  更有一解:上為中上二根。其人根利,但說三界火宅五濁,不
W02n0020_p0344a07║得說一以能知遠。三界外亦是五濁,曰火宅也。今為下根說法異,
W02n0020_p0344a08║正以其人根鈍,要說遠處,方能得解。是以金剛以還,通為險道也。
W02n0020_p0344a09║為下根人喻說小異,不同中上也。曠絕無人者,初住已上終至金
W02n0020_p0344a10║剛,乃有塵沙聖人,何故言「無人」?凡解人義,識古知今、施恩報
W02n0020_p0344a11║德,名之為人。今解人,要達古今理盡,得名為人。欲明金剛以還,
W02n0020_p0344a12║雖有施恩、報德,識古今理不盡。經言:「十住菩薩但知其終,不達
W02n0020_p0344a13║其始」。人義不滿,不與人名。如來道備先登,居宗體極,三達靈
W02n0020_p0344a14║智,識古今理盡。人義備滿,方得人名。是以今言「無人」者,金剛
W02n0020_p0344a15║已還,無有滿足之人,故言「無人」。下言「過三百」者,二乘涅槃標
W02n0020_p0344a16║果,不屬三界,故言「過」也。下言「無水草」者,金剛以還,無有佛果
W02n0020_p0344a17║無漏,故言「無水草」也。三界外無明何由得起?正以三界中作因,
W02n0020_p0344a18║故得起。何以得知?凡為惑本,乃自無量。略舉其對,不過有四重
W02n0020_p0344a19║之惑也。外凡見諦,澈通三界;內凡見諦,亦通三界;思惟煩惱,復
W02n0020_p0344a20║澈通三界;三界外習惑無明,復通三界。
W02n0020_p0344a21║  又問:三界外無明,何由得通三界也?
W02n0020_p0344a22║  又解:良由三界中為因,故所以起,故道「通」也。三界外凡見
W02n0020_p0344a23║諦,一念三毒中,還與外凡同種類作因,復與三界內凡作因,復與三
W02n0020_p0344a24║界思惟作因,復得與三界外恆沙無明作因。略道粗處,中間可知
W02n0020_p0344a25║也。粗惑中得與細為因,細中不得與粗作因也。何以得知粗惑得
W02n0020_p0344a26║與細作因?若外凡惑不與內凡惑為因者,斷外凡惑盡,此內凡惑何
W02n0020_p0344a27║由得生?若內凡惑不與修道作因,此修道煩惱,云何得起?正由外
W02n0020_p0344a28║凡與內凡作因,內凡復與修道為因,是以內凡惑修道煩惱得生也。
W02n0020_p0345a01║三界外習惑作因義,顯可知也。復所以得知外凡遠與修道為因,有
W02n0020_p0345a02║一人入空觀,斷內凡見諦惑盡,道成初果,出空觀,復不得起內凡煩
W02n0020_p0345a03║惱,修道惑何從而生也?何以得知外凡惑遠與三界外恆沙無明作
W02n0020_p0345a04║因?從初住至六住,斷三界惑盡。若不與作因,三界外惑何由得
W02n0020_p0345a05║有?今斷三界惑盡,由有彼惑在,故知粗中與細作因也。何以得知
W02n0020_p0345a06║細惑不得與粗為因?內凡人斷外凡惑盡,不見有起外凡惑者,不見
W02n0020_p0345a07║有修道以上得起內凡夫惑也,復不見八住已上人起三界思惟惑也。
W02n0020_p0345a08║以是驗知,細不與粗為因也。三毒煩惱,不得交互為因也。故經
W02n0020_p0345a09║言:無明住地惑,精細難除。要佛菩提智,方能斷盡。以此驗知,三
W02n0020_p0345a10║界外恆沙無明,變易生死,都得以為險道也。
W02n0020_p0345a11║  又人解:細與粗為因。三界外無明住地惑與恆沙為因,又
W02n0020_p0345a12║與四住煩惱作因。正由無明作因,故恆沙、四住得起也。何以得
W02n0020_p0345a13║知?三界外有識窟,從此識窟中出流來入三界,漸漸起粗,造善惡
W02n0020_p0345a14║業,起四住之惑,然後入三途受苦。既為眾苦所剪,方始罷苦樂求
W02n0020_p0345a15║涅槃,方始修道斷除也。故經言「大地壞故,草木隨喪」。無明以為
W02n0020_p0345a16║大地,恆沙、四住依無明而生,以為草木。斷無明根本盡,恆沙、四
W02n0020_p0345a17║住一切皆盡。故言「大地壞故,草木喪」也。
W02n0020_p0345a18║  此解難解,依如一家,不存此解,存於前解:粗與細為因也。若
W02n0020_p0345a19║粗與細為因者,以何為大地草木?因以為大地,果以為草木,因本
W02n0020_p0345a20║能生於果。三界四住中,萬處無明因,以之為地。萬處中無明果,
W02n0020_p0345a21║以為草木也。果依因住,名為住地。故言道「大地壞故,草木隨喪」
W02n0020_p0345a22║也。「依」如不作「流來」解者,如斯解經文也。
W02n0020_p0345a23║
W02n0020_p0345a24║   次明二依
W02n0020_p0345a25║  漸教之初所,以法為四依。今漸教之終,人為四依也。有二種
W02n0020_p0345a26║解:一解言,昔日苦空無常理淺,但能依法,自能會理,不須依人也。
W02n0020_p0346a01║今時大乘理深,要須由人解釋,方能得解。是故人為四依也。
W02n0020_p0346a02║  復有一解:昔日三乘經,不了義教。但道法為四依,道理人亦
W02n0020_p0346a03║可依。何以得知?昔經勸依知法人、依止和上、阿闍利。以此驗
W02n0020_p0346a04║知,人亦可依也。但道依法者,勸依法以取人也。昔日四依者,第
W02n0020_p0346a05║一依法,莫依於人。如來去世後,四依隱化,無有真人可仗,唯有
W02n0020_p0346a06║偽人。人本巧偽多端,則不可依也。佛去世後,唯有金口所說真法
W02n0020_p0346a07║在世,法是鏗定,則是可依。故勸依法,莫依於人也。又來,人去理
W02n0020_p0346a08║遠,法去理近,故勸依近而去遠。是以勸依法,莫依人也。但說依
W02n0020_p0346a09║法莫依於人,利根者別解第一,即通解後三。如似外書,舉一隅則
W02n0020_p0346a10║三隅返,問一以知十。
W02n0020_p0346a11║  又問:通解法用云何?
W02n0020_p0346a12║  又答:聖人但道依法莫依人,即能思惟此法,有了、不了,懼
W02n0020_p0346a13║畏人傳則謬。作此思惟,知不了教不可依,了教可依。復更思惟,
W02n0020_p0346a14║了教詮理,不了教亦詮理。故知理不定屬於言,即能解義是可依,
W02n0020_p0346a15║語不可依。以復思解:執言局理,此是想識,不得依止;亡言取理,
W02n0020_p0346a16║此是智慧,則可依也。此是通解之方。
W02n0020_p0346a17║  次解別依、通依。
W02n0020_p0346a18║  說第一依,即是別依。通解下三,即是通依。依據前境,所恃
W02n0020_p0346a19║之法,解據內情,故有通依、別依、通解、別解之異也。第二依,由未
W02n0020_p0346a20║生解,復為說依了義經,莫依不了義經。何等名為不了義經?如
W02n0020_p0346a21║《七女經》言:「如雀在瓶中,羅縠覆其口,縠穿雀飛去,識神隨後
W02n0020_p0346a22║走」。三乘究竟,一切無常,一切無我。如斯非一,皆經法不分明,
W02n0020_p0346a23║多生人惑,如似「識神隨走」,謂言「常」而隨後走也。一切無常,謂
W02n0020_p0346a24║舉常果,第一義空、諸無為等,皆是無常。聞道三乘,謂舉鏗然是
W02n0020_p0346a25║定,故知不了教多生人惑,不足可依。何等以為了教?還翻上「識
W02n0020_p0347a01║神相續隨後走」,有為中無常,三乘非究竟,即是一乘。如是真正能
W02n0020_p0347a02║生人解,是以可依,即是別解第二依。復能通上下依,即是通解也,
W02n0020_p0347a03║亦即是別依。通解上一下二,即是通依也。次解第三。第三,依人
W02n0020_p0347a04║柄教定宗,由未生解,是以聖者移言易句,依義莫依於語。夫言生
W02n0020_p0347a05║於不足,不足則於無言,因言以會理,斯皆可依也,即是別解第三。
W02n0020_p0347a06║通解上二下一,通依如此也。次解第四依人。此人由故柄教定宗,
W02n0020_p0347a07║執迷不返。是以聖教依亡相之智能備取理,存得之識則不詣於
W02n0020_p0347a08║理。故勸依智,莫依識。第四依人,即別解第四,通解上三。通、別
W02n0020_p0347a09║之依,亦如此也。
W02n0020_p0347a10║  更有一解:說第一依時,四人同解第一。利根者,通解下三;第
W02n0020_p0347a11║二根人,依教但解第一,不能探解下三。第二人聞說第二依時,三
W02n0020_p0347a12║人同解第二也,第二人探解下二;下二人依教生解,不能探解下
W02n0020_p0347a13║二也。說第三依時,二人同解第三;第三人探解下一,第四依人由
W02n0020_p0347a14║故不解。復為說第四依時,但為第四人。如斯二解,並應可存也。
W02n0020_p0347a15║  依既有通、別之解,當在何處人?若是外凡,不能賞文尋理;若
W02n0020_p0347a16║是內凡以上,神爽以高,假文通理也。解言:三根性地以上,第四人
W02n0020_p0347a17║應在乾慧之末。何以得知?經無成判,以人情卜量,三根能探,
W02n0020_p0347a18║自非得理在懷,安如此也。第四人不能探解,故知落在乾慧之末
W02n0020_p0347a19║也。驗依之人如此,說依之人復在何處也?應在四果以上,堪為說
W02n0020_p0347a20║依人。此人永絕相心所簡,入定知眾生機根,出定稱機說法,是
W02n0020_p0347a21║故堪為師也。維摩呵諸聲聞:「何不先當入定,觀此人心?」故知入
W02n0020_p0347a22║定能知也,出定不達。性地訖至世間第一法,亦能說法化人。但不
W02n0020_p0348a01║免相心所簡,隱其師名,一向落在弟子位中也。
W02n0020_p0348a02║  四依者,名雖有四,理實有八:四白依、四黑依、四白因、四黑
W02n0020_p0348a03║因。法是一白依,了教是二白依,了義是三白依,智是四白依。人
W02n0020_p0348a04║是一黑依,不了教二黑依,語是三黑依,識是四黑依。何以名白?
W02n0020_p0348a05║因能生白解,名之為白也。能生黑解,名之為黑也。第一義空,非
W02n0020_p0348a06║是黑白,能生白解,名為白也。智體是白,復能生白解,名之為白
W02n0020_p0348a07║也。
W02n0020_p0348a08║  復有一解:相形白黑,猶如輕重相形,得有假名輕重名生,
W02n0020_p0348a09║故知有白黑也。四白因、四白依能生四解,與後作因,故名白因也。
W02n0020_p0348a10║四黑因者能生四惑,名之為黑,此惑復能與後惑作因,故言「四黑
W02n0020_p0348a11║因」也。
W02n0020_p0348a12║  道理人亦有可依,但不了教故,但道法為四依也。今經人亦有
W02n0020_p0348a13║可依、不可依,法亦有可依、不可依。何以得知?魔邪外道則不可
W02n0020_p0348a14║依;魔之所說法,外道所說法,亦不可依也。四依真人則可依;四依
W02n0020_p0348a15║人所說真法則可依也,四依所說真法亦可依。此大乘經究竟了義
W02n0020_p0348a16║之教,會通四依,人法通依也。道言依人者,勸依人以取法也。《涅
W02n0020_p0348a17║槃經》具明四依,住前性地、解行,五恆行道,大乘理中得八分實義,
W02n0020_p0348a18║以為第一依也。從初住已上訖至七住以來六恆行道,大乘理中得
W02n0020_p0348a19║十二分義,以為第二依。從七住訖盡九住七恆行道,大乘理中得十
W02n0020_p0348a20║四分義,以為第三依。十住菩薩,八恆行道,大乘理中得十六分義,
W02n0020_p0348a21║以為第四依。此經略,但道二依。下《分別》中,明三受持也。
W02n0020_p0348a22║  何等為二依?一解:十住菩薩,大乘理中具足十六分義,以為
W02n0020_p0348a23║上依;九地以還,未具足十六分義,束為下依也。
W02n0020_p0348a24║  復有一解:凡聖分判,住前性地,在凡位中以為下依;初住以
W02n0020_p0349a01║上訖於十住,聖人位中束為上依也。
W02n0020_p0349a02║
W02n0020_p0349a03║   十地者
W02n0020_p0349a04║  離辨三忍,以之為十。三忍者,信忍、順忍、無生法忍。信忍
W02n0020_p0349a05║者,有其二義:一者聞信,二者證信。聞信者,淺行之徒未能自悟,
W02n0020_p0349a06║必須憑師藉教,然後得解。從初立名,故言聞信也。證信者,始涉
W02n0020_p0349a07║理照,得會真寂,驗先聞非虛,故言證信也。緣此二信以辨智,故名
W02n0020_p0349a08║信忍。順忍者,習行既久,觀道調易,內照冥符,心無違逆,故言順
W02n0020_p0349a09║忍。無生法忍者,體鑒淵極,會理喻深,以境目智,故言「無生法
W02n0020_p0349a10║忍」。尋此諸忍,皆乘信、順以會理。一忍之中,具應有三名。而初
W02n0020_p0349a11║「信」,後「無生」者,蓋因義用不同,彰其明昧之別。夫行行之體,要
W02n0020_p0349a12║應先信而後順;觀照之方,必先順而後理。故始「信」中「順」,末言
W02n0020_p0349a13║「無生」也。又云:初解淺故,藉「信」義彰;次照稍深,「順」義將顯;
W02n0020_p0349a14║終智極理,「無生」事著,故宜直言「無生法忍」。忍有始終之殊,行
W02n0020_p0349a15║宜有淺深之異,各於茲致三品之別。信、順二忍,開以為六;無生法
W02n0020_p0349a16║忍,分以為四。下下之智,斷無明之粗品,又除三界之餘習,雜治兩
W02n0020_p0349a17║惑,間智雙明,制以為七地。餘分為三,合以成十。
W02n0020_p0349a18║  一者歡喜地,二者離垢地,三明,四炎,五難勝,六現前,七遠
W02n0020_p0349a19║行,八不動,九妙善,十法雲。歡喜者,昔在凡地,未夷三途,常懷五
W02n0020_p0349a20║怖。既登聖位,永絕生死之苦,方趣無為之樂。情忻所遇,義云歡
W02n0020_p0349a21║喜。離垢者,夫垢以塵障為能,善以遣惡為用。二地精修十善,以
W02n0020_p0349a22║去十惡之垢。垢有三品,斯地已滅其二,從離多以立稱,故曰離
W02n0020_p0349a23║垢。此據見惑為言,非是終盡之謂。明地者,信忍之上,窮十惡之
W02n0020_p0349a24║原,禪心內靜,淵照外發,故曰明地。炎地者,順忍之初,斷思惟惑
W02n0020_p0349a25║始,究竟精進,遍行道品,慧鑒殊深。逾前地之照,猶室中之明,未
W02n0020_p0349a26║若燈中之炎,故以為稱。又云:炎者,上昇之義。四地明勝,有上昇
W02n0020_p0350a01║之德,故名為炎。難勝者,諦觀內周,五明外被,物我兼益,下學人
W02n0020_p0350a02║天所不能,故曰難勝。現前者,順忍之上,分段惑盡,達觀因緣,理
W02n0020_p0350a03║照無滯,常會三空,如現在前。遠行者,德過二乘,行出三界,深會
W02n0020_p0350a04║無生,遠同法身高行,故言遠行。不動地者,常在法流,心冥大寂,
W02n0020_p0350a05║不動而應,不慮而化,止勞絕務,識用俱滅,故曰不動。妙善者,具
W02n0020_p0350a06║足無礙,妙於知機,應病授藥,物無不益,妙於前善,故曰妙善。法
W02n0020_p0350a07║雲者,行圓照滿,位居受職,諸佛作雲雨之說,無不領悟。亦以所得
W02n0020_p0350a08║之法,作雲雨之益,故稱法雲。推此名者,皆應互辨,初地分身百
W02n0020_p0350a09║佛,化沾群品,豈無慈悲並潤之事?十地受職,曾所未得,寧無忻遇
W02n0020_p0350a10║悅喜之情?但義有隱顯,故置名不同。夫功深則利遠,德薄則化
W02n0020_p0350a11║淺。從凡登聖難,從聖習聖易。初地始登其難,而化益未深,既乘
W02n0020_p0350a12║其易,功濟彌深。欣遇義顯,故立歡喜之名。功濟事彰,宜置法雲
W02n0020_p0350a13║之稱。初地不云離垢者,夫善則心樂,照淨則垢離。見惑三品,初
W02n0020_p0350a14║地斷一以離苦,二地除二以息惡。離苦喜相事顯,止惡則離垢義
W02n0020_p0350a15║著。初地曰歡喜,二地名離垢也。住者以人為名,地以法為稱。將
W02n0020_p0350a16║明人住此地,故言地。故經言:「菩薩爾時名住歡喜地,以不動法」
W02n0020_p0350a17║也。故知人為住也。
W02n0020_p0350a18║  七地以還,所以得增道之稱。八住以上,得損生之名。又二種
W02n0020_p0350a19║解。一解言,七地以還,但彰所得,隱於所除。八住以上,但彰所
W02n0020_p0350a20║除,隱於所得。互舉一相,理自可知也。又復解:七住已還,去大果
W02n0020_p0350a21║遼遠,生無邊畔,不可制生為限,是以得增道之稱。八住以上,鄰近
W02n0020_p0350a22║大果,生有邊畔,可以局生為限,故得損生之名。如似小乘經中,須
W02n0020_p0350a23║陀洹果未斷見諦惑盡,生無頭數,不可制為六、七。亦斷見諦惑盡,
W02n0020_p0350a24║生有頭數,可制為六、七。極鈍者至七生,無漏智熟,道成羅漢。今
W02n0020_p0350a25║此中亦爾也。
W02n0020_p0350a26║  八住以上,為當假教,為不假教也?一解:七地以還,假教增
W02n0020_p0350a27║道;八住以上,一向不假於教。云何聞如來壽命長遠?道言聞者,
W02n0020_p0350a28║為物故聞,理實不聞也。
W02n0020_p0351a01║  更有一解:皆有所假,但假有所以。七住以還,有此三界報身,
W02n0020_p0351a02║一向假此音聲粗教以悟理;八住以上,法身菩薩不復假此粗教,但
W02n0020_p0351a03║有所不達,恆作仰諮之意。聖者,冥心授法。假聖冥益,故道言假
W02n0020_p0351a04║也,實不假此粗教也。若不假教,云何聞如來壽命長遠也?當此一
W02n0020_p0351a05║坐時中,假聖冥益,義同於聞也。
W02n0020_p0351a06║  又問:損生者,損何等生也?若三界報生,久已絕竟,復不須
W02n0020_p0351a07║損。若應生者,有感則應,機盡則滅,不與人為患,復不須損也。今
W02n0020_p0351a08║言損者,損何物生?
W02n0020_p0351a09║  又一解:三界外無漏中,無常以之為生。無漏為真智因得,無
W02n0020_p0351a10║常為不善因招。今聞《壽量》常果,損此惑因既盡,不受無漏中無
W02n0020_p0351a11║常。損此無常,故言損生也。
W02n0020_p0351a12║  復有一解:無漏中苦受以之為生。「無漏」為前無漏因得,「苦
W02n0020_p0351a13║受」為不善因得。雖復同體共住,二因有別也。今聞如來壽命長
W02n0020_p0351a14║遠,增其勝解,斷此不善因盡,不復受此「無漏中苦受」。損此無漏
W02n0020_p0351a15║中苦受,故言損生也。
W02n0020_p0351a16║  復有一種解:八住以上猶有四陰報身。此身何由而得?正
W02n0020_p0351a17║由出觀,起習相善作因,習無明緣潤,感得四陰報,以之為生。今聞
W02n0020_p0351a18║說《壽量》,增其勝解。斷此緣潤既盡,習相業燋,不復受此四陰報
W02n0020_p0351a19║生,故言損生也。
W02n0020_p0351a20║  又問:八住以上,若習相善業作因,習無明緣潤,感得四陰以為
W02n0020_p0351a21║生者,《勝鬘經》中云何無漏業作因、無明為緣,感得阿羅漢、大力菩
W02n0020_p0351a22║薩三種意生身也?
W02n0020_p0351a23║  又解:無漏不感生死,道言無漏業為因,習相善業從前,無漏後
W02n0020_p0351a24║起相從,故道言「無漏作因」。其實習相善業作因也。
W02n0020_p0351a25║  又問:若八住以上,由故造習相善業,感四陰者,經云何道言
W02n0020_p0352a01║「聖人畢故不造新業」也?
W02n0020_p0352a02║  又解:三界報粗,故用凡夫時,故業受生,更不須造業而得。八
W02n0020_p0352a03║住以上,四陰報精,更須造業而得也。經言「畢故不造新」者,不造
W02n0020_p0352a04║三界業也。
W02n0020_p0352a05║  又問:若三界報粗,更不須造業而得者,云何《涅槃經》中「是法
W02n0020_p0352a06║報得色界五陰」,燸、頂法中造禪定業,受上地報也?
W02n0020_p0352a07║  又解:經師解義不同。
W02n0020_p0352a08║  一解言:性地以上聖人不復造業,此人在外凡夫時造取相定
W02n0020_p0352a09║業,感上地報。今來入性地,修習無漏,燸、頂法中出空觀無漏,還
W02n0020_p0352a10║入凡夫時取相定之種類,故言「是法報得色界五陰」也。
W02n0020_p0352a11║  復有一解:燸、頂法中出空觀無漏,造別報定業,招上地色界五
W02n0020_p0352a12║陰中樂受報,故言「是法報得色界五陰」也。經言道「聖人畢故不造
W02n0020_p0352a13║新」者,不造總報業也。造別報業,有何傷也?
W02n0020_p0352a14║  更有一解:燸心後造禪定業,受上地報也。
W02n0020_p0352a15║  他人又問:燸心後造定業,受上地身者,斷上二界內凡惑盡,欲
W02n0020_p0352a16║界思惟煩惱未斷一毫,還牽來欲界受生。聖人但論上進,不言下
W02n0020_p0352a17║生。今為惑牽生,豈非枉聖退生?
W02n0020_p0352a18║  又解:但使燸、頂法中,用定業受上地生者,其必入空觀,要斷
W02n0020_p0352a19║上二界內凡惑盡,斷欲界思惟惑盡,然後出觀。若不斷盡,終不出
W02n0020_p0352a20║觀。作勢極解也。若爾,欲界無惑,云何牽生也?若寧馨解時,
W02n0020_p0352a21║經道「聖人畢故不造新」者,無相以上,聖人用凡夫時故業受生,更
W02n0020_p0352a22║不造新也。世間第一法以前是內凡夫,非是聖人得造業招生也。
W02n0020_p0352a23║  又問:八住以上若當出觀起惑,云何經言「八住以上,入法流水
W02n0020_p0352a24║中,念念常淨」也?
W02n0020_p0352a25║  又解:經言「法流水中常淨」者,此是從多之謂也。入觀情多,
W02n0020_p0353a01║出觀情少,故道言「念念常淨」。亦有出觀時也。如小乘經中道:羅
W02n0020_p0353a02║漢一切時空心中行者,可萇在空心中行,亦有出觀時也。
W02n0020_p0353a03║  又問:八住以上猶有四陰報身者,三界中無色界亦有四陰
W02n0020_p0353a04║報身。等是四陰無差,云何三界外得變易名,三界中與分段稱也?
W02n0020_p0353a05║  又解:等是四陰無異,精粗有殊。三界四陰,報粗得其分段之
W02n0020_p0353a06║名。三界外四陰,報精與變易之稱也。
W02n0020_p0353a07║  更有一解:正指無漏為生也。經言「無漏業為正因,無明為緣,
W02n0020_p0353a08║感得變易身」。以之為生,八住以上,生乃無量。略舉其對,一地中
W02n0020_p0353a09║相似無漏,粗者,域作三生,三地中有其九生也。八住中有入地行
W02n0020_p0353a10║心、住地行心、有滿地行心。域此三種心,作其三生。乃至九住、十
W02n0020_p0353a11║住,皆如此也。惑亦域作九品,還潤九生。
W02n0020_p0353a12║  今言「潤生」,用何等惑潤七住菩薩,起三種愛心?八住以上,
W02n0020_p0353a13║不復起惑。八住地中,上品惑潤下品無漏。何以上品惑潤下品生?
W02n0020_p0353a14║惑本從粗至細,解本從微至著。是以上品煩惱,潤下品生也。夫為
W02n0020_p0353a15║解法,捨下趣中,捨中趣上。既至金剛,次第增進,無漏相續而生。
W02n0020_p0353a16║正由上品習惑,因果不斷,故潤下品無漏種類,恆相續而生。有彼
W02n0020_p0353a17║惑故,下品無漏恆生,故言「潤生」也。不如三界中逕心起愛,故潤
W02n0020_p0353a18║生也。
W02n0020_p0353a19║  言「損生」者,先斷上品惑,因果應盡。今聞如來壽命長遠,增
W02n0020_p0353a20║其勝解,斷上品惑盡,使下品無漏種類,不復相續生。中品勝進,無
W02n0020_p0353a21║漏得生。有如此義故,道言「損生」也。解一品既爾,乃至九品,皆
W02n0020_p0353a22║如此損,無異也。
W02n0020_p0353a23║  又問:若損上品惑盡,使下品無漏種類不復生者,若爾,此便斷
W02n0020_p0353a24║無漏,與闡提何異?
W02n0020_p0353a25║  又解:不斷無漏。下品無漏中有二因:有與下品同種類作因,
W02n0020_p0353a26║有與中品無漏作因。今聞常增解,下品中因不感,中品果不赴。如
W02n0020_p0354a01║君所難,可斷無漏,同於闡提。今聞常住,更生勝解,斷上品習惑,
W02n0020_p0354a02║因果既盡,下品因速感,中品果速赴,乃更有勝進無漏,流來在現。
W02n0020_p0354a03║云何損無漏?不損無漏也!何以得知?小乘經中未斷見諦惑盡。
W02n0020_p0354a04║時須陀洹果前下品見諦無漏,恆相續而生;亦斷惑盡,滅須陀洹果。
W02n0020_p0354a05║修道中勝進生時,須陀洹果前下品無漏不復生。得言損無漏不?
W02n0020_p0354a06║若言須陀洹果前下品無漏不生道言「損」者,我今下品種類無漏不
W02n0020_p0354a07║生,故道言「損」也,竟有何傷也?而言修道中更有勝進解生,不得
W02n0020_p0354a08║言損無漏。我今更有中品解生,云何損無漏也?雖復大小乘經別,
W02n0020_p0354a09║所斷無異也,損時共損,不損共不損也。
W02n0020_p0354a10║  又問:若不損無漏,云何名損生?
W02n0020_p0354a11║  又解:損潤生之惑,故言「損生」也,實不損無漏也。何以得知?
W02n0020_p0354a12║《勝鬘經》言:有餘生法不盡,故有生。三界外恆沙無明,是潤生之
W02n0020_p0354a13║法,正由不斷三界外習惑無明,故更須受,變易生身。以此驗知,損
W02n0020_p0354a14║潤生惑也。
W02n0020_p0354a15║  前之三種,餘法師所辨,最後一解,經師所存。未量是非,隨情
W02n0020_p0354a16║消息,便者用也。
W02n0020_p0354a17║
W02n0020_p0354a18║法華經文外義一卷
W02n0020_p0354a19║
W02n0020_p0354a20║〔錄文完〕
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