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【經文資訊】藏外佛教文獻 第一冊 No. 9《佛說孝順子修行成佛經》
W01n0009_p0329a01║
W01n0009_p0329a02║  佛說孝順子修行成佛經
W01n0009_p0329a03║    整理者 方廣錩
W01n0009_p0329a04║
W01n0009_p0329a05║  〔題解〕
W01n0009_p0329a06║  《佛說孝順子修行成佛經》,又名《孝順子應變破惡業修行
W01n0009_p0329a07║經》、《銀蹄金角犢子經》,印度佛教初期密教所撰佛本生故事。
W01n0009_p0329a08║譯者不詳。一卷。本經最早見錄於隋仁壽二年(602)所撰《眾經
W01n0009_p0329a09║目錄》卷四,判為疑偽經,但沒有說明出處。歷代經錄因之。故
W01n0009_p0329a10║未為歷代大藏經所收,早已亡佚。現在中國北京圖書館所藏敦
W01n0009_p0329a11║煌文獻中發現一號,首殘尾存,所存內容大體完整,言栴陀羅頗
W01n0009_p0329a12║黎王娶有三妻,其第三夫人生有一子。兩位大夫人設計殺此子,
W01n0009_p0329a13║太子變為一頭銀蹄金角牛犢,得到屠戶的幫助逃出國外。後娶
W01n0009_p0329a14║鄰國公主,迴國救母,與母均「不轉凡身成佛」。從「應變破惡業」
W01n0009_p0329a15║這一經名看,首殘部分或者包括關於太子的命定「惡業」的敘述。
W01n0009_p0329a16║本經雖被判為偽經,但從思想內容、形式結構等看,實屬印度所
W01n0009_p0329a17║撰佛典,約於南北朝末年或隋朝初年譯出。譯出時,助譯的中國
W01n0009_p0329a18║人加入若干自己的發揮。譯文大抵為口語,質勝於文。敦煌寫
W01n0009_p0329a19║本中有若干武周新字,但使用不周遍,故可能抄寫於晚唐早期。
W01n0009_p0329a20║本經的發現對研究傳統的「疑偽經」開拓了新的思路,為研究印
W01n0009_p0329a21║度佛教與本生故事提供了新的資料。關於該經的研究參見方廣
W01n0009_p0329a22║錩:《敦煌寫經〈佛說孝順子修行成佛經〉簡析》,載《南亞研究》
W01n0009_p0329a23║1988年第二期。
W01n0009_p0329a24║  整理本以中國北京圖書館藏玉64號(北8300號)為底本,
W01n0009_p0329a25║無校本。
W01n0009_p0330a01║  〔錄文〕
W01n0009_p0330a02║
W01n0009_p0330a03║佛說孝順子修行成佛經
W01n0009_p0330a04║
W01n0009_p0330a05║  (前殘)
W01n0009_p0330a06║  □…□遇萬斧。八坐諸貴為此犢子入議,諫得大王。王答
W01n0009_p0330a07║諸□□:「我今愛敬憐憫犢子,不可思議。若煞此犢子之時,莫在
W01n0009_p0330a08║我宮內煞之。我見此犢子行跡死處,我即心肝寸寸斷絕,交死不
W01n0009_p0330a09║活。」爾時國王語諸臣曰:「若欲煞此犢子時,為我牽向屠兒坊中,
W01n0009_p0330a10║方便煞之,勿使我見。」
W01n0009_p0330a11║  遂遣黃門牽此犢子往向屠兒坊中。到屠兒門底,遙喚屠兒
W01n0009_p0330a12║三聲。屠兒出看。黃門語屠兒曰:「國王二后後垂命至死,須此銀
W01n0009_p0330a13║蹄金角犢子心肝。卿急手打煞,劈取心肝,白紙重裹,送
W01n0009_p0330a14║來門底。我在門邊佇待卿。」
W01n0009_p0330a15║  屠兒聞黃門作如是言,手牽犢子入於家中,繫著大柱,手捉
W01n0009_p0330a16║大斧,舉欲打煞。犢子語屠兒曰:「卿住!未忙煞我。聽我一
W01n0009_p0330a17║言,當死。唵!」屠兒住,聽犢子言。犢子語屠兒曰:「我非是犢
W01n0009_p0330a18║子。我是栴陀羅頗黎國王太子。我父索其三妻,我母處在小
W01n0009_p0330a19║限。兩夫人意欲煞我。我不得違二母之意,變作犢子。卿莫煞
W01n0009_p0330a20║我。我□之日,必作國王。我作國王之時,使卿金千斤,撥國
W01n0009_p0331a01║半治,封邑萬戶與卿。屠兒,願莫煞我。」
W01n0009_p0331a02║  爾時屠兒聞犢子作如是言,大芒迫身,言:「丈夫立身以來煞
W01n0009_p0331a03║害眾生恒河沙數,小來未見有是銀蹄金角犢子語我此言。」屠兒
W01n0009_p0331a04║即語犢子曰:「我今為卿身死,不得煞卿。」犢子語屠兒曰:「卿不
W01n0009_p0331a05║得我心肝,亦當必死。若活我之時,卿用我語,使我共卿兩都得
W01n0009_p0331a06║活。」
W01n0009_p0331a07║  爾時犢子作是言時,有一天帝釋變作黑狗,從屠兒門中而
W01n0009_p0331a08║入。到屠兒中庭,倒地自死。犢子語屠兒曰:「卿若為我之時,將
W01n0009_p0331a09║我抱著草中,莫使人知。你莫惜家中自死黑狗,劈取心肝,送向
W01n0009_p0331a10║門底,付與黃門。你亦得活,我亦得活。」
W01n0009_p0331a11║  爾時屠兒劈取黑狗心肝,白紙重裹,送與黃門。黃門領
W01n0009_p0331a12║得犢子心肝,欲送入殿。王聞犢子心肝,今則氣塞哽咽,爛腸寸
W01n0009_p0331a13║寸斷絕,淚下覆面,暈倒落床,發聲大哭。其黃門送犢子心肝
W01n0009_p0331a14║往至宮裡。二后聞之,甚大歡喜,狼徬皆起。夫人下床,身自往
W01n0009_p0331a15║就黃門手中生啖心肝,不由湯火煮炙,生即食訖。二后云:「此肉
W01n0009_p0331a16║甚美,我今食之,百脈流徹,心底惶悟,眼目精明,手腳輕便,病當
W01n0009_p0331a17║得瘥。」
W01n0009_p0331a18║  爾時屠兒送犢子心肝得了,迴還語犢子曰:「我今為卿輸心
W01n0009_p0331a19║肝得了。」犢子語屠兒曰:「你爾「恩德,昊天難報。你若放我
W01n0009_p0331a20║之時,夜半中放。我去時莫使人見。」
W01n0009_p0332a01║  犢子夜半中去時,與其屠兒泣淚辭別,語屠兒曰:「我今辭你
W01n0009_p0332a02║去後,作一變異,使你交見,知我有賢德,必令報卿恩。卿家去城
W01n0009_p0332a03║三百餘步。我從卿門出,使無腳跡。唯有城西北角上留一腳
W01n0009_p0332a04║跡。卿一跡踏土之處,知我有賢德,能得報你。」
W01n0009_p0332a05║  爾時屠兒聞犢子作如是言,燒香禮拜,供養跪起,泣淚奉
W01n0009_p0332a06║送出門。至明天曉,人未得時,尋此犢子腳跡。處處不見,城外
W01n0009_p0332a07║亦無腳跡。城西北角上正見一足踏土之處。屠兒知有賢德,念
W01n0009_p0332a08║佛還家。
W01n0009_p0332a09║  爾時犢子投明行去,離國三千餘里,往到舍婆提國。遇
W01n0009_p0332a10║值國王有一美女,為人可嬉,種種姿妍。面如月滿,端嚴無比,世
W01n0009_p0332a11║間希有,八功德水,以浴其體,著劫波袖衣及乘天宮殿,化城九
W01n0009_p0332a12║重。國王意欲嫡配,此女不就:「王若配,會是賢德之人,女便共
W01n0009_p0332a13║活。」王語女曰:「我生在凡處,肉眼眾生,知誰是賢?」女答王曰:
W01n0009_p0332a14║「阿耶與女召集儀同僕射、高良貴子、守令之家、方伯子孫在於都
W01n0009_p0332a15║市,女自選夫主。」
W01n0009_p0332a16║  女從王後行,手捉金鐘,盛蒲桃酒。在父後行,選儀同僕射、
W01n0009_p0332a17║高良貴子。十行無稱意者。王語女曰:「向前十行者,王侯子
W01n0009_p0332a18║孫,尚不共活。自餘卑微,寧可之意?」女答王曰:「向前十行者,
W01n0009_p0332a19║雖可有形貌,面目似人,腹中無德。女欲共活之人,會是賢
W01n0009_p0332a20║德,女便共活。」王聞此語,任女意懷,不違女願。復行至十行,下
W01n0009_p0333a01║頭見一犢子,銀蹄金角,下行頭立。王已行過,女尋後至,向
W01n0009_p0333a02║父王曰:「此是賢德之人,女欲共活。」王任女意。女得王言,即過
W01n0009_p0333a03║手中鍾酒,與其犢子。犢子得酒,向口飲半。犢子過與女,女即
W01n0009_p0333a04║飲盡。交杯必定,永為匹配。
W01n0009_p0333a05║  爾時諸臣、百官、傾國之人皆大笑王:「一國之女,嫁與牛
W01n0009_p0333a06║犢。聽損邦國,寧有此事!」王聞羞恥,便欲煞女。有一帝釋,變
W01n0009_p0333a07║作智臣,遂即諫王:「王有一女,甚有賢德,何待煞之?陟出國外,
W01n0009_p0333a08║令使慚愧,愁不改行?」女聞此言,甚大歡喜。叉手白王:「父
W01n0009_p0333a09║子生有離別,何待煞女?求從遠陟,離王國土。」外書云:「女外
W01n0009_p0333a10║向,千里從夫。」「若與王別,請乞乘騎,送女出國。」
W01n0009_p0333a11║  王共夫人送女出城,號啼大哭,悲哀泣淚。語:「諸臣左右、
W01n0009_p0333a12║青衣、吏民都共送之。」百鳥悲鳴,聲動天地。父子分離,辭王
W01n0009_p0333a13║及夫人,心肝痛切,將欲氣絕。
W01n0009_p0333a14║  爾時女共犢子離出王國,轉復前行。見一木城,女問犢子
W01n0009_p0333a15║曰:「此是你國以不?」犢子答曰:「此非我國。」次復前行,見一土
W01n0009_p0333a16║城,「此是你國以不?」「此非我國。」次復前行,見一鐵城,「此是你
W01n0009_p0333a17║國以不?」「此非我國。」次復前行,見一銅城,「此是你國以不?」
W01n0009_p0333a18║「此非我國。」次復前行,見一銀城,「此是你國以不?」「此非我
W01n0009_p0333a19║國。」次復前行,見一金城,「此是你國以不?」犢子答曰:「此是我
W01n0009_p0333a20║國。」
W01n0009_p0333a21║  在金城國可逕由旬,宿其此,犢子仍不變現。女問犢子
W01n0009_p0334a01║曰:「君若是賢德之人,應當不變?」爾時犢子聞道此語,手捉銀
W01n0009_p0334a02║蹄,撫角,犢衣脫卻於地,拱身一丈。頰如婆果,齒如珂
W01n0009_p0334a03║貝,眉如盡月,眼如眾星夜朗。號為「金城國天子」。宮殿自然。
W01n0009_p0334a04║零仙綵女、伎樂音聲、百味飲食,隨念即至。女見夫主可嬉,變身
W01n0009_p0334a05║一丈,歡喜不可思議。即便作書與王,並告夫人:「阿耶比日道女
W01n0009_p0334a06║不識賢德之人,陟女外國。女夫主以有聖德,甚大端正。阿耶星
W01n0009_p0334a07║夜來看女夫主何如。」
W01n0009_p0334a08║  本日王得女書,召集群臣。諸官悉集。「卿等本日笑我女共
W01n0009_p0334a09║犢子而活。我女以有賢德,嫁與金城國王。我今歡喜,不可思
W01n0009_p0334a10║議。」王即為女夫放大恩赦。所有罪人,悉皆放免。
W01n0009_p0334a11║  爾時舍婆提國王並夫人來至金城國裡看女。見女夫主
W01n0009_p0334a12║甚奇殊妙,便即問曰:「卿比日在我國中,如何變作犢子?」太子叉
W01n0009_p0334a13║手白王:「某甲非是犢子。某甲是栴陀羅頗黎國王太子。阿耶索
W01n0009_p0334a14║其三妻,阿孃處在小限。兩大夫人意欲煞我。我不違二母之意,
W01n0009_p0334a15║變作犢子。今得王女,愧王無已。孃今在父母國,快成辛苦。願
W01n0009_p0334a16║王權在金城逕停時,向欲共王女暫向父國往看其母。」
W01n0009_p0334a17║  太子夫妻二人輕馬往詣父國。內門裡,入磨坊中。見母
W01n0009_p0334a18║頭如蓬耕,面上垢土,手腳皴劈,脊背打破,膿血沾著處爛盡。爾
W01n0009_p0334a19║時太子見母頭戴石五升麥,來向磨坊中。太子不忍認母,二人眼
W01n0009_p0334a20║中泣淚。手捉馬鞭,撥母頭上,麥翻著地,磨何而去。母不
W01n0009_p0334a21║識,其母遙喚:「貴人且住!聽我一言。看君不似凡濫。某甲備
W01n0009_p0335a01║是王家辛苦之人。請得此麥,依課磨之,恒不得充,況復翻地?
W01n0009_p0335a02║是度王聞,必死不活。」太子夫妻但時下馬,以衣袖掃其麥聚,收
W01n0009_p0335a03║著器中。頭戴而去。太子眼泣血,氣塞吞酸,忍痛不忍認
W01n0009_p0335a04║母,輕馬還國。
W01n0009_p0335a05║  爾時太子告舍婆提國王曰:「我母如今甚大苦劇,筋骨相
W01n0009_p0335a06║連,形容憔悴,面上垢土,頭如蓬耕,處處打破,血流遍體,快成辛
W01n0009_p0335a07║苦。」王聞道是,心憐女夫及母,眼中泣淚:「我親家母豈可如是!」
W01n0009_p0335a08║爾時太子叉手白王:「若與某甲一親以往,暫欲隨王借少衣馬。
W01n0009_p0335a09║金城如自有兵馬,眾相將往詣父國,救看其母。」
W01n0009_p0335a10║  二國軍馬悉送太子往向栴陀羅國。去城四十餘里,其父城
W01n0009_p0335a11║頭知軍來到,懸豎白幡。太子語左右曰:「城頭白幡者,儘是降
W01n0009_p0335a12║幡。我父見我往到,謂我是外國大王,必向我跪。此是我父,不
W01n0009_p0335a13║合跪我。一廂十人,兩廂二十人,走往捉置,勿聽跪也。」
W01n0009_p0335a14║  如是所言。王見太子,出城步步欲跪。左右捉之。兩相對
W01n0009_p0335a15║已,攜手腕接,相隨上殿。飲食娛樂,良久以訖。啟白王曰:「王
W01n0009_p0335a16║是一國之主,治民快樂,天下豐饒,雨澤以時。王今快樂,可有幾
W01n0009_p0335a17║妻?」國王不識太子與仁臣奴:「臺奴不敢誑王,正有兩妻。」太子
W01n0009_p0335a18║問曰:「一國之主,皆聞三夫人、九嬪。據何禮律,正有兩妻?王
W01n0009_p0335a19║須實道。償後檢得,王必合死。」王答太子曰:「臺奴伏死!不敢
W01n0009_p0335a20║調王。實有三妻。」太子曰:「喚將來看。」
W01n0009_p0336a01║  王遂先遣兩大夫人莊嚴冠帶,來至殿前。太子問曰:「向前
W01n0009_p0336a02║道三,如何見二?一在何處?」王答太子曰:「今在磨坊中。」太子
W01n0009_p0336a03║問曰:「天子之後,如何安置磨坊而驅使也?」爾時太子母聞道
W01n0009_p0336a04║大王,尋聲走來,欲以投訴。殿前行過,太子遙見其母,狼徬下
W01n0009_p0336a05║殿,走抱母頭,捉臂囓指,稱天大哭:「阿娘,由子五逆不孝,致
W01n0009_p0336a06║使阿婆如許辛苦。阿婆!阿婆!」王見哀哭,然是我子,更有何
W01n0009_p0336a07║言!父母並子三人抱頭大哭。爾時雲飛鳥落,樹木摧折。諸臣
W01n0009_p0336a08║百官,見者泣淚,不能自勝。
W01n0009_p0336a09║  爾時太子盡哀以訖。良久,將香湯與母洗浴,取虎龍服與母
W01n0009_p0336a10║著之,還上殿上而坐。喚其二母並父,道其苦狀。王聞道此死苦
W01n0009_p0336a11║由緣,眼中泣血。王喚兩妻,立著南廂。去殿百步,濩湯爐炭,刀
W01n0009_p0336a12║山刃樹,銅升鐵概,車川犁耳。遣此兩大夫人立其傍:「濩湯
W01n0009_p0336a13║[泳-永+署]之,故嫌此輕。我憶卿本日生啖我子心肝之時,與一人喚取一
W01n0009_p0336a14║百力士,二人喚取二百力士,一時遣此力士,鋸此二后,作其段
W01n0009_p0336a15║數,如釋我意。」
W01n0009_p0336a16║  力士至已,欲煞二母。太子畏煞二母,口中告佛。刀山摧
W01n0009_p0336a17║鋒,濩止熱,二百力士手腳[病-丙+光]疪,不能生害。太子喚其二母,並
W01n0009_p0336a18║共陳道活之狀:「子本存命,實由屠兒。」王語太子曰:「阿耶本日
W01n0009_p0336a19║實不知子遭此苦劇。阿耶如今捨去王位,與子治國。身自出家,
W01n0009_p0336a20║隱居山林,永不干國。除仁一人,自餘爵祿輕重,悉屬屠兒。」
W01n0009_p0337a01║王即出家,鬢髮自落。觀睹宮殿,若視穢廁。修行善道,得阿羅
W01n0009_p0337a02║漢果。太子名喚屠兒,封受國相,位登王侯。庫藏珍寶,悉屬屠
W01n0009_p0337a03║兒把攬。於先施恩,今獲交報,重賞其德。太子共母不轉凡身,
W01n0009_p0337a04║即得成佛。
W01n0009_p0337a05║  是時二后諛心不捨。天神帝釋變作猛風吹此二后,毛孔而
W01n0009_p0337a06║入。本食心肝作大鐵丸,節節出炎如車輪,救不可得。
W01n0009_p0337a07║  當說此經時,大會之中所千萬人皆得悟道,棄惡從善,交獲
W01n0009_p0337a08║佛果。佛告阿難:「爾時太子,我身是。爾時父王者,今我父悅頭
W01n0009_p0337a09║檀是。爾時我母者,今摩耶是。爾時我婦者,耶輸陀羅是。
W01n0009_p0337a10║爾時屠兒者,今阿難是。爾時黃門者,今目連是。爾時帝釋變作
W01n0009_p0337a11║黑狗者,提迦葉是。爾時二后者,提婆達多;第二后者,調達
W01n0009_p0337a12║是。」
W01n0009_p0337a13║  佛說經竟,天龍八部、帝王、人民皆大歡喜,作禮奉行。
W01n0009_p0337a14║
W01n0009_p0337a15║佛說孝順子修行成佛經一卷
W01n0009_p0337a16║
W01n0009_p0337a17║〔錄文完〕
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