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【經文資訊】藏外佛教文獻 第一冊 No. 3《息諍論》
W01n0003_p0053a01║
W01n0003_p0053a02║  息諍論
W01n0003_p0053a03║    整理者 方廣錩
W01n0003_p0053a04║
W01n0003_p0053a05║  〔題解〕
W01n0003_p0053a06║  《息諍論》,中國佛教禪宗典籍,著作者不詳,託名為禪宗初祖達
W01n0003_p0053a07║摩禪師著,一卷。
W01n0003_p0053a08║  本文的主旨在於說明真如佛性,具在身中。因此解不外憑,必
W01n0003_p0053a09║須迴心返照。批評了祇知外求經論,論諍道理的學風,認為這種學
W01n0003_p0053a10║風與悟道無益有害。對研究早期禪宗思想與修習有著重要價值。
W01n0003_p0053a11║  本文獻未為我國歷代經錄所著錄,也未為歷代大藏經所收。現
W01n0003_p0053a12║在敦煌遺書中發現,為中國北京圖書館收藏的新1254號與新1255
W01n0003_p0053a13║號。兩件本為一卷,首尾均殘,依次抄寫有《天竺國菩提達摩禪師
W01n0003_p0053a14║論》、《禪策問答》、《息諍論》等禪宗文獻多種。後因該卷位於《息諍
W01n0003_p0053a15║論》部分之兩紙接縫處脫落,從而形成新1254、1255兩號。但脫落
W01n0003_p0053a16║處文字未受損傷,故《息諍論》本文保存完好。
W01n0003_p0053a17║  原卷在《息諍論》之後還抄寫有禪問答一則及王質所著禪詩若
W01n0003_p0053a18║干首。其中禪問答尚保存完好,王質禪詩則因原卷尾殘而殘缺不
W01n0003_p0053a19║全。現作為附錄,附於《息諍論》之後。
W01n0003_p0053a20║  整理本據北新1254號、北新1255號依次錄文,無校本。本文
W01n0003_p0053a21║獻曾於1995年3月8日在日本京都禪文化研究所經集體討論,整
W01n0003_p0053a22║理本吸收了討論會上的不少校訂意見,特別吸收了中島志郎先生對
W01n0003_p0053a23║本文獻的校訂意見與註釋,特此說明,並向中島志郎及參加討論會
W01n0003_p0053a24║的其他諸位先生表示感謝。
W01n0003_p0053a25║
W01n0003_p0054a01║  〔錄文〕
W01n0003_p0054a02║
W01n0003_p0054a03║息諍論
W01n0003_p0054a04║    達摩禪師作
W01n0003_p0054a05║
W01n0003_p0054a06║  夫法身至寂,近遠等同;理性弘幽,玄深叵測。虛融妙體,凡俗
W01n0003_p0054a07║難明;進證得知,文辭未辨。且三乘而演暢,權弘迷徒。趣理尋思,
W01n0003_p0054a08║未即於中覓道。小兒無識,可使楊葉為金。智者明然,明知不實。
W01n0003_p0054a09║於是息諸諍論,寂默義論不申。假使語盡其源,亦未能至矣。
W01n0003_p0054a10║  故道真如難辯,不在強文之中;縱令義有多端,不表幽玄之
W01n0003_p0054a11║意。但經文具載,得意忘言。言若是真,寧容止息?祇因眾
W01n0003_p0054a12║生不會,乖理求言,一向貪逐文辭而不趣向其意。真如佛性,具在身
W01n0003_p0054a13║中。不自內思,披文外覓。假使多讀不會,祇是鸚鵡學言,終無了悟
W01n0003_p0054a14║之情,豈免[老*鳥]鴟所食。如來設教,祇為大慈。雖演三乘,義歸於一。
W01n0003_p0054a15║慈悲愍念,故述多方。引接迷徒,望同證理。可歎今時學者,一向述
W01n0003_p0054a16║言。雖復講解千章,驗行全無一備。口談藥方雖切,終不病除。對
W01n0003_p0054a17║乏論漿,那能止渴?說食百味,不那饑苦仍存。豈容語義之中,能居
W01n0003_p0054a18║聖體?是以言中無道,道亦無言。言語之由,乃與為凡標述,權尋聖
W01n0003_p0054a19║跡,非是口談,證悟道源,都無演說。凡夫未會,雖復要藉言詞,
W01n0003_p0054a20║祇為不悟,言中展轉,迷輪相惑。必欲存心慕道,須學少用易明。
W01n0003_p0054a21║不假多知,勞而無用。若也廣求成道,善星祇可玄登,所以多求,返
W01n0003_p0055a01║生墮落;但看周利,觸事無堪,箕帚存心,由登羅漢。據斯道理,何假
W01n0003_p0055a02║多求?事藉專精,心居在定。菩提之路,不近不遙。轉即內求,不勞
W01n0003_p0055a03║外覓。若人內覓,是則不遙;若也外求,將知不近。但使世人不信,
W01n0003_p0055a04║願檢後辭。理不可違,那能謬說。
W01n0003_p0055a05║  余今略承斯證,願粗恩君。必不此言,方知大悟善事。非獨聞
W01n0003_p0055a06║為好,亦望普使聞知。願此含生,俱成佛道。所說引證者,禮拜之
W01n0003_p0055a07║中,勸人自歸依佛,僧、法亦然。一體三寶在身,何勞遠涉。今因此
W01n0003_p0055a08║證,將作佛道不遙;更欲遠求,不及迴心向己。故言:「憑賢不能自
W01n0003_p0055a09║聖,觸食不濟己饑。」凡則自凡,聖歸他聖。學人雖藉明師相訓,還須
W01n0003_p0055a10║以己精專。若也驕慢不勤,師亦未能輒度。
W01n0003_p0055a11║  蓋聞道在不遠,解不外憑。觸食尚不濟饑,憑賢那能聖己?但
W01n0003_p0055a12║知如此,即須自制其身。師者祇是良醫,有疾藥須自服。夫大道幽
W01n0003_p0055a13║寞,不可枷杖協成。乃從歡喜之生,不從憂戚之起。既知如此,
W01n0003_p0055a14║何故不勤?礦雖有金,非爐不出。是以君子得意,盡夜苦己自
W01n0003_p0055a15║求;無識小兒,始乃憑他度己。若也背身求佛,徒費功程。如捨日月
W01n0003_p0055a16║而求明,背燈光而覓曉。祇可明從日起,日是明根。祇是日乃生明,
W01n0003_p0055a17║未見別有明能生日。千章萬句,並是心為。心是萬法之尊,豈可棄
W01n0003_p0055a18║之外涉。諸法因身而立,將知身是法根。若也無身,法無存立。行
W01n0003_p0055a19║者但知身為法主,法則是僧。僧法既是一身,佛亦將知不別。佛法
W01n0003_p0055a20║僧寶,本是一端。迷者不知,將為別體。為此勸人求己,不外緣塵。
W01n0003_p0055a21║君子自勵成人,小兒憑他敗己。前賢後聖,並自求心。況乃今人,而
W01n0003_p0055a22║不向己。法若內無外有,學亦制不關人。縱使內外俱含,亦須迴
W01n0003_p0055a23║心返照。若能返照,必達其源,事成不久。
W01n0003_p0056a01║  夫道體之本,以己為源;萬行緣由,不離一心為主。祇為人多不
W01n0003_p0056a02║信,一執堅牢,一向貪著,外求總總,不及向己。波波辛苦,轉益迷
W01n0003_p0056a03║昏。學問雖多,終無所由。祇如無財話寶,豈得資身?縱使論言,何
W01n0003_p0056a04║曾遺己?但自心迷廣說,祇是論高。假使廣說心迷,終如話寶。竊
W01n0003_p0056a05║以經云:「具說多聞,狀似貧人,昔夜數計他珍,終無半錢入己。」如人
W01n0003_p0056a06║見他造業,即須剋己修營。豈得委彼自賒,而望福報。事無斯理,浪
W01n0003_p0056a07║受貧窮。唯須一一自專,論他無益。虛談聖跡,廣說無為,說者祇歎
W01n0003_p0056a08║彼前賢,何關身己?爾乃自嗟迷久,識了不周,每將語義為原,不自
W01n0003_p0056a09║窮研身己,一向論諍道理,執相逞才,說是道非,不覺隨聲忿怒。口
W01n0003_p0056a10║雖說言無我,不覺隨語我生。縱道無瞋,不妨因茲即發。凡是論諍,
W01n0003_p0056a11║特有人我,非我不諍。未審餘人,僕情如此。是以學人但能息諍,定
W01n0003_p0056a12║得理長,識諍知非,將知不謬。真如渺寞,豈在諍論之中?佛性衝
W01n0003_p0056a13║虛,那關有無之境?但自迷徒擾擾,不悟法性虛通。計著有無,凡情
W01n0003_p0056a14║競起。遂即高聲執義,諍鬥紛紜。稱意必忻,違情克怒。口云將
W01n0003_p0056a15║身慕道,專事人我不休。是以學者雖多,成無一二。嗚呼長嘆,實是
W01n0003_p0056a16║昏迷。可不久滯無明,爾乃恒諍勝負!但欲學貴己,先自取弱卑身。
W01n0003_p0056a17║不得以己迷成遠,即輕於後學。學無前後,達者為先。有識之徒,俱
W01n0003_p0056a18║含佛性。祇是未逢師匠,溢溺凡愚;一遇明師,還霑聖位。將知如
W01n0003_p0056a19║此,不可以色觀人。道德在心,誰能輒識。孔丘雖聖,猶自惡見後
W01n0003_p0056a20║生。況此凡流,能輕初學?夫立身之本,但以普敬、認惡為源。
W01n0003_p0056a21║萬善之中,莫過慈愍。欲求無失,事藉治心。在世生平,必須思慮。
W01n0003_p0056a22║千殃之禍,不入慎門。百事不祥,無能逼善。思尋此事,實用非
W01n0003_p0056a23║虛。上古已來,焉知不爾。
W01n0003_p0057a01║  又處俗願莫諍。有義欲申,善須和睦,不得輒生忿怒。縱逸喧
W01n0003_p0057a02║情,非直損人,亦能傷己。向來此語多喜不適彼情,若有慈心,莫將
W01n0003_p0057a03║為咎。計君道理,不藉此言。望使善事共弘,惡事同捨。
W01n0003_p0057a04║  非直才能故騁,且如螢蟲助日。即不加光,但盡赤心,述斯
W01n0003_p0057a05║拙見。
W01n0003_p0057a06║
W01n0003_p0057a07║    〔附錄一〕
W01n0003_p0057a08║
W01n0003_p0057a09║   問:「行者今正禮佛時,為是禮佛?是禮心?正當禮時,為是一,
W01n0003_p0057a10║ 為是異?正當見時,見共勿同□別也。」
W01n0003_p0057a11║   答:「見佛若不見心,不見云何禮佛?若見所見之見,見即見。
W01n0003_p0057a12║ 是見非性,不可名欲見。若為得見,覺無心無所見,見體本無覺知。
W01n0003_p0057a13║ 原來既□□□心不見,云何禮佛?見彼全心,是見;眼看全境,是
W01n0003_p0057a14║ □。□□見彼之心,無有別心之見,知彼原來是此迷心,妄見
W01n0003_p0057a15║ □□。愚夫對境迷心,智者知心現境。達悟之者,必無離見之
W01n0003_p0057a16║ 心。分理推尋,未有離心之見。心境不二,故言一合之相。心不孤
W01n0003_p0057a17║ 起,必託境生。境不自名,由心始立。故知三界唯心,變境本由心
W01n0003_p0057a18║ 識。故知色性不知,無情無識。因眼分別,與色為名。眼既自空,色
W01n0003_p0057a19║ 從何實?」
W01n0003_p0057a20║     因日光明眼得見,夜即不見離諸緣。
W01n0003_p0057a21║     若眼自能見色者,何故無緣而不見。
W01n0003_p0058a01║     眼常因於諸光明,得見種種可意色。
W01n0003_p0058a02║     當知見色眾緣生,是□□□不能見。
W01n0003_p0058a03║
W01n0003_p0058a04║    〔附錄二〕
W01n0003_p0058a05║
W01n0003_p0058a06║    五言 內詩 王質作
W01n0003_p0058a07║
W01n0003_p0058a08║     道非生死外,即色本來空。
W01n0003_p0058a09║     欲求無相理,還入有相中。
W01n0003_p0058a10║
W01n0003_p0058a11║     須彌本無性,芥子本來空。
W01n0003_p0058a12║     兩個俱無體,寧得不相容。
W01n0003_p0058a13║
W01n0003_p0058a14║     石女無兒性,木濕火難求。
W01n0003_p0058a15║     虛空難打拴,押沙不出油。
W01n0003_p0058a16║
W01n0003_p0058a17║     渴鹿奔陽炎,飛蛾趁火精。
W01n0003_p0058a18║     □□□□□,□妄失乾城。
W01n0003_p0058a19║
W01n0003_p0058a20║    七言
W01n0003_p0058a21║
W01n0003_p0059a01║     本覺始覺何□□,□□所見本由心。
W01n0003_p0059a02║     若能如斯會□□,恒□□□□□□。
W01n0003_p0059a03║
W01n0003_p0059a04║     忽見世事今來至,新來□□□□□。
W01n0003_p0059a05║     □□□璃瓶裡坐,任愁三界不寬□。
W01n0003_p0059a06║
W01n0003_p0059a07║     大士求佛在心中,當欲求心□□□。
W01n0003_p0059a08║     □□□□是其心,祇睹覓者心蹤跡。
W01n0003_p0059a09║
W01n0003_p0059a10║     不覺心起遊諸境,未及觸著□□□。
W01n0003_p0059a11║     □□□□□兩目,終成無眼是盲人。
W01n0003_p0059a12║
W01n0003_p0059a13║    五言
W01n0003_p0059a14║
W01n0003_p0059a15║     可行不可到,可到不□□,
W01n0003_p0059a16║     □□□□□,□□□無生。
W01n0003_p0059a17║
W01n0003_p0059a18║    五言
W01n0003_p0059a19║
W01n0003_p0059a20║     緣□…□約莫令□境□…□
W01n0003_p0059a21║
W01n0003_p0059a22║    (後殘)
W01n0003_p0059a23║
W01n0003_p0059a24║〔錄文完〕
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