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【經文資訊】藏外佛教文獻 第一冊 No. 2《禪策問答》
W01n0002_p0045a01║
W01n0002_p0045a02║  禪策問答
W01n0002_p0045a03║    整理者 方廣錩
W01n0002_p0045a04║
W01n0002_p0045a05║  〔題解〕
W01n0002_p0045a06║  《禪策問答》,中國禪宗僧人所撰典籍,著者不詳,一卷。
W01n0002_p0045a07║  本典籍以自設問答的形式,論述了禪師修習的種種問題。從通
W01n0002_p0045a08║篇三十則問答的思想傾向看,應屬北宗禪的文獻。禪宗雖然主張教
W01n0002_p0045a09║外別傳,不立文字,但本文獻處處引用經文以證成己說,反映了禪、
W01n0002_p0045a10║教鬥爭中部分禪宗僧人的態度。本文獻所引經文往往與原文不完
W01n0002_p0045a11║全相符,這一方面說明當時引文不嚴格,另一方面也許是由於展轉
W01n0002_p0045a12║引用之故。本文獻未為我國歷代經錄所著錄,亦未為歷代大藏經所
W01n0002_p0045a13║收。現於中國北京圖書館所藏敦煌遺書中發現,為北新1254號,其
W01n0002_p0045a14║詳情請參見本書《天竺國菩提達摩禪師論》之題解。
W01n0002_p0045a15║  整理本以北京圖書館藏新1254號為底本,無校本。
W01n0002_p0045a16║  本文獻曾於1995年3月8日在日本京都禪文化研究所經集體
W01n0002_p0045a17║討論,整理本吸收了討論會上的不少校訂意見,特別吸收了沖本克
W01n0002_p0045a18║己先生對本文獻的不少校訂意見與註釋,特此說明,並向沖本克己
W01n0002_p0045a19║及參加討論會的其他諸位先生表示感謝。
W01n0002_p0045a20║
W01n0002_p0045a21║  〔錄文〕
W01n0002_p0045a22║
W01n0002_p0045a23║禪策問答一卷
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W01n0002_p0045a25║  問:禪有幾種法門?
W01n0002_p0045a26║  答曰:禪有無量法門。若聖理歸真,惟存大道。故《法花經》云:
W01n0002_p0046a01║「唯有一乘法,餘二即非真。」
W01n0002_p0046a02║  問:禪師,若為坐?
W01n0002_p0046a03║  答:端身直住,斂手對心,累腳重安,開眼合口,名之為坐。故
W01n0002_p0046a04║《維摩經》曰:「一坐十小劫,謂如一食頃。」
W01n0002_p0046a05║  問:禪師,若為方便安心?
W01n0002_p0046a06║  答:前念、後念,凝寂虛平。非空非有,非色非名。定住凝心,更
W01n0002_p0046a07║無畢想。故經云:「念念相續,即得悟道。」
W01n0002_p0046a08║  問:禪師,若為看心,心何所緣?
W01n0002_p0046a09║  答曰:定心凝寂,無滅無生;非黑非白,非闇非明;非長非短,非
W01n0002_p0046a10║住非行;無言無說,皎絕際停。故《法花經》云:「如諸佛所說真實微
W01n0002_p0046a11║妙法。」於此無緣法,云何有緣?
W01n0002_p0046a12║  問:禪師,既無所緣,合大乘意,會應方便旨歸之處?
W01n0002_p0046a13║  答:悟心坦蕩,無有旨歸接引禪門。定由念起,念逐心成。去思
W01n0002_p0046a14║離想,勤行不住。非妙非闇非冥,清虛杳絕,迥悟無生。故《維
W01n0002_p0046a15║摩經》云:「三轉法輪於大千,其輪本來常清淨。天人得道此為證,三
W01n0002_p0046a16║寶於是現世間。」
W01n0002_p0046a17║  問:禪師,若為證得清淨?
W01n0002_p0046a18║  答:坦然平正,絕想離思,非意所圖,非心可測。故《法花經》
W01n0002_p0047a01║云:「諸法從本來,常自寂滅相,佛子行道已,來世得作佛。」
W01n0002_p0047a02║  問:禪師,既絕思離想,若為行道?
W01n0002_p0047a03║  答:冥寂無心,名為行道。故經云:「言若有所受,法墮於斷常。
W01n0002_p0047a04║知當所受法,亦常亦無常。」
W01n0002_p0047a05║  問:禪師,有心即應可進道。若無心,云何知?
W01n0002_p0047a06║  答:身心直住,垢靜空閑,所以得知。故《維摩經》云:「過
W01n0002_p0047a07║去心不可得,未來心不可得,現在心不可得。」故引此證。
W01n0002_p0047a08║  問:禪師,若為喚作禪?
W01n0002_p0047a09║  答:故攝存心,無諸放逸。六根清淨,動轉無虧。《法花經》云:
W01n0002_p0047a10║「安禪合掌,說千萬偈。」
W01n0002_p0047a11║  問:禪師,何名為空?
W01n0002_p0047a12║  答:冥真絕思,不見身相,清虛直住,皎絕網覆,名為空。故經
W01n0002_p0047a13║云:「入大寂定,名大涅槃。」
W01n0002_p0047a14║  問:禪師,何名入禪?
W01n0002_p0047a15║  答:斂容安坐,心無散動。善惡都捨,不染暄塵。世見似癡,
W01n0002_p0047a16║合聖教。故《法花經》云:「十方國土中,唯有一乘法,無二亦無
W01n0002_p0048a01║三。」復有一行,是如來行。
W01n0002_p0048a02║  問:禪師,若為坐禪?
W01n0002_p0048a03║  答:身心常定,隨世散情。欣喜稍寬,卻於疲厭。教清虛氣,不
W01n0002_p0048a04║染塵荷。故《法花經》云:「恒在靈鷲山,及餘諸住處。」「我淨土不
W01n0002_p0048a05║毀,而眾見燒盡。」
W01n0002_p0048a06║  問:禪師,何為覺觀?
W01n0002_p0048a07║  答:定住凝心。心有見聞,名之為覺;覺無取捨,稱之為觀。故
W01n0002_p0048a08║經云:「是空亦空,是淨亦淨。」
W01n0002_p0048a09║  問:禪師,定有所覺知不?
W01n0002_p0048a10║  答:住定悟然,都無所覺。雖復去來,知見不繞心。故經云:「色
W01n0002_p0048a11║空愛,色愛空。」
W01n0002_p0048a12║  問:禪師,既無所知,能受楚毒割截不?
W01n0002_p0048a13║  答:不然。心堅固,空,離六塵,非是木石癡頑受[鎨-十+乃]刺。故經云:
W01n0002_p0048a14║「內空、外空。」內空者,六根空;外空者,六塵空。名為證。
W01n0002_p0048a15║  問:禪師,諸法盡空,不墮空見耶?
W01n0002_p0048a16║  答:空若有見,即有所依。若有所依,名為見著。故經云「若以
W01n0002_p0048a17║色見我,以音聲求我,是人行邪道,不能見如來」也。既如此,空
W01n0002_p0048a18║有並非。若修道若空有之性,即知道從空有而生。得意忘
W01n0002_p0048a19║言,存有空而不失。故經云:「空非空,故空,此空是空;有非有,故
W01n0002_p0048a20║有,此有是空有名。」名為證也。
W01n0002_p0049a01║  問:禪師,禪定以後,更有思量不?
W01n0002_p0049a02║  答:定心平坦,無有塵埃。定後一處不移,念想恒存不散。雖復
W01n0002_p0049a03║去來知見,不染聲塵。一想湛然,無生無滅。故經云:「王宮生而不
W01n0002_p0049a04║生,雙樹滅而不滅。」
W01n0002_p0049a05║  問:禪師,四威儀中,何者得定?
W01n0002_p0049a06║  答:大乘閑靜,開通無滯。四儀同寂,六度俱圓。一定清虛,更
W01n0002_p0049a07║無前後。故經云:「無前無後。」
W01n0002_p0049a08║  問:禪師應樂山林閑寂,何意住在村坊城郭喧嘩之處,豈容
W01n0002_p0049a09║得定?
W01n0002_p0049a10║  答:小心偏仄,意好山林,非寂不安,鬧無由定。大道寬弘,周
W01n0002_p0049a11║流法界,示喧如寂,見靜不欣。雖處四流,心無愛染。故經云:「眾生
W01n0002_p0049a12║行世間,即見世間相;菩薩行世間,不見世間相。」
W01n0002_p0049a13║  問:禪師應餐松啖柏,何因還同世人相似?
W01n0002_p0049a14║  答:理歸真寂,唯持心靜,何須餐松啖柏,服氣扶身?心涉六塵,
W01n0002_p0049a15║無由合道。莫見形容相似,意實行。得道之門,豈由自餓?故《涅
W01n0002_p0049a16║槃經》云:「庵羅之果,生熟誰知?」
W01n0002_p0049a17║  問:禪師戒行精研,去魔離障,何因饒病?
W01n0002_p0049a18║  答:戒行修身,必得來生果報。今身饒病,過去業緣。現愛
W01n0002_p0049a19║除,當來樂果。故經云:「現身精進,多饒病痛,行者肥充。」此
W01n0002_p0049a20║是也。業果未圓,愚生異解。
W01n0002_p0050a01║  問:禪師應著糞掃三衣,何意還同世人衣裳相似?
W01n0002_p0050a02║  答:道從心起,不由破納衣裳;行逐身生,何論碎衣成道?但
W01n0002_p0050a03║存心念定,三毒不生。雖復衣合人心,心為聖主。如此之意,寧將心
W01n0002_p0050a04║持身,終不將身持心。故經曰:「寧作心師,不師於心。」
W01n0002_p0050a05║  問:禪師能受罵辱楚毒,何意諧語面參異?
W01n0002_p0050a06║  答:皮膚淺薄,隨色變異;心意幽深,無由可測。罵他得罪,受辱
W01n0002_p0050a07║私欣。故經曰:「罵者是誰?打者是誰?」
W01n0002_p0050a08║  問:禪師德行高明,何者被人訶詰,作於誹謗,唯而無對?
W01n0002_p0050a09║  答:行過三界,德被無邊。受詰彌欣,誹謗生喜。今雖受屈,
W01n0002_p0050a10║往業彌長。莫見不聲,謂無所識。謗罵唯深,罪積須彌,業過阿鼻。
W01n0002_p0050a11║故經云:「作色而罵佛,其罪尚輕;罵受持《法花》人,其罪過於
W01n0002_p0050a12║彼。」
W01n0002_p0050a13║  問:禪師心應平等,彼意自違,念定不勤,倒生偏耳。
W01n0002_p0050a14║  答:禪師心恒端直。彼心不定,見有是非,謗毀前人,謂言阿
W01n0002_p0050a15║曲。莫見慘色精神,教於無識。故經云:「粗言及軟語,皆歸第一
W01n0002_p0050a16║義。」
W01n0002_p0050a17║  問:禪師性行柔和,言語低下,何因高強精神,雄猛用意?
W01n0002_p0051a01║  答:出言契理,實是合心。貶受含靈,性行不等。柔隨和教,強
W01n0002_p0051a02║逐剛誹。禪師心意坦然,身隨世網。莫言雄烈,即道心非;時見溫
W01n0002_p0051a03║柔,便言證理。是故《涅槃經》云:「應久住處,不知大喻。」菩薩方知
W01n0002_p0051a04║持戒、破戒。
W01n0002_p0051a05║  問曰:課處即應得坐,何意要在房舍、禪床,始行法教?
W01n0002_p0051a06║  答:自心求道,隨處得安;欲教有緣,必依房舍。鈍根無智,必須
W01n0002_p0051a07║盡力護持。上行之人,通半偈而悟道。故《菩薩經》云:「有一比
W01n0002_p0051a08║丘,乞好房舍,始可修道。佛即喚來,與共同房宿,當夜得道,成羅漢
W01n0002_p0051a09║果。」
W01n0002_p0051a10║  問:意會無生,心遊淨境。何因出空入有,還住世間,見於善
W01n0002_p0051a11║惡?
W01n0002_p0051a12║  答:雖合無生名,意遊振旦。此土煩鬧喧繞者多,若不隨世
W01n0002_p0051a13║化,無由入理。身逐凡情,心遊出世。雖復現身,隱顯身是。夫心入
W01n0002_p0051a14║至道,冥寂幽微,非是淺情之能測。故《心王經》云:「凡身粗重,不能
W01n0002_p0051a15║遠到他方。」
W01n0002_p0051a16║  問:修道應須勤苦節身,廣學多聞,何意端然直坐,懵懵無所思
W01n0002_p0051a17║量?
W01n0002_p0051a18║  答:云存波若,淡泊清虛。雖復身力不勤,心功竭盡,廣學知
W01n0002_p0051a19║見,都無成益。嘿念思禪,即是出道之梯蹬。故經云:「五百羅漢習
W01n0002_p0051a20║學盡世之經書,不能迴心返照。」
W01n0002_p0052a01║  問:佛示定心悲嘆始喜門,心意坦然。何意還有經論,乍惡乍
W01n0002_p0052a02║好,道是說非?
W01n0002_p0052a03║  答:得意忘言,亦無好惡是非。言二毒未除,小智無知,身心
W01n0002_p0052a04║俱闇。或生卑賤,習氣未除,惡業緣牽,還歸舊道。利根宿貴,心遊
W01n0002_p0052a05║曠遠,識達苦空,體解真如,合無生理。故經云:羅[目*侯]是佛之子,嬌慢
W01n0002_p0052a06║陵天。如來一乘,柔和更無違犯,名為羅[目*侯]密行。
W01n0002_p0052a07║
W01n0002_p0052a08║〔錄文完〕
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