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【經文資訊】乾隆大藏經(新文豐版) 第一百五十三冊 No. 1636《莊子內篇註》
L153n1636_p0399a01║莊子內篇註卷之三      素九
L153n1636_p0399a02║    明匡廬逸叟憨山釋德清註
L153n1636_p0399a03║  養生主
L153n1636_p0399a04║ 此篇教人養性全生以性乃生之主也意
L153n1636_p0399a05║ 謂世人為一身口體之謀逐逐於功名利
L153n1636_p0399a06║ 祿以為養生之策殘生傷性終身役役而
L153n1636_p0399a07║ 不知止即所謂迷失真宰與物相刃相靡
L153n1636_p0399a08║ 其形盡如馳而不知歸者可不謂之大哀
L153n1636_p0399a09║ 耶故教人安時處順不必貪求以養形但
L153n1636_p0399a10║ 以清淨離欲以養性此示入道之功夫也。
L153n1636_p0399a11║吾生也有涯(人生如隙駒耳有限光陰)而知也無涯(知者妄想
L153n1636_p0399a12║思慮日夜相代而無涯)以有涯隨無涯殆已(以有限之身命隨無
L153n1636_p0399a13║窮之妄想勞心悴形危之甚也)已而為知者殆而已矣(既已危殆
L153n1636_p0399a14║且迷而不覺猶自以為知者終於殆而已矣不可救也)為善無近名(為善
L153n1636_p0399a15║無近名之心)為惡無近刑(為惡無近刑之事蓋善惡兼忘虛懷遊世不以
L153n1636_p0399b01║物為事)緣督以為經(緣順也督理也經常也言但安心順天理之自然以
L153n1636_p0399b02║為常而無過求馳逐之心也)可以保身可以全生可以養
L153n1636_p0399b03║親可以盡年(苟順天理則不貪欲以殘生故可以保身全生不辱身以傷命
L153n1636_p0399b04║故可以養親盡年此所謂能養生之主也)。
L153n1636_p0399b05║ 逍遙之聖人則忘己忘功忘名故得超然
L153n1636_p0399b06║ 於物外齊物之愚夫競名好辯迷真宰而
L153n1636_p0399b07║ 不悟此聖凡之辯也故今示之以入聖之
L153n1636_p0399b08║ 功夫以養生主為首務也然養生之主只
L153n1636_p0399b09║ 在緣督為經一語而已苟安命適時順乎
L153n1636_p0399b10║ 天理之自然則遇物忘懷絕無意於人世
L153n1636_p0399b11║ 則若己若功若名不待忘而自忘矣此所
L153n1636_p0399b12║ 以為養生主之妙術也故下以庖丁解牛
L153n1636_p0399b13║ 喻之。
L153n1636_p0399b14║庖丁為文惠君(梁惠王也)解牛(不言解牛之妙術)手之所
L153n1636_p0399b15║觸(隨手所至也)肩之所倚(案牛之度也)足之所履(踏牛於地
L153n1636_p0400a01║也)膝之所踦(跪而下刀之狀也)砉(音吸)然響然(用刀之聲也)
L153n1636_p0400a02║奏刀騞(音畫)然(進刀之聲也)莫不中音(言有節數也)合於
L153n1636_p0400a03║桑林(舞名)之舞乃中經首(樂名)之會(眾樂齊奏言技之妙而閑
L153n1636_p0400a04║之度如此初無用力倉皇之意也)文惠君曰譆(嘆其妙也)善哉技
L153n1636_p0400a05║蓋至此乎(言解牛之技妙極於此也)庖丁釋刀對曰臣之
L153n1636_p0400a06║所好者道也進(用也)乎技矣(言臣始非專於技蓋先學乎道以悟
L153n1636_p0400a07║物有自然天理之妙故施用之於技耳)始臣之解牛之時所見
L153n1636_p0400a08║無非牛者(言未得入道則目前物物有礙故始解牛之時則滿目只見有一牛)
L153n1636_p0400a09║三年之後未嘗見全牛也(言初未見理則見渾淪一牛既而細
L153n1636_p0400a10║細觀之則牛外之頭角蹄膊內之五臟百骸筋骨一一分之各各不一件件有理自然而
L153n1636_p0400a11║不可亂者由是而知無全牛也久之則果然見其無全牛也)方今之時臣
L153n1636_p0400a12║以神遇而不以目視(由臣細觀其牛件件分析有一定天然之腠理
L153n1636_p0400a13║了然於心目之間故方今解牛不須目視任手所之無不中理者)官官知止
L153n1636_p0400a14║而神欲行(官謂耳目等五官也但以心目知其所止而神即隨其所行故信手
L153n1636_p0400a15║所之迎刃而解)依乎天理(但依骨肉之間天理之自然)批(音撇)大卻
L153n1636_p0400b01║(音隙)導大窾因其固然(言任刀所批者則有大卻隨手所引者則有大
L153n1636_p0400b02║窾空處但只因固然一定之理而游刃其間)技經肯綮(骨肉連結處也)之
L153n1636_p0400b03║未嘗而況大軱(骨也)乎(言任理用刀從骨肉小小連絡處亦不見有齟
L153n1636_p0400b04║齬而況有大骨為礙乎)良庖歲更刀割也(言良能之庖則一歲一換
L153n1636_p0400b05║其刀者但割切而已)族(眾也)庖月更刀折(猶斫也)也(言廬眾之庖月
L153n1636_p0400b06║換一刀則砍斫之故易傷缺也)今臣之刀十九年矣(臣之刀十年為
L153n1636_p0400b07║率今已用九年矣)所解數千牛矣而刀刃若新發於
L153n1636_p0400b08║硎(硎磨刀石也言臣之刀已解數千牛矣而其鋒銛利如初磨一般全未傷缺也)彼
L153n1636_p0400b09║節者有間(言彼骨節自有間隙)而刀刃無厚以無厚入
L153n1636_p0400b10║有間恢恢(寬大也)乎其於遊刃必有餘地矣是
L153n1636_p0400b11║以十九年而刀刃若新發於硎(言刀之所以不傷缺者以
L153n1636_p0400b12║彼牛之骨節之間自有天然之空處且刀刃薄而不厚以至薄之刀刃入有空之骨節則
L153n1636_p0400b13║恢恢寬大任其游刃尚有餘地又何傷鋒犯手之有所以十九年而刀若發硎也)雖
L153n1636_p0400b14║然每至於族(筋骨盤結處也)吾見其難為(言雖然遊刃如此任
L153n1636_p0400b15║理而行其間亦有筋骨盤結沒理處吾亦見其難此則不可任意而行也)怵(警惕也)
L153n1636_p0401a01║然為戒(言不敢妄動也)視為止(視其所止也)行為遲(行刀少緩
L153n1636_p0401a02║也)動刀甚微謋(劃也)然已解如土委地(言至難處則為
L153n1636_p0401a03║惕然小心不可亂動端詳其所止緩緩下手如此則用力不多故動刀甚微而難解處則
L153n1636_p0401a04║劃然已解如上之崩委於地也)提刀而立為之四顧(言已解其難解
L153n1636_p0401a05║故提刀四顧以暢其懷也)為之躊躇(四顧也言仍四顧其難解之狀也)滿
L153n1636_p0401a06║志(快于心也)善刀而藏之(善拂拭其刀而藏之也)文惠君曰
L153n1636_p0401a07║善哉吾聞庖丁之言得養生焉。
L153n1636_p0401a08║ 此養生主一篇立義只一庖丁解牛之事
L153n1636_p0401a09║ 則盡養生主之妙以此乃一大譬喻耳若
L153n1636_p0401a10║ 一一合之乃見其妙庖丁喻聖人牛喻世
L153n1636_p0401a11║ 間之事大而天下國家小而日用常行皆
L153n1636_p0401a12║ 目前之事也解牛之技乃治天下國家用
L153n1636_p0401a13║ 世之術智也刀喻本性即生之主率性而
L153n1636_p0401a14║ 行如以刀解牛也言聖人學道妙悟性真
L153n1636_p0401a15║ 推其緒餘以治天下國家如庖丁先學道
L153n1636_p0401b01║ 而後用於解牛之技也初未悟時則見與
L153n1636_p0401b02║ 世齟齬難行如庖丁初則滿眼只見一牛
L153n1636_p0401b03║ 耳既而八道已深性智日明則看破世間
L153n1636_p0401b04║ 之事件件自有一定天然之理如此則不
L153n1636_p0401b05║ 見一事當前如此則目無全牛矣既看破
L153n1636_p0401b06║ 世事則一味順乎天理而行則不見有一
L153n1636_p0401b07║ 毫難處之事所謂技經骨綮之未嘗也以
L153n1636_p0401b08║ 順理而行則無奔競馳逐以傷性真故如
L153n1636_p0401b09║ 刀刃之十九年若新發于硎全無一毫傷
L153n1636_p0401b10║ 缺也以聖人明利之智以應有理之事務
L153n1636_p0401b11║ 則事小而智鉅故如游刃其間恢恢有餘
L153n1636_p0401b12║ 地矣若遇難處沒理之事如筋肯之盤錯
L153n1636_p0401b13║ 者不妨小心戒惕緩緩斟酌於其間則亦
L153n1636_p0401b14║ 易可解亦不見其難者至人如此應世又
L153n1636_p0401b15║ 何役役疲勞以取殘生傷性之患哉故結
L153n1636_p0402a01║ 之曰聞庖丁之言得養生焉而意在至人
L153n1636_p0402a02║ 率性順理而無過中之行則性自全而形
L153n1636_p0402a03║ 不傷耳善體會其意妙超言外此等譬喻
L153n1636_p0402a04║ 唯佛經有之世典絕無而僅有者最宜詳
L153n1636_p0402a05║ 玩有深旨哉。
L153n1636_p0402a06║ 下文言其不善養生之人。
L153n1636_p0402a07║公文軒(人姓名)見右師(官名介者也)而驚曰此何人
L153n1636_p0402a08║也惡乎介也(言此是何等人因何而刖足也)天與其人與(言云
L153n1636_p0402a09║一足是天使與歟抑人為之歟)曰天也非人也(復自應之曰此天使之也
L153n1636_p0402a10║非人也)天之生是使獨也(言右師生而貪欲自喪天真故罪以取刖
L153n1636_p0402a11║即是天刑其人使之獨也)人之貌有與也以是知其天也
L153n1636_p0402a12║非人也(言人生皆天與之形也今右師之介其足即是天使之不全也)澤雉
L153n1636_p0402a13║十步一啄百步一飲不蘄畜乎樊中神雖王
L153n1636_p0402a14║不善也(言澤雉飲啄雖如此之艱難亦甘心適性不肯求人畜於樊籠之中謂樊
L153n1636_p0402a15║中之養其神雖王且知困苦不自安故以為不善而不求之也右師貪而忘形不如澤雉
L153n1636_p0402b01║多矣故其刖也實天刑之而不自知耳)。
L153n1636_p0402b02║ 此一節言不善養生者見得忘真見利忘
L153n1636_p0402b03║ 形自取殘生傷性之患不若澤雉之自適
L153n1636_p0402b04║ 也。
L153n1636_p0402b05║ 下言雖聖人苟不能忘情亦是喪失天真
L153n1636_p0402b06║ 者故借老子發之。
L153n1636_p0402b07║老聃死秦失弔之(秦失老聃之友也)三號而出(言無哀切
L153n1636_p0402b08║之情也)弟子(秦失之弟子)曰非夫子之友耶曰然(言是
L153n1636_p0402b09║吾之友也)然則弔焉若此可乎(弟子謂既為夫子之友而不盡其哀
L153n1636_p0402b10║其可乎)曰然(謂實無哀痛也)始也吾以為其人也(言我始與
L153n1636_p0402b11║友時將謂是有道者也)而今非也(今日死後乃知其非有道者也何以知之)
L153n1636_p0402b12║向吾八而弔焉有老者哭之如哭其子少者
L153n1636_p0402b13║哭之如哭其母彼其所以會之必有不蘄言
L153n1636_p0402b14║而言不蘄哭而哭者(言老少哭之如此其哀必生時與彼兩情相合
L153n1636_p0402b15║而中心有不能自已者故不蘄哭而哭之哀如此也)是遁天倍(與悖同)情
L153n1636_p0403a01║忘其所受古者謂之遁天之刑(刑猶理也言聃之為人不
L153n1636_p0403a02║能忘情而處世故有心親愛於人故人不能忘此實自遁天真忘其本有古人謂此乃遁
L153n1636_p0403a03║喪天真而傷其性者非聖人也)適來夫子時也(適來而有生亦順時而生
L153n1636_p0403a04║也)適去夫子順也(言適死而去乃造化之所遷而天真泰然未嘗有去
L153n1636_p0403a05║來死生者也)安時而處順哀樂不能入也(言生則安其時
L153n1636_p0403a06║死則順其化又何死有哀而生可樂耶達其本無生死故也)古者謂是帝
L153n1636_p0403a07║之縣解(帝者生之主也性繫於形如人之倒懸今超然順化則解性之懸矣)指
L153n1636_p0403a08║窮於為薪火傳也不知其盡也(言形雖化而性常存如薪
L153n1636_p0403a09║盡而火存有形相禪如薪火相傳是則生生而不已化化而無窮故如薪火之傳不知其
L153n1636_p0403a10║盡也)。
L153n1636_p0403a11║ 此言性得所養而天真自全則去來生死
L153n1636_p0403a12║ 了無拘礙故至人遊世形雖同人而性超
L153n1636_p0403a13║ 物外不為生死變遷者實由得其所養耳
L153n1636_p0403a14║ 能養性復真所以為真人故後人間世即
L153n1636_p0403a15║ 言真人無心而遊世以實庖丁解牛之譬
L153n1636_p0403b01║ 以見養生主之效也篇雖各別而意實貫
L153n1636_p0403b02║ 之。
L153n1636_p0403b03║  人間世
L153n1636_p0403b04║ 此篇蓋言聖人處世之道也然養生主乃
L153n1636_p0403b05║ 不以世務傷生者而其所以養生之功夫
L153n1636_p0403b06║ 又從經涉世故以體驗之謂果能自有所
L153n1636_p0403b07║ 養即處世自無伐才求名無事強行之過
L153n1636_p0403b08║ 其於輔君奉命自無誇功溢美之嫌而其
L153n1636_p0403b09║ 功夫又從心齋坐忘虛己涉世可無患矣
L153n1636_p0403b10║ 極言世故人情之難處苟非虛而待物少
L153n1636_p0403b11║ 有才情求名之心則不免於患矣故篇終
L153n1636_p0403b12║ 以不才為究竟苟涉世無患方見善能養
L153n1636_p0403b13║ 生之主實與前篇互相發明也以孔子乃
L153n1636_p0403b14║ 用世之聖人顏子乃聖門之高弟故借以
L153n1636_p0403b15║ 為重使其信然也。
L153n1636_p0404a01║顏回見伸尼請行曰奚之(仲尼問何往)曰將之衛
L153n1636_p0404a02║曰奚為焉(意謂雖顏子之仁人亦不勉無事強行之過)曰回聞衛
L153n1636_p0404a03║君(蒯聵也)其年壯(壯年盛氣之時)其行獨(言狠戾自用拒諫妄為也)
L153n1636_p0404a04║輕用其國而不自見其過(言不恤民輕視其國不自知其過)
L153n1636_p0404a05║輕用民死(言不恤民故民死亡者眾)死者以國量乎澤若
L153n1636_p0404a06║蕉(言以國比乎澤而民之死者相枕籍若澤中之蕉也)民其無如(往也)矣
L153n1636_p0404a07║(言民受用無所往告矣)回嘗聞之夫子曰治國去之(言國
L153n1636_p0404a08║已治不以無功而干祿)亂國就之(言勘亂扶危以安民也)醫門多
L153n1636_p0404a09║疾(謂善救時者如良醫之門多疾人也)願以所聞思其則(蓋回素聞
L153n1636_p0404a10║夫子之言如此故願以所聞思其法則將以匡正衛君也)庶幾其國有瘳
L153n1636_p0404a11║乎(言庶幾使民免其疾苦也)仲尼曰譆(驚嘆也)若殆往而刑
L153n1636_p0404a12║耳(言汝甚欲往必遭其刑耳)夫道不欲雜(謂學道當專心壹志不可雜亂
L153n1636_p0404a13║其心)雜則多多則擾擾則憂憂而不救(言心雜則以多
L153n1636_p0404a14║事自擾擾則憂患而不可救)古之至人先存諸己而後存
L153n1636_p0404a15║諸人(言古之至人涉世先以道德存乎己然後以己所存施諸人即此二語乃涉世
L153n1636_p0404b01║之大經非夫子不能到此)所存於己者未定何暇至於暴
L153n1636_p0404b02║人之所行(謂顏回道德未充自修不暇又何暇至暴人之所乎)且若(汝也)
L153n1636_p0404b03║亦知夫德之所蕩而知之所為出乎哉(蕩散也出
L153n1636_p0404b04║露也)德蕩乎名知出乎爭(德之不能保全者為名之蕩也名蕩而實
L153n1636_p0404b05║少矣知之發露於外者以啟爭之之端也)名也者相軋也(軋軋機聲也言
L153n1636_p0404b06║名者乃彼此相擠軋不得獨擅也)知也者爭之器也(才知一露人人
L153n1636_p0404b07║忌之則由此而致爭不相安也)二者凶器非所以盡行也(言才
L153n1636_p0404b08║德知術二者乃招患之端為凶器也豈可以盡行乎)且德厚信矼(矼確實貌)
L153n1636_p0404b09║未達人氣(謂我以厚德確信加人必先要達彼之氣味與我投與不投)名
L153n1636_p0404b10║聞不爭未達人心(言我雖不爭名聞於彼且未達彼之人之心信否何
L153n1636_p0404b11║如)而彊以仁義繩墨之言術(當是衒字)暴人之前
L153n1636_p0404b12║是以人惡有其美也命之曰菑人菑人者人
L153n1636_p0404b13║必返菑之若殆為人菑(言己雖確信虛己致彼且未審彼之氣味
L153n1636_p0404b14║不達心志即以仁義繩墨之言規諫於彼恐一旦致疑而不信則將以汝為因揚彼之惡
L153n1636_p0404b15║而顯己之美所謂未信則為謗己也此謂之菑害於人凡菑人者人必反菑之汝不審彼
L153n1636_p0405a01║已而彊行殆為彼人菑之也)且苟為悅賢而惡不肖惡用
L153n1636_p0405a02║而(汝也)求有以異(且彼衛君誠有悅賢而惡不肖之心則彼國自有賢者何
L153n1636_p0405a03║用汝特往而求以顯異耶)若(汝也)惟無詔(言汝必不待詔而往)王公必
L153n1636_p0405a04║將乘人而鬥其捷(言女非詔命而往則彼王公必將乘人君之勢與汝
L153n1636_p0405a05║鬥其捷勝而不納其言)而(汝也)目將焚之(言汝見人君之勢以加凌之則
L153n1636_p0405a06║必自失其守眼目眩惑之矣)而色將平之(眼目一眩必將自救而容色平
L153n1636_p0405a07║和以求解矣)口將營之(容貌既已失措而口必營營以自救也)容將
L153n1636_p0405a08║形之(容猊言辭一失則全身不覺放倒遷就也)心且成之(外貌一失則內
L153n1636_p0405a09║心無主必將捨己而就彼返成其惡也)是以火救火以水救水
L153n1636_p0405a10║名之曰益多(言女初心欲彼改惡而竟返成其惡是以水火而救水火但增
L153n1636_p0405a11║益其多耳)順始無窮(言始則將順而彼之惡竟無窮)若(汝也)殆以不
L153n1636_p0405a12║信厚言必死於暴人之前矣(若彼不見信而遽加之以忠厚
L153n1636_p0405a13║之言是謂交淺言深彼將致疑而返以為謗如此則必死無疑矣)。
L153n1636_p0405a14║ 此一節言涉世之大者以諫君為第一若
L153n1636_p0405a15║ 人主素不見信而驟以忠言強訴不唯不
L153n1636_p0405b01║ 聽且致殺身之禍此非夫子之大聖深達
L153n1636_p0405b02║ 世故明哲保身者其他孰能知此哉顏子
L153n1636_p0405b03║ 有所未至也此為人間世之第一件事故
L153n1636_p0405b04║ 首言之。
L153n1636_p0405b05║且昔者桀殺關龍逢紂殺王子比干是皆修
L153n1636_p0405b06║其身以下傴拊人之民以下拂其上者也(言龍
L153n1636_p0405b07║逢比干以忠立名而竟見殺者蓋為居臣下之位而傴拊人君之民者傴拊言曲身拊恤
L153n1636_p0405b08║於民以示憐愛之狀也謂人君不愛民而臣下返為之愛恤是自要名以拂逆人主之心
L153n1636_p0405b09║此所以見怒而取殺也豈非好名取死之道耶)故人君因其修以擠
L153n1636_p0405b10║之是好名者也(言二子好名而修身以拂人君故人君因其修而擠害之
L153n1636_p0405b11║是好名之過也)昔者堯攻叢枝胥敖(二國名)禹攻有扈
L153n1636_p0405b12║(國名)國為虛厲(使其國為空虛死其君為厲鬼)身為刑戮(親身操其
L153n1636_p0405b13║殺戮)其用兵不止其求實無己(謂二聖自以為仁將除暴救民
L153n1636_p0405b14║是皆求為仁之實無己故用兵不止以此好名以滋殺戮)是皆求名實者
L153n1636_p0405b15║也(求仁之名而行殺伐名成而實喪矣)而(汝也)獨不聞之乎名實
L153n1636_p0406a01║者聖人之所不能勝(平聲)也(言名實雖二聖人且不能勝而全有
L153n1636_p0406a02║之)而況若(汝也)乎。
L153n1636_p0406a03║ 此謂顏子無事強行求名之實必不能全
L153n1636_p0406a04║ 以明往必刑之之必然也且名實聖人猶
L153n1636_p0406a05║ 不能全而況凡乎。
L153n1636_p0406a06║ 上文夫子以教其必不可往下又問其往
L153n1636_p0406a07║ 之之道。
L153n1636_p0406a08║雖然若(汝也)必有以也嘗以語我來(來語辭夫子謂雖然
L153n1636_p0406a09║我如此說其勢必不可往不知汝將何術以往耶當以語我試看何如)顏回曰
L153n1636_p0406a10║端而虛勉而一則可乎(回謂我無他術但端謹其身以虛其心不
L153n1636_p0406a11║以功名得失為懷更勉一其志不計其利害如此則可乎)曰惡惡可(言其甚不
L153n1636_p0406a12║可也)夫以陽為充孔揚采色不定(陽者盛氣言衛君壯年負
L153n1636_p0406a13║驕勝之氣女以小心端謹事之則益充滿彼之盛氣而志更大飛揚將發現于顏面矣采
L153n1636_p0406a14║色不定喜怒不常也)常人之所不違(言彼喜怒不常之氣性即尋常執待
L153n1636_p0406a15║之人亦不敢違況汝未同與言之人乎)因案人之所感以求容
L153n1636_p0406b01║與(自快之意也)其心名之曰日漸之德不成而況
L153n1636_p0406b02║大德乎(言彼拒諫之人即汝以言感發之彼即定將所感之言返案於女以求容
L153n1636_p0406b03║與以快其心不但不聽而已如此飾非之人即日漸小德亦不成況大德乎)將執
L153n1636_p0406b04║而不化外合而內不訾(毀也)其庸詎可乎(言彼將固
L153n1636_p0406b05║執己志而不化縱汝能端虛而外謹勉一而內不毀竟有何用乎言其必無功效徒費精
L153n1636_p0406b06║神耳)。
L153n1636_p0406b07║ 此一節言彊梁拒諫之人縱以忠謹事之
L153n1636_p0406b08║ 秪增益其盛氣亦無補於德終無益也。
L153n1636_p0406b09║然則我內直而外曲成而上比(此顏回聞夫子之言以端
L153n1636_p0406b10║虛勉一必不能行又思其則以內直外曲上比古人挾此三術以往其事必濟矣)內
L153n1636_p0406b11║直者與天為徒(此顏回自解三術之意言內直與天為徒者言人之生也
L153n1636_p0406b12║直此性本天成則彼我同此性也故曰與天為徒謂彼亦人耳既同此性苟言之相符寧
L153n1636_p0406b13║無動於中乎)與天為徒者知天子之與己皆天之
L153n1636_p0406b14║所子而獨以己言蘄乎而人善之蘄乎而人
L153n1636_p0406b15║不善之耶若然者人謂之童子是之謂與天
L153n1636_p0407a01║為徒(言既天性本同則人君與我皆天之子也我但直性而言之亦不必求其彼之
L153n1636_p0407a02║以我言為善為不善我唯盡此真純無偽之心如此則彼以我如赤子之心矣此又有何
L153n1636_p0407a03║患焉)外曲者與人為徒也擎跽曲拳人臣之禮
L153n1636_p0407a04║也人皆為之吾敢不為耶為人之所為者人
L153n1636_p0407a05║亦無疵焉是之謂與人為徒(外曲者謂曲盡人臣之禮也不
L153n1636_p0407a06║失其儀又何疵焉)成而上比者與古為徒其言雖教
L153n1636_p0407a07║謫(謫謂指謫是非也)之實也古之有也非吾有也若
L153n1636_p0407a08║然者雖直而不為病是之謂與古為徒(成者引其
L153n1636_p0407a09║成言也上比者上比古人也故其言雖謫之而明言是非而所言皆實乃古人之言非我
L153n1636_p0407a10║之虛談也如此則言雖直以非我出則不以為病矣)若是則可乎(以此三術
L153n1636_p0407a11║則庶幾可乎)仲尼曰惡惡可(歎其必不可也)太多政法而
L153n1636_p0407a12║不諜(政法猶法則也諜猶安妥謂穩當也言挾上三術而法則太多猶不穩當也)
L153n1636_p0407a13║雖固亦無罪雖然止是耳矣惡可以及化猶
L153n1636_p0407a14║師心者也(言以此三術固亦不得罪然止是如此而已耳亦不能使彼心化也
L153n1636_p0407a15║何也以三術皆出有心未能忘我且已未成焉能化彼哉)。
L153n1636_p0407b01║ 此一節言三術從孔子君子有三畏中變
L153n1636_p0407b02║ 化來與天為徒畏天也與人為徒畏大人
L153n1636_p0407b03║ 也與古為徒畏聖人之言也但議論渾然
L153n1636_p0407b04║ 無跡言此三事亦非聖人大化之境界止
L153n1636_p0407b05║ 於世俗之常耳意在言外。
L153n1636_p0407b06║顏回曰吾無以進矣(言回之學問止此而已更無以進矣)敢問
L153n1636_p0407b07║其方(請問夫子之教以可法也)仲尼曰齋吾將語若(言須齋心
L153n1636_p0407b08║待聽我之教也)若(汝也)有而為之其易耶(言汝有心而為之事自己
L153n1636_p0407b09║未化便欲化人豈容易耶)易之者皞天不宜(以有心之事為容易者其
L153n1636_p0407b10║心不真故上天所不宜)顏回曰回之家貧惟不飲酒不
L153n1636_p0407b11║茹葷者數月矣若此可為齋乎(此顏子未知心齋也)曰
L153n1636_p0407b12║是祭祀之齋非心齋也回曰敢問心齋仲尼
L153n1636_p0407b13║曰一若志(專一汝之心志)無聽之以耳而聽之以心
L153n1636_p0407b14║(言返聞於心性)無聽之以心而聽之以氣(心尚未忘形氣則虛
L153n1636_p0407b15║而形與化之矣)心止於符(謂心冥於理也)氣也者虛而待物
L153n1636_p0408a01║者也(言心虛于極以虛而待物)惟道集虛(虛乃道之體也)虛者心
L153n1636_p0408a02║齋也(教顏子之心齋以主於虛也)。
L153n1636_p0408a03║ 顏子多方皆未離有心凡有心之言未忘
L153n1636_p0408a04║ 機也機不忘則己不化故教之以心齋以
L153n1636_p0408a05║ 虛為極虛則物我兩忘己化而物自化耳。
L153n1636_p0408a06║顏回曰回之未始得使實自回也(言未受教待自以為
L153n1636_p0408a07║有己)得使之也未始有回也可謂虛乎(一聞心齋之教
L153n1636_p0408a08║頓忘其己此忘己可謂虛乎回于一言頓悟如此)夫子曰盡矣(謂心齊之
L153n1636_p0408a09║理盡於此矣)吾將語若(言汝有受教之地矣故將語之)若(汝也)能入
L153n1636_p0408a10║遊其樊(樊謂籓籬謂世網中也)而無感其名(言能遊人世虛己忘
L153n1636_p0408a11║懷無以智巧以感動人而要其名)入則鳴不入則止(言不可執一定
L153n1636_p0408a12║成心而往但觀其人精神氣味相入則言不入則止不可強行)無門無毒(門者
L153n1636_p0408a13║言立定一箇門庭毒即暝眩之藥謂必瘳之藥此二者有患皆不可用也)一宅而
L153n1636_p0408a14║寓於不得已則幾矣(一宅者謂安心於一了無二念即其所言當寓
L153n1636_p0408a15║意於不得已而應之切不可有心強為如此則庶幾乎可耳)絕跡易無行
L153n1636_p0408b01║地難(言逃人絕世尚易獨有涉世無心不著形跡為難即老子善行無轍跡)為
L153n1636_p0408b02║人使易以偽為天使難以偽(聖人應世乃天之使也若是為
L153n1636_p0408b03║人之使容可以偽聖人乘真心而御物又安可以偽乎)聞以有翼飛者
L153n1636_p0408b04║也未聞以無翼飛者也(此有心無心之喻也言世人有心為事而
L153n1636_p0408b05║成者有之若無心應物而使人感化若無翼而飛者此未之聞也)聞以有知
L153n1636_p0408b06║知者矣未聞以無知知者也(言世人皆以有知而知之者聖
L153n1636_p0408b07║人以無知而知者蓋言忘形絕智以無心而應物者此其難者未之聞也)瞻彼關
L153n1636_p0408b08║者虛室生白(此心虛之喻也謂室中空虛但有缺處則容光必照而虛室中
L153n1636_p0408b09║即生白矣以喻心虛則天光自發也)吉祥止止(言有心而動則禍福隨之所謂
L153n1636_p0408b10║吉凶悔吝生乎動也今若心虛無物則一念不生虛明自照悔吝全消惟吉祥止止而言
L153n1636_p0408b11║此虛心乃吉祥所止之處也)夫且不止是之謂坐馳(言人心皆
L153n1636_p0408b12║本虛明第人不安心止此私慾萌發則身坐於此而心馳於彼是之謂坐馳)夫徇
L153n1636_p0408b13║耳目內通而外於心知鬼神將來舍而況人
L153n1636_p0408b14║乎(徇作殉猶喪失也言喪耳目之見聞返見返聞故云內通若內通融於心體真光發
L153n1636_p0408b15║露則不用其妄心妄知如此則虛明寂照與鬼神合其德故鬼神將來舍矣而況於人而
L153n1636_p0409a01║不感化乎此無翼而飛者也此教回之極處也)是萬物之化也(謂喪耳目
L153n1636_p0409a02║則形目忘外心知則智自泯則物我兩忘我忘物化則萬物盡化為道矣)禹舜之
L153n1636_p0409a03║所紐(樞紐)也伏羲几蘧(古聖君也)之所行終而況散
L153n1636_p0409a04║焉者乎(言物我兼忘萬物盡化此混歸大道之原即禹之神聖亦執為樞紐而伏
L153n1636_p0409a05║羲几蘧之大聖御世終身所行而況散民乎顏回能以此用世又何強行之有哉)。
L153n1636_p0409a06║ 此言涉世先於事君此言輔君之難也苟
L153n1636_p0409a07║ 非物我兩忘虛心御物不得已而應之決
L153n1636_p0409a08║ 不能感君而離患若固執我見持必然之
L153n1636_p0409a09║ 志而強諫之不但無補於君且致殺身之
L153n1636_p0409a10║ 禍此龍逢比干之死皆是之過也。
L153n1636_p0409a11║ 下言使命之難。
L153n1636_p0409a12║葉公子高(葉公名梁字子高楚大夫也)將使於齊問於仲
L153n1636_p0409a13║尼曰王使諸梁也甚重(意將有兵革之事)齊之待使
L153n1636_p0409a14║者蓋將甚敬而不急(言齊君待使者貌雖恭而心甚慢不能應使者
L153n1636_p0409a15║之急事)匹夫猶未可動也而況諸侯乎(言楚之事甚急
L153n1636_p0409b01║而齊若慢之則不敢輕意催促且匹夫尚不可輕動況諸侯乎)吾甚慄之(恐誤
L153n1636_p0409b02║國事而取罪故甚恐懼也)子嘗語諸梁也曰凡事若小若
L153n1636_p0409b03║大寡不道以懽成(嘗憶夫子教我謂事無大小必以懽成儻齊之不懽
L153n1636_p0409b04║則事難濟矣此所以恐也)事若不成則必有人道之患(言事
L153n1636_p0409b05║若不成君能無罪我乎是必有人道之患也)事若成則必有陰陽
L153n1636_p0409b06║之患(言齊儻不急必多方勞慮委曲求成則焦勞之病乃陰陽之內患也)若成
L153n1636_p0409b07║若不成而後無患者惟有德者能之(有德者謂全德
L153n1636_p0409b08║之聖人也意謂事之成與不成俱無患者惟聖人虛心應世不以物為事者能之也)吾
L153n1636_p0409b09║食也執粗而不藏(善也謂不甘美之厚味也)爨無欲清之
L153n1636_p0409b10║人(言我之飲食淡薄無多烹庖故執爨之人無有怕熱而求清涼者)今吾朝
L153n1636_p0409b11║受命而夕飲冰我其內熱歟(言素無厚味故無內熱之症今
L153n1636_p0409b12║朝受命而夕飲冰則火症內發乃憂愁焦思以動其火耳其內熱之病歟)吾未至
L153n1636_p0409b13║乎事之情(實也)而既有陰陽之患矣(言未就事早有陰陽
L153n1636_p0409b14║失錯內熱之病矣)事若不成必有人道之患(事若不成國君
L153n1636_p0409b15║能無罪我乎此人道之患所不免者)是兩也為人臣者不足以
L153n1636_p0410a01║任之(言此兩患在身事不由己故為人臣者所不能任之也)子其有以
L153n1636_p0410a02║語我來(願夫子有以教我也)。
L153n1636_p0410a03║ 此言人臣以使命為難也以為人臣者但
L153n1636_p0410a04║ 以一己功名為心故事必求可功必求成
L153n1636_p0410a05║ 以此橫慮交錯於胸中勞神焦思之若此
L153n1636_p0410a06║ 乃舉世人臣使命之難絕不知有所處之
L153n1636_p0410a07║ 道故不免其患耳故夫子教以處之之方
L153n1636_p0410a08║ 意有一定之命一定之理安順處之自無
L153n1636_p0410a09║ 患耳若持必可之心固所不免也。
L153n1636_p0410a10║ 下夫子教其莫若致命此其難者將此起
L153n1636_p0410a11║ 語為結。
L153n1636_p0410a12║仲尼曰天下有大戒二(大戒者謂世之大經大法也乃君親之命
L153n1636_p0410a13║不可易者)其一命也其一義也子之愛親命也不
L153n1636_p0410a14║可解於心臣之事君義也無適而非君也(莊子
L153n1636_p0410a15║誹仁義獨於人之事君以義為主又以死忠為不善今言人臣之事君無往而非君乃忠
L153n1636_p0410b01║之盛也此老何曾越世故耶)無所逃於天地之間是之謂
L153n1636_p0410b02║大戒(言世之君親之命無所逃此乃世之大經大法之不易者)是以夫事
L153n1636_p0410b03║其親者不擇地而安之孝之至也(言子之事親無往而
L153n1636_p0410b04║非親命則不敢擇地而安之此乃孝之至也)夫事其君者不擇事
L153n1636_p0410b05║而安之忠之盛也(言事君者唯命是聽不敢以難易二其心乃忠之盛
L153n1636_p0410b06║也故古人恥貳心以事主者)自事其心者哀樂不易施乎
L153n1636_p0410b07║前(言孝則當竭其力忠則盡乎命以盡心盡命為主不以難易推移之志此事心之大
L153n1636_p0410b08║者不以哀樂入於心也)知其不可柰何而安之若命德
L153n1636_p0410b09║之至也(言人臣之分知其事之難無可柰何亦不敢貳心相視但安之若命安命
L153n1636_p0410b10║則忘其難易此乃德之至也)為人臣子者固有所不得已
L153n1636_p0410b11║行事之情而忘其身(言人之臣子固有不得已之事但當盡命以忘
L153n1636_p0410b12║其身以從事)何暇至於悅生而惡死(言臣子盡命而已豈敢以
L153n1636_p0410b13║生死為去就哉)夫子其行可矣(教葉公但當如此而行可矣)。
L153n1636_p0410b14║ 莊子全書皆以忠孝為要名譽喪失天真
L153n1636_p0410b15║ 之不可尚者獨人間世一篇則極盡其忠
L153n1636_p0411a01║ 孝之實一字不可易者誰言其人不達世
L153n1636_p0411a02║ 故而恣肆其志耶且借重孔子之言者曷
L153n1636_p0411a03║ 嘗侮聖人哉蓋學有方內方外之分在方
L153n1636_p0411a04║ 外必以放曠為高特要歸大道也若方內
L153n1636_p0411a05║ 則於君臣父子之分一毫不敢假借者以
L153n1636_p0411a06║ 世之大經大法不可犯也此所謂世出世
L153n1636_p0411a07║ 間之道無不包羅無不盡理豈可以一[既/木]
L153n1636_p0411a08║ 目之哉。
L153n1636_p0411a09║丘請復以所聞(前[既/木]言君臣父子之分義此下方復言使命之理)凡
L153n1636_p0411a10║交近則必相靡以信(靡順也信符也凡交近國必須符驗則不假辭
L153n1636_p0411a11║令)遠則必忠之以言(若交遠國則必忠之辭令以合二國之歡)言
L153n1636_p0411a12║必或傳之(謂言必要使者口傳)夫傳兩喜兩怒之言天
L153n1636_p0411a13║下之難者也(言之所係安危以之而禍福隨至)夫兩喜必多
L153n1636_p0411a14║溢美之言兩怒必多溢惡之言(病在於溢)凡溢之
L153n1636_p0411a15║類妄(溢美溢惡出於過用智巧故失其本真故曰妄)妄則其信之也
L153n1636_p0411b01║莫(以言不至誠故聽之者亦莫然不信)莫則傳言者殃(既不相信則罪
L153n1636_p0411b02║在傳言者殃矣)故法言曰傳其常情無傳其溢言(常情
L153n1636_p0411b03║乃真實無妄之言)則幾乎全(庶幾免禍)。
L153n1636_p0411b04║ 此一節言使命之難以兩家之利害皆在
L153n1636_p0411b05║ 一己擔當若溢而過實則令聽者生疑不
L153n1636_p0411b06║ 信是為生禍之本而傳者必受其殃所以
L153n1636_p0411b07║ 貴乎真實無妄庶幾可保全耳。
L153n1636_p0411b08║ 下文申明雖苟全目前之事而終必為害
L153n1636_p0411b09║ 甚矣言之不易不可不謹慎其始也。
L153n1636_p0411b10║且以巧鬥力者始乎陽常卒乎陰太至則多
L153n1636_p0411b11║奇巧(此言慎始慎終之道也且始以巧鬥力者乃以戲劇相格鬥也始則兩情相嬉
L153n1636_p0411b12║及其過甚則有求勝之心必各用其奇巧奇巧一出則必有一傷傷即認真至不可解則
L153n1636_p0411b13║終之以怒矣陽猶喜陰猶怒也)以禮飲酒者始乎治常乎亂
L153n1636_p0411b14║太至則多奇樂凡事亦然(且如飲酒者初則賓主秩然有禮及
L153n1636_p0411b15║至酒酣樂劇樂劇則亂必隨之不獨巧鬥飲酒凡事皆然)始乎諒常卒乎
L153n1636_p0412a01║鄙(諒者不擇是非而必於信鄙詐也且如人之交情始則肝膽相照必信不疑久則鄙
L153n1636_p0412a02║詐之心生焉)其作始也簡其將畢也必巨(不獨人情即作
L153n1636_p0412a03║事始作必以簡省為主其將畢也必巨自有不可收拾者蓋勢之必至也)言者風
L153n1636_p0412a04║波也行者實喪也(凡事不能保其始終而言行尤甚蓋言者風波也乃
L153n1636_p0412a05║是非所由生行者實之所自發行成而實喪矣故曰言行君子之樞機榮辱之主也故當
L153n1636_p0412a06║所必謹者豈可妄乎)夫風波易以動實喪易以危(風波則易
L153n1636_p0412a07║以傾覆實喪則易取殆辱知此則知所慎矣)故忿設無由巧言偏
L153n1636_p0412a08║辭(故凡人忿怒之設實由巧言偏辭以激發之)獸死不擇音氣息
L153n1636_p0412a09║茀然於是並生心厲(茀勃然也厲鬼病也謂巧言偏辭以激怒其人
L153n1636_p0412a10║以致怒氣勃然而發則不擇可否而橫出之如獸死之不擇音則使聽者以為實然則並
L153n1636_p0412a11║皆心生鬼病而不可治矣)剋核太至則必有不肖之心應
L153n1636_p0412a12║之而不知其然也(謂聽言激怒之人乘其怒氣則於所怒之人必以橫
L153n1636_p0412a13║口非理加之毫髮推求不少寬假而剋核之若剋核太至則彼被怒之人亦必以不肖之
L153n1636_p0412a14║心應之是則兩家之禍成矣禍雖成而竟不知其所以然也所以然者蓋由巧言偏辭也)
L153n1636_p0412a15║苟為不知其然也孰知其所終(若苟知其巧言之過則尚
L153n1636_p0412b01║可解若不知其所由言然則兩家之禍將不知其所終矣)故法言曰無遷
L153n1636_p0412b02║令無勸成(由其巧言偏辭為禍之端害事之甚故奉使者必不可溢言無邊改
L153n1636_p0412b03║其令無勸其成免後禍也)過度益也(凡增益者乃過其度也遷令勸成終必壞
L153n1636_p0412b04║事必不可也)美成在久惡成不及改可不慎歟(凡事
L153n1636_p0412b05║不宜速成故美成在久若強勉惡成則不及改矣不可不慎也)且夫乘物以
L153n1636_p0412b06║遊心托不得已以養中至矣(此方教以使命之正道也惟有
L153n1636_p0412b07║至人物我兼忘順物之自然以遊心於其間事不可有心以強成當托於不得已而應之
L153n1636_p0412b08║以養中正之道而不失其守如此應世可謂至矣)何作可報耶莫若
L153n1636_p0412b09║為致命此其難者(此結乃起語也言使命者何所作為乃可報也莫若
L153n1636_p0412b10║致命謂在事之成否自有一定之天命即今奉使又有一定之君命知天命之不可違則
L153n1636_p0412b11║當安命順其自然不可用心以溢言僥倖以成功知君命之不可違則不可遷令以勸成
L153n1636_p0412b12║以免後禍此所謂致命之意此必至人方能尋常人則不易故曰此其難者)。
L153n1636_p0412b13║ 此一節言應世之難者無愈使命如葉公
L153n1636_p0412b14║ 之所憂者固然而夫子之言皆使命之至
L153n1636_p0412b15║ 情禍福之樞機切中人情之極致所謂士
L153n1636_p0413a01║ 見危致命者非夫子大聖深於世故者又
L153n1636_p0413a02║ 何以致此哉。
L153n1636_p0413a03║顏盍將傳衛靈公太子(蒯聵也)而問於蘧伯玉
L153n1636_p0413a04║(名瑗衛之賢人孔子之友也)有人於此其德天殺(去聲降也謂天
L153n1636_p0413a05║生低品之人也)與之為無方(謂不以法度規之也)則危吾國與
L153n1636_p0413a06║之為有方則危吾身(若以法度繩墨之言諫之則必不信而見尤則
L153n1636_p0413a07║危吾身)其知(去聲)適足以知人之過而不知其所
L153n1636_p0413a08║以過(謂其人聰明足以摭拾人之過而不知己之過)若然者吾柰之
L153n1636_p0413a09║何(謂其人如此吾將柰何)蘧伯玉曰善哉問乎(善其問於我也)
L153n1636_p0413a10║戒之慎之(言此人不可輕意犯之者)正汝身哉(當先正己而後事之)
L153n1636_p0413a11║形莫若就(言其人狠戾不可逆之宜將順其美而後救其惡)心莫若
L153n1636_p0413a12║和(言中心不可以不善而逆之故莫若和)雖然之二者有患(雖然
L153n1636_p0413a13║形就心和亦未免患形就將與己同心和則將為悅己以此縱之則不敢以規諫故有患)
L153n1636_p0413a14║就不欲入(言形雖就不可全身放倒也)和不欲出(出者謂顯己之
L153n1636_p0413a15║長形彼之短故不欲出)形就而入且為顛為滅為崩為
L153n1636_p0413b01║蹶(若放身阿諛承順其惡則返成其惡將取顛滅崩蹶之禍)心和而出且
L153n1636_p0413b02║為聲為名為妖為孽(若少露圭角則彼將以己之惡而收為聲名其
L153n1636_p0413b03║心必忌之而為妖孽矣故此二者皆有患也)彼且為嬰兒亦與之
L153n1636_p0413b04║為嬰兒(嬰兒言彼無知識也)彼且為無町畦亦與之為
L153n1636_p0413b05║無町畦(町畦言無牆塹謂全無檢束也)彼且為無崖亦與之
L153n1636_p0413b06║無崖(崖謂無崖岸言放蕩無拘也)達之入於無疵(言先且於一切
L153n1636_p0413b07║舉動不可一毫有逆其意待彼久久相信而不疑則漸漸因事引達以入無過之地此正
L153n1636_p0413b08║所謂將順其美匡救其惡可無患也)汝不知夫螳螂乎怒其臂
L153n1636_p0413b09║以當車轍不知其不勝任也(此喻不量力而逆之也螳螂怒
L153n1636_p0413b10║臂以當車轍其志則似矣而不知其力不勝任也)是其才之美者也
L153n1636_p0413b11║(言螳螂恃其才之美者但不量己力耳謂盍才雖美至若盡力以事暴君恐不免其患也)
L153n1636_p0413b12║戒之慎之積伐而美者以犯之幾矣(言汝積伐己之
L153n1636_p0413b13║美才而挺身以犯暴君之難若螳螂之怒臂其不免於死者幾矣可不戒慎之哉)汝
L153n1636_p0413b14║不知夫養虎者乎不敢以生物與之為其殺
L153n1636_p0413b15║之之怒也(若以生物則長其殺心)不敢以全物與之為
L153n1636_p0414a01║其決之之怒也(全物與之則令虎決裂而生其怒也虎怒則發威猛而不
L153n1636_p0414a02║可制矣)時其饑飽達其怒心虎之與人異類而
L153n1636_p0414a03║媚養己者順也故其殺者逆也(養虎而不知順其性則被
L153n1636_p0414a04║其殺無疑矣)夫愛馬者以筐盛矢(矢即糞也)以蜄盛溺
L153n1636_p0414a05║(尿也)適有蚊虻僕緣而拊之不時則缺銜(則怒而斷
L153n1636_p0414a06║其啣勒也)毀首碎胸(言馬之怒則毀碎胸首之絡轡也)意有所至
L153n1636_p0414a07║而愛有所亡(言雖愛馬之至若拊之不時一觸其怒則將斷勒毀轡矣又何
L153n1636_p0414a08║顧其愛哉)可不慎耶(愛馬之喻尤切事情三喻乃事暴君之大戒也)。
L153n1636_p0414a09║ 此言輔君之難也已上三者皆人間世之
L153n1636_p0414a10║ 難者意謂夫遊人間世者必虛心安命適
L153n1636_p0414a11║ 時自慎無可不可乃可免患若不能虛心
L153n1636_p0414a12║ 恃知妄作無事而強行者顏回是也若不
L153n1636_p0414a13║ 能安命多憂自苦當行而不行者葉公是
L153n1636_p0414a14║ 也二者皆非聖人所以涉世之道而當以
L153n1636_p0414a15║ 孔子之言為準也若其必不得已而應世
L153n1636_p0414b01║ 以事人主必將順其美匡救其惡以竭其
L153n1636_p0414b02║ 忠尤當以戒慎恐懼達變知機不可輕忽
L153n1636_p0414b03║ 不可恃才輕觸以取殺身之禍此又當以
L153n1636_p0414b04║ 蘧伯玉之言為得也涉世人情之曲折極
L153n1636_p0414b05║ 盡於此矣是必取重仲尼伯玉乃可免患
L153n1636_p0414b06║ 耳。
L153n1636_p0414b07║ 上言材能之累 下以不才以全生。
L153n1636_p0414b08║匠石之齊至乎曲轅(地名)見櫟社樹其大蔽牛
L153n1636_p0414b09║絜之(以兩手挈之)百圍其高臨山十仞而後有枝
L153n1636_p0414b10║(言樹身分之長大也)其可以為舟者旁十數(言正身之外旁枝可
L153n1636_p0414b11║為舟者有十數也)觀者如市(人以為大且美故觀之者眾)匠伯不
L153n1636_p0414b12║顧遂行不輟(止也謂不顧其樹而行不止也)弟子厭(飽足也)觀
L153n1636_p0414b13║之走及匠石曰自吾執斧斤以隨夫子未嘗
L153n1636_p0414b14║見材如此其美也先生不肯視行不輟何耶
L153n1636_p0414b15║曰已矣勿言之矣散木也以為舟則沉以為
L153n1636_p0415a01║棺槨則速腐以為器則速毀以為門戶則液
L153n1636_p0415a02║樠(謂門樞引水則液樠然而泚)以為柱則蠹是不材之木
L153n1636_p0415a03║也無所可用故能若是之壽匠石歸櫟社見
L153n1636_p0415a04║夢曰汝將惡乎比予哉若將比予於文木耶
L153n1636_p0415a05║夫柤梨橘柚果蓏之屬實熟則剝則辱大枝
L153n1636_p0415a06║折小枝泄此以其能苦其生者也故不終其
L153n1636_p0415a07║天年而中道夭自掊擊(言掊取而擊折之也)於世俗者
L153n1636_p0415a08║也物莫不若是且予求無所可用久矣幾死
L153n1636_p0415a09║乃今得之(幾死者謂尋常人不知我不材幾乎被伐者數矣今幸而得全)為
L153n1636_p0415a10║予大用(以不材全生為我大用)使予也而有用且得有
L153n1636_p0415a11║大也耶(若使我有用必不能此之大也)且也若與予也皆物
L153n1636_p0415a12║也柰何哉其相物也(言汝與我同為天地間之一物耳柰何汝恃有
L153n1636_p0415a13║用而以我為無用耶)而幾死之散人又惡知散木(言汝乃幾
L153n1636_p0415a14║死之散人而不自知且又鄙我為散木是自不知量也)匠石覺而診其
L153n1636_p0415a15║夢(覺而為弟子說其夢)弟子曰趣取無用(趣乃意趣猶言意思也謂
L153n1636_p0415b01║意思取無用而為社者何也)則為社何耶曰密若無言(謂汝
L153n1636_p0415b02║不必聲說也)彼亦直寄焉(然直是以社寄於此木非是此木有心要作社
L153n1636_p0415b03║也)以為不知己者詬厲也(謂常人不知寄托之意遂以此木真
L153n1636_p0415b04║真是社以此名而誣害之也)不為社者且幾有剪乎(言此木即
L153n1636_p0415b05║不為社又豈有剪伐者乎)且也彼其所保與眾異而以義
L153n1636_p0415b06║譽之(謂彼木所以保其天年者以不材而全生故與眾異而人不知乃以利人長物
L153n1636_p0415b07║禁暴除非之義譽之)不亦遠乎。
L153n1636_p0415b08║ 此言櫟社之樹以不材而保其天年全生
L153n1636_p0415b09║ 遠害乃無用之大用返顯前之恃才妄作
L153n1636_p0415b10║ 要君求譽以自害者實天壤矣此莊生輕
L153n1636_p0415b11║ 世肆志之意正在此耳下歷言無自全之
L153n1636_p0415b12║ 意以喻己志此立言之指也。
L153n1636_p0415b13║南伯子綦遊乎商之丘見大木焉有異(謂有異於
L153n1636_p0415b14║眾木)結駟千乘隱將笓其所藾(言千駟之車馬隱息于樹下而
L153n1636_p0415b15║樹之枝葉皆能芘蔭之也)子綦曰此何木也哉此必有異
L153n1636_p0416a01║材(不知其不材故異之也)夫仰而視其細枝則拳曲而
L153n1636_p0416a02║不可以為棟樑俯而視其大根則軸解(言木身之
L153n1636_p0416a03║解散也)而不可以為棺槨咶其葉則口爛而為
L153n1636_p0416a04║傷嗅之則使人狂醒三日而不已(言葉之惡氣薰人令
L153n1636_p0416a05║人狂醒如醉而不醒也)子綦曰此果不材之木也以至
L153n1636_p0416a06║於此其大也嗟夫神人以此不材(言子綦因試知其木
L153n1636_p0416a07║不材乃知神人以不材無用而致聖也)宋有荊氏者宜楸柏桑
L153n1636_p0416a08║其拱把而上者求猿狙之[木*戈](取猿狙之具也)者斬之
L153n1636_p0416a09║三圍四圍求高名之麗(屋棟也)者斬之七圍八
L153n1636_p0416a10║圍貴人富商之家求樿傍(乃棺木之全傍邊也)者斬之
L153n1636_p0416a11║故未終其天年而中道之夭於斧斤此材之
L153n1636_p0416a12║患也(此甚言材之為害以見不材之得全也)故解之(解者祭祀解賽也古
L153n1636_p0416a13║者天子有解祠謂解罪求福也出漢書郊祀記)以牛之白顙(言色不純也)
L153n1636_p0416a14║者與豚之亢鼻(言形不美)者與人之有痔病者不
L153n1636_p0416a15║可以適河(以人祭河謂人為巫祝也又漢書有為河伯娶婦選童男女之美者
L153n1636_p0416b01║投之河中謂之適河此事或古亦有之)此皆巫祝以知之矣所
L153n1636_p0416b02║以為不祥也(言此三者小有不材足以全生況神人以無用而自全者乎)
L153n1636_p0416b03║此乃神人之所以為大祥也。
L153n1636_p0416b04║ 此極言不材之自全甚明材美之自害也
L153n1636_p0416b05║ 惟神人知其材之為患故絕聖棄智昏昏
L153n1636_p0416b06║ 悶悶而無意於人間者此其所以無用得
L153n1636_p0416b07║ 以全身養生以盡其天年也此警世之意
L153n1636_p0416b08║ 深矣。
L153n1636_p0416b09║支離疏者(此假設人之名也支離者謂隳其形疏者謂泯其智也乃忘形去智
L153n1636_p0416b10║之喻)頤(口傍兩頤也)隱於臍肩高於頂(兩頤隱於臍則其背僂可
L153n1636_p0416b11║知)會撮(髮髻也)指天(言背僂而項仰也)五管在上(謂五臟之
L153n1636_p0416b12║腧隨背而在上也)兩髀為脅(髀大腿也言大腿為兩脅則形曲可知)挫
L153n1636_p0416b13║鍼(縫衣也)治繲(浣衣也)足以糊口鼓策播精(言簸米出
L153n1636_p0416b14║糠稗也此就其形之曲戾而可為之事也)足以食十人(言形曲簸米則有力
L153n1636_p0416b15║故取值多可以食十人也)上徵武士則支離攘臂於其間
L153n1636_p0417a01║(言形既支離故不畏其選故攘臂於其間)上有大役則支離以有
L153n1636_p0417a02║常疾不受功(言大役難免而支離又以疾免)上與病者粟則
L153n1636_p0417a03║受三鍾與十束薪(言以疾則多得其賜)夫支離其形者
L153n1636_p0417a04║猶足以養其身終其天年又況支離其德者
L153n1636_p0417a05║乎。
L153n1636_p0417a06║ 此言支離其形足以全生而遠害況釋智
L153n1636_p0417a07║ 遺形者乎此發揮老子處眾人之所惡故
L153n1636_p0417a08║ 幾於道之意前以木之材不材以況此以
L153n1636_p0417a09║ 人喻亦更切矣。
L153n1636_p0417a10║孔子適楚楚狂接輿遊其門曰鳳兮鳳兮何
L153n1636_p0417a11║如德之衰也來世不可待往世不可追也天
L153n1636_p0417a12║下有道聖人成焉(言天下有道則成聖人之事業也)天下無
L153n1636_p0417a13║道聖人生焉(言天下無道則聖人全生而已)方今之時僅免
L153n1636_p0417a14║刑焉(言方今之時僅能免害足矣何敢言功)福輕乎羽莫之知
L153n1636_p0417a15║載(言福之自取甚易而又不肯受)禍重乎地莫之知避(言世人之
L153n1636_p0417b01║迷[曰/月]禍以求利也)已乎已乎(言自嘆其當止也)臨人以德殆
L153n1636_p0417b02║乎殆乎(殆者危而不安也言方今之時若以德臨人以才自用其危之甚也)畫
L153n1636_p0417b03║地而趨迷陽迷陽無傷吾行(言方今之人畫地而趨者迷昧
L153n1636_p0417b04║之甚也豈能效之而行哉行則有傷吾之固有也)吾行卻曲(言行不進貌)
L153n1636_p0417b05║無傷吾足(言世道難行若行之適以傷吾之足耳)山木自寇也
L153n1636_p0417b06║(山以生木自取寇斫也)膏火自煎也(膏以明故自煎耳)桂可食
L153n1636_p0417b07║故伐之(桂以可食故早伐也)漆可用故割之(漆以澤故自取割之)
L153n1636_p0417b08║人皆知有用之用而莫知無用之用也。
L153n1636_p0417b09║ 此人間世立意初則以孔子為善於涉世
L153n1636_p0417b10║ 之聖故托言以發其端意謂雖顏子之仁
L153n1636_p0417b11║ 智亦非用世之具不免無事強行之過也
L153n1636_p0417b12║ 次則葉公乃處世之人亦不能自全況其
L153n1636_p0417b13║ 他乎次則顏盍乃一隱士耳爾乃妄意干
L153n1636_p0417b14║ 時乃不知量之人也故以伯玉以折之斯
L153n1636_p0417b15║ 皆恃才之過也故不免於害故以櫟社山
L153n1636_p0418a01║ 木之不材以喻之又以支離疏曉之是涉
L153n1636_p0418a02║ 世之難也如此故終篇以楚狂譏孔子意
L153n1636_p0418a03║ 謂雖聖而不知止以發己意乃此老披肝
L153n1636_p0418a04║ 露膽真情發現真見處世之難如此故超
L153n1636_p0418a05║ 然物外以道自全以貧賤自處故遯世無
L153n1636_p0418a06║ 悶著書以見志此立言之本意也故于人
L153n1636_p0418a07║ 間世之末以此結款實自敘也。
L153n1636_p0418a08║  德[〦/兄]符
L153n1636_p0418a09║ 此篇立意謂德充實於內者必能遊於形
L153n1636_p0418a10║ 骸之外而不寢處軀殼之間蓋以知身為
L153n1636_p0418a11║ 大患之本故不事於物欲而心與天遊故
L153n1636_p0418a12║ 見之者自能神符心會忘形釋智而不知
L153n1636_p0418a13║ 其所以然也故學道者唯務實德充乎內
L153n1636_p0418a14║ 不必計其虛名見乎外雖不求知於世而
L153n1636_p0418a15║ 世未有不知者也故引數子以發之蓋釋
L153n1636_p0418b01║ 老子處眾人之所惡故幾於道之意也。
L153n1636_p0418b02║魯有兀(即介字乃刖足之人也)者王台從之遊者與仲
L153n1636_p0418b03║尼相若常季問於仲尼曰王台兀者也從之
L153n1636_p0418b04║遊者與夫子中分魯(言魯國從王台遊者與夫子相半也)立不
L153n1636_p0418b05║教坐不議虛而往實而歸固有不言之教無
L153n1636_p0418b06║形而心成者邪(謂教人不見於形容言語而但以心相印成者耶)是
L153n1636_p0418b07║何人也仲尼曰夫子聖人也丘也直後而未
L153n1636_p0418b08║往耳(謂直居其後未能往向於前耳)丘將以為師(此重言孔子未能忘
L153n1636_p0418b09║形師心之意)而況不若丘者乎奚假魯國丘將引
L153n1636_p0418b10║天下而與從之(此形容孔子無我之意)常季曰彼兀者
L153n1636_p0418b11║也而王(音旺言勝也)先生其與庸亦遠矣若然者
L153n1636_p0418b12║其用心也獨(句言不同於人也)若之何仲尼曰死生
L153n1636_p0418b13║亦大矣而不得與之變(不為死生之所遷變)雖天地覆
L153n1636_p0418b14║墜亦將不與之遺(言雖天地覆墜之變亦不為之所遺累也)審乎
L153n1636_p0418b15║無假而不與物遷(審處也無假謂形骸之外至真之道超然出於萬物
L153n1636_p0419a01║之表故不為物遷)命(猶名也)物之化而守其宗也(謂其人超
L153n1636_p0419a02║然物外不隨物遷唯任物自化而彼但守其至道之宗也)常季曰何謂也
L153n1636_p0419a03║(常季不解其不遷之說)仲尼曰(夫子示之以忘形守真之旨)自其異
L153n1636_p0419a04║者視之肝膽楚越也(言不能忘形見道者雖一身之肝膽猶楚越之
L153n1636_p0419a05║相遠也)自其同者視之萬物皆一也(自大道觀之萬物與
L153n1636_p0419a06║我皆一體也)夫若然者且不知耳目之所宜(形骸既忘
L153n1636_p0419a07║六根無用故泯其見聞故不知耳目之所宜)而遊心乎德之和(謂超
L153n1636_p0419a08║乎形骸之外而遊心於大化之鄉太和元氣之境)物視其所一而不
L153n1636_p0419a09║見其所喪(物人也以彼處乎大化之中故人但見其道真之所存故不見其形
L153n1636_p0419a10║之有所喪)視喪其足猶遺土也(言視喪其足若與己無干猶遺土也)
L153n1636_p0419a11║常季曰彼為己(止也言止於如此而已也)以其知得其心
L153n1636_p0419a12║(謂彼不過以其所知得其自己之心耳)以其心得其常心(言即彼所
L153n1636_p0419a13║得之心亦尋常人之心耳)物何為最之哉(言彼所得之心亦人人皆有又
L153n1636_p0419a14║何有越過人之心哉)仲尼曰人莫鑑於流水而鑑於止
L153n1636_p0419a15║水惟止能止眾止(夫子言人人雖皆有此心但眾人之心忘動如流水
L153n1636_p0419b01║而聖人之心至靜如止水故眾人之心動而不止唯聖人能為與止之耳)受命於
L153n1636_p0419b02║地惟松柏獨也在(句)冬夏青青(言獨者乃天地真一之氣
L153n1636_p0419b03║雖萬物之多而此真一之氣獨在松柏)受命於天惟舜獨也正
L153n1636_p0419b04║(句)幸能正生以正眾生(言受命於天惟舜得天之正乃各正性命
L153n1636_p0419b05║之正故為正人以其自正故能正眾人之不正者)夫保始之徵不懼
L153n1636_p0419b06║之實(始者受命之元即所謂大道之宗也言保始即上文守宗乃守道之人也其守
L153n1636_p0419b07║道之徵驗惟不懼是其實效耳)勇士一人雄入於九軍將求
L153n1636_p0419b08║名而能自要者而猶若是(以勇士不懼以比有道者之不懼)
L153n1636_p0419b09║而況官天地(聖人為天地之宰)府萬物(會萬物歸一己)直寓
L153n1636_p0419b10║六骸(假借六根)象耳目(耳目如偶人所謂如幻也)一知之所知
L153n1636_p0419b11║(知萬化為一致)而心未嘗死者乎(死猶喪失也謂眾人喪失本真之心
L153n1636_p0419b12║唯聖人未喪本有故能視萬物為一己也)彼且擇日而登假(假猶遐也
L153n1636_p0419b13║謂彼人且將擇日而登遐遠升仙界而超出塵凡也)人則從事也(言人之相
L153n1636_p0419b14║從者蓋從於形骸之外也)彼且何肯以物為事乎。
L153n1636_p0419b15║ 此篇以德充符為名首以介者王駘發揮
L153n1636_p0420a01║ 只在末後數語便是實德內充故符於外
L153n1636_p0420a02║ 而人多從之非有心要人從之也蓋忘形
L153n1636_p0420a03║ 骸一心知即佛說破分別我障也能破分
L153n1636_p0420a04║ 別我障則成阿羅漢果即得神通變化今
L153n1636_p0420a05║ 莊子但就人中說老子忘形釋智之功夫
L153n1636_p0420a06║ 即能到此境界耳即所謂至人忘己也此
L153n1636_p0420a07║ 寓六骸象耳目一知之所知即佛說假觀
L153n1636_p0420a08║ 乃即世間出生死之妙訣正予所謂修離
L153n1636_p0420a09║ 欲禪也。
L153n1636_p0420a10║申屠嘉兀者也而與鄭子產同師於伯昏無
L153n1636_p0420a11║人(此亦撰出其人名蓋從老子眾人昭昭我獨若昏故以昏為聖人之名)子產
L153n1636_p0420a12║謂申屠嘉曰我先出則子止子先出則我止
L153n1636_p0420a13║(此重言子產不能忘我以功名自矜故恥與介者為伍故止其不與同出入也)其明
L153n1636_p0420a14║日又與合堂同席而坐(言申屠嘉自忘其介而亦不知子產之厭
L153n1636_p0420a15║己也)子產謂申屠嘉曰我先出則子止子先出
L153n1636_p0420b01║則我止今我將出子可以止乎其未耶且子
L153n1636_p0420b02║見執政而不違(迴避也)子齊執政乎(子產見申屠嘉之不
L153n1636_p0420b03║避己故明言之然以執政矜人則形容子產之陋也)申屠嘉曰先生之
L153n1636_p0420b04║門固有執政焉如此哉(申屠嘉鄙子產之陋乃曰先生之門固有
L153n1636_p0420b05║此不能相忘之人哉)子而說子之執政而後人者也(言子
L153n1636_p0420b06║但知有己之執政故以人不若己者此陋之甚也)聞之曰鑑明則塵
L153n1636_p0420b07║垢不止止則不明也久與賢人處則無過今
L153n1636_p0420b08║子之所取大者先生也而猶出言若是亦不
L153n1636_p0420b09║過乎(此譏子產之不明也蓋聞老子自知者明之意笑子產不自知也意謂子產既
L153n1636_p0420b10║遊聖人之門而猶發言如此足見無真學問也)子產曰子既若是矣
L153n1636_p0420b11║(子產言申屠之廢人而不能自反而與人爭善)猶與堯爭善計子之
L153n1636_p0420b12║德不足以自反耶(德猶見識也謂申屠嘉既廢如此而不自反求諸己
L153n1636_p0420b13║而猶且以聖自居將與堯爭善我計料子之知見誠愚而不自反也子產畢竟露出本來
L153n1636_p0420b14║面目)申屠嘉曰自狀其過以不當亡者眾(狀者言自
L153n1636_p0420b15║知己過之分明也謂若人能自知己過則人之過更有甚於我者如此見恕則以我之足
L153n1636_p0421a01║不當忘者眾矣)不狀其過以不當存者寡(此句義似不順當去
L153n1636_p0421a02║一不字意謂若人不自狀其己過則責我太過則以我足當者寡矣)知不可柰
L153n1636_p0421a03║何而安之若命惟有德者能之(若知我無可柰何而命之
L153n1636_p0421a04║使然如此知命相忘乃有德能之耳)遊於羿之彀中中央者中
L153n1636_p0421a05║地也然而不中者命也(羿之善射而人遊於必中之地不被射而
L153n1636_p0421a06║死者亦幸而免耳以喻世人履危機當禍而免者亦幸耳謂我以不幸而不免者豈非命
L153n1636_p0421a07║之有在耶)人以其全足笑吾不全足者眾矣我佛
L153n1636_p0421a08║然而怒(言始也人笑我以足不全我則怫然如怒)而適先生之所
L153n1636_p0421a09║則廢然而反(言初未聞道故未忘人我今自入先生之門一聞大道則人我
L153n1636_p0421a10║之見盡廢亡矣)不知先生之洗我以善耶(言不自知其先生洗
L153n1636_p0421a11║我以善也)吾與夫子遊十九年矣而未嘗知吾兀
L153n1636_p0421a12║者也(我與先生遊十九年向未知我之亡足也)今子與我遊於形
L153n1636_p0421a13║骸之內而子索我於形骸之外不亦過乎(言我
L153n1636_p0421a14║與子相知以心即當相忘以道不當取於形骸之間今子乃以形骸外貌索我不亦過乎)
L153n1636_p0421a15║子產蹴然改容更貌曰子無乃稱(子產聞說則中心愧
L153n1636_p0421b01║服而謝之曰子無乃稱謂再不必言也)。
L153n1636_p0421b02║ 此章形容聖人忘功故以子產發之蓋實
L153n1636_p0421b03║ 德內充形骸可外而安命自得以道相忘
L153n1636_p0421b04║ 則了無人我之相此學道之成效也。
L153n1636_p0421b05║魯有兀者叔山無趾踵見仲尼曰子不謹前
L153n1636_p0421b06║既犯患若是矣雖今來無及矣無趾曰吾惟
L153n1636_p0421b07║不知務(務謂務學道也)而輕用吾身吾是以亡足今
L153n1636_p0421b08║吾來也猶有尊足者存(尊足蓋指性而言也)吾是以務
L153n1636_p0421b09║全之也夫天無不覆地無不載吾以夫子為
L153n1636_p0421b10║天地安知夫子之猶若是也(無趾自以所全者性真而夫子
L153n1636_p0421b11║猶以形骸取之初以夫子為聖人之大不無不容不知其猶若此之區區也)孔子
L153n1636_p0421b12║曰丘則陋矣夫子胡不入乎請講以所聞(夫子
L153n1636_p0421b13║聞無趾之言知其為有道者故請入願講其所聞)無趾出孔子曰弟
L153n1636_p0421b14║子勉之夫無趾兀者也猶務學(謂務學道也)以補
L153n1636_p0421b15║前行之惡而況全德(猶全體也)之人乎無趾語老
L153n1636_p0422a01║聃曰孔丘之於至人其未耶彼何賓賓以學
L153n1636_p0422a02║子為(言初以孔丘為至人今見其未至也如此之見識何以賓賓恭謹以學子為)
L153n1636_p0422a03║彼且蘄以諔詭幻怪之名聞不知至人之以
L153n1636_p0422a04║是為己桎梏耶(桎梏乃拘手足之刑言孔子專求務外之名聞而不務實
L153n1636_p0422a05║彼殊不知虛名乃諔詭幻怪之具非本有也如桎梏之於手足拘之而不得自在者也)
L153n1636_p0422a06║老聃曰胡不使彼以死生為一條以可不可
L153n1636_p0422a07║為一貫者解其桎梏其可乎(可不可謂善惡是非也一條即
L153n1636_p0422a08║一貫也老子謂無趾何不以無死生忘善惡之道以告之以解其好名之桎梏乎)無
L153n1636_p0422a09║趾曰天刑之安可解(刑舊注作型乃上模也此譏孔子乃天生成此
L153n1636_p0422a10║等務名之人安可解乎)。
L153n1636_p0422a11║ 此章發揮聖人忘名故以孔子為務虛名
L153n1636_p0422a12║ 而不尚實德之人故取人於規規是非善
L153n1636_p0422a13║ 惡之間殊不知至人超乎生死之外而視
L153n1636_p0422a14║ 世之浮名為桎梏蓋未能忘死生一是非
L153n1636_p0422a15║ 故未免落於世之常情耳聖人則不以此
L153n1636_p0422b01║ 為得也。
L153n1636_p0422b02║魯哀公問於仲尼曰衛有惡人焉(謂醜貌之人也)曰
L153n1636_p0422b03║哀駘它丈夫與之處者思而不能去也(言男子與
L153n1636_p0422b04║之相處則不忍捨去)婦人見之請於父母曰與為人妻
L153n1636_p0422b05║寧為夫子妾者十數而未止也(言婦人見之而皆願為之
L153n1636_p0422b06║妾者不止一人也)未嘗有聞其唱者也(謂未有所長而先見聞於
L153n1636_p0422b07║人者也)常和而已矣(亦秪見隨於庸眾人而已)無人君之位
L153n1636_p0422b08║以濟乎人之死(言無勢位以濟人之死)無聚祿以望人
L153n1636_p0422b09║之腹(望猶月望之望謂飽滿也言無位聚祿以周給於人以飽人之腹)又以
L153n1636_p0422b10║惡駭天下(既無利濟於人且又醜貌以駭天下之人)和而不唱(言一
L153n1636_p0422b11║向隨人自無專能)知不出乎四域(言無超出世間常人之見識)且
L153n1636_p0422b12║而雌雄合乎前(雌雄猶言爭勝負也謂凡人之是非勝負不決者皆取決
L153n1636_p0422b13║其人言此事常合在前)是必有異乎人者也(言貌醜而人從之者
L153n1636_p0422b14║眾必有異乎人之所為者也)寡人召而觀之果以惡駭天
L153n1636_p0422b15║下(及召而觀之果然醜貌不見其所長)與寡人處不至以月數
L153n1636_p0423a01║而寡人有意乎其為人也(及相處月數則見其有可愛處但未
L153n1636_p0423a02║盡知耳)不至乎期年寡人信之(不期年則信之深矣)國無
L153n1636_p0423a03║宰(宰即宰相掌一國之政事)寡人傳國焉(言以國事授之也)悶然
L153n1636_p0423a04║而後應(悶然若不悅其事也)汜而若辭(汜謂泛然不經心而若辭也)
L153n1636_p0423a05║寡人醜乎(言見彼之不在意故自愧醜也)卒授之國無幾何
L153n1636_p0423a06║去寡人而行寡人卹焉若有亡也(言卹其去若已有所
L153n1636_p0423a07║亡失也)若無與樂是國也(察其人之意蓋不以國為樂也)是何
L153n1636_p0423a08║人者耶(謂不知是何等之人也使我愛之如此)仲尼曰丘也嘗
L153n1636_p0423a09║使於楚矣適見豚子食於其死母者少焉眴
L153n1636_p0423a10║若(見死母之目不瞬也)皆棄之而走不見己焉爾(謂母之目
L153n1636_p0423a11║不見己也)不得類焉爾(言形僵不同前者之食於母故皆棄之而走也)所
L153n1636_p0423a12║愛其母者非愛其形也愛使其形者也(形者假物
L153n1636_p0423a13║也使其形者真宰也言豚之子母乃天性之愛也往日食於母何嘗不愛及今纔死始則
L153n1636_p0423a14║就之而食及見目之不瞬則知精神不在故棄之而走是則死生不遠即棄之而走是知
L153n1636_p0423a15║所愛者非形骸乃愛使其形骸之真宰也雖物之至愚尚知愛其天真而況於人乎)戰
L153n1636_p0423b01║而死者其人之葬也不以翣資(翣古訓纛乃大將之旗也
L153n1636_p0423b02║戰而死者以此為送葬之儀言已失其勇又無其尸似以此虛儀為葬資則無其本矣)
L153n1636_p0423b03║刖者之屨無為愛之(言刖者無足跌而履亦無可用)皆無其
L153n1636_p0423b04║本也(以翣資刖屨為無本之喻意謂真可愛者在本也)為天子之諸
L153n1636_p0423b05║御不剪爪不穿耳(言選天子之侍御者不剪爪不穿耳不欲毀其全體
L153n1636_p0423b06║將以要寵也)娶妻者止於外不得復使(言新婚之婦必先戒
L153n1636_p0423b07║不作事務恐胼胝其手足也)形全猶足以為爾而況全德
L153n1636_p0423b08║之人乎(言天子之御新婚之人不如此不足以要寵結歡但全其形尚如此況全
L153n1636_p0423b09║德之人乎言魯君之愛駘它蓋忘形愛其形之本也有難以言語形容者故夫子連以三
L153n1636_p0423b10║事喻其可愛之在本)今哀駘它未言而信無功而親使
L153n1636_p0423b11║人授己國惟恐其不受也(言哀駘它未與魯君一語而見信若
L153n1636_p0423b12║此且無功即授之以國惟恐其不受豈無謂哉)是必才全而德不形
L153n1636_p0423b13║者也哀公曰何謂才全(言才者謂天賦良能即所謂性真莊子指
L153n1636_p0423b14║為真宰是也言才全者謂不以外物傷戕其性乃天性全然未壞故曰全)仲尼曰
L153n1636_p0423b15║死生存亡窮達貧富賢與不肖毀譽饑渴寒
L153n1636_p0424a01║者是事之變命之行也(仲尼言才全而先言此十六事者蓋此諸
L153n1636_p0424a02║事皆戕生傷性之事變而世人未有不被其傷損其性真者故先言之)日夜相
L153n1636_p0424a03║代乎前(此十六事人生於世日夜相代於前未嘗暫免者是皆戕生傷性之具也)
L153n1636_p0424a04║而知不能規乎其始者也(言上十六事日夜相代而以知規規
L153n1636_p0424a05║求之不知所由來蓋達其性真本不涉其變)故不足以滑和(滑音汩謂
L153n1636_p0424a06║汩溺也和謂本元中和之體也言以上諸事雖常情之變但了其本無故不足以汩和)
L153n1636_p0424a07║不可入於靈府(靈府所謂靈臺言諸變不可以搖動其性也)使之
L153n1636_p0424a08║和豫通而不失於兌(和者即中和之和謂性真達於事變渾然而不
L153n1636_p0424a09║失其體也豫者安然自得而悅豫也通者謂達於事變而不滯也兌者即老子玄牝之門
L153n1636_p0424a10║謂虛通應物而無跡者也言真人所以才全者蓋保其性真而不失也)使日夜
L153n1636_p0424a11║無卻而與物為春(卻亦作隙謂縫謼也言真人之一性綿綿日夜無隙
L153n1636_p0424a12║未嘗間斷但於應物之際春然和氣發現令人煦然而化也)是接而生時
L153n1636_p0424a13║於心者也(時者謂接物應機時行時止與物俱化未嘗逆也若夫愚人則與接
L153n1636_p0424a14║為搆矣)是謂之才全(此言真人應物一味性德流行無一息之間故謂之
L153n1636_p0424a15║言全)何謂德不形(此哀公問也)曰平者木停之盛也
L153n1636_p0424b01║其可以為法也內保之而外不蕩也(德者謂性之德
L153n1636_p0424b02║用也以性德之用難以言語形容故以水平為喻蓋言水之平者乃停之盛謂湛淵澄靜
L153n1636_p0424b03║之至故可以取法為準言性體湛淵澄渟寂然不動則虛明朗鑑乃內保之而外境不蕩
L153n1636_p0424b04║為守宗保始之喻謂性靜虛明則可以鑑物為用也)德之成和之脩也
L153n1636_p0424b05║(言虛明朗鑑乃德之成蓋從中和用功修而後得者非漫然也)德不形者物
L153n1636_p0424b06║不能離也(不能離者謂與物混一而不分故人但見其物之變而不知性之真
L153n1636_p0424b07║故其德不易形著於外所以人但見其貌惡而不識其才德之全耳觀孔子對哀公之言
L153n1636_p0424b08║發明中庸和也者天下之達道之意何等正大精確)哀公異日以告閔
L153n1636_p0424b09║子曰始也吾以南面而君天下執民之紀而
L153n1636_p0424b10║憂其死吾自以為至通矣(言自以為至通於道也)今吾
L153n1636_p0424b11║聞至人之言恐吾無其實輕用吾身而亡吾
L153n1636_p0424b12║國吾與孔丘非君臣也德友而已矣。
L153n1636_p0424b13║ 此章形容聖人之德必須忘形全性體用
L153n1636_p0424b14║ 不二內外一如平等湛一方為全功故才
L153n1636_p0424b15║ 全德不形為聖人之極致蓋才全則內外
L153n1636_p0425a01║ 不二德不形則物我一如此聖人之成功
L153n1636_p0425a02║ 所以德充之符也故魯君聞之亦能忘分
L153n1636_p0425a03║ 感化而友於聖人也。
L153n1636_p0425a04║闉跂(曲跂也)支離(形不全也)無脤(無臀也)說衛靈公靈
L153n1636_p0425a05║公說之而視全人其脰(頸也)肩肩(細小貌)甕盎大
L153n1636_p0425a06║癭(言癭如甕盎也)說齊桓公桓公說之而視全人其
L153n1636_p0425a07║脰肩肩故德有所長而形有所忘(言二子醜惡之狀而
L153n1636_p0425a08║使二君說之反視為全人之不如者蓋愛其德故自忘其形也)人不忘其所
L153n1636_p0425a09║忘(所忘者性也言世人迷性真而愛形骸故忘其性今欲不忘)而忘其所
L153n1636_p0425a10║不忘(所不忘者形也世人忘性而愛形故今欲忘之)此謂誠忘(忘其所愛
L153n1636_p0425a11║而不忘其所不愛此之謂誠忘)故聖人有所遊(聖人遊於大道之鄉而忘
L153n1636_p0425a12║其物欲)而知為孽(知者以智巧揣摩人心謂之知孽妖孽也)約為膠
L153n1636_p0425a13║(以仁義結束人心謂之約膠固結而不解也)德為接(以小惠要買人心謂之德
L153n1636_p0425a14║接應接於人也)工為商(以機關罔取人之利謂之工工猶技巧也商行貨之人也)
L153n1636_p0425a15║聖人不謀惡用智不斷惡用膠無喪惡用德
L153n1636_p0425b01║不貨惡用商(四者皆偽以喪真淳故聖人去之以全天德)四者天
L153n1636_p0425b02║鬻也(謂四者淳德乃天德也鬻猶售也四德乃天售即所謂天爵是也)天鬻
L153n1636_p0425b03║也者天食也(謂天既售我以天德則天之所以食我也又何取於人偽哉)
L153n1636_p0425b04║既受食於天又烏用人(言天生我性德自有天然之受用又何以
L153n1636_p0425b05║人偽求之)有人之形無人之情(言聖人雖居人世其形雖似人而絕
L153n1636_p0425b06║無人之情)有人之形故群於人(其形為人故群於眾人之之中)無
L153n1636_p0425b07║人之情故是非不得於身(以形寄人中心超物外不以物為事
L153n1636_p0425b08║故無人世之是非)眇乎小哉所以屬於人也(人在太虛中乃
L153n1636_p0425b09║萬物之一數耳其最眇小者又何足以愛之)謷乎大哉獨成其天
L153n1636_p0425b10║(謷者謷然超於物表也言性德廣大全此天德故由人而入於天)。
L153n1636_p0425b11║ 前雖以知忘形而知尚存未盡道妙故此
L153n1636_p0425b12║ 一章以忘忘知知忘則德自化方能合乎
L153n1636_p0425b13║ 自然以全天德其德乃充故如二君之見
L153n1636_p0425b14║ 二子能不見其形此所以為德之符也聖
L153n1636_p0425b15║ 人造道之極致至此方為究竟耳故以此
L153n1636_p0426a01║ 結一篇之義。
L153n1636_p0426a02║惠子謂莊子曰人故無情乎(借惠子之問以結者因上文發
L153n1636_p0426a03║揮天德之全者乃絕情欲去人偽心與天游乃能充實其天德故恐世人將謂絕情則非
L153n1636_p0426a04║人類矣故假惠子以發之故乃故有之故謂本來無情耶)莊子曰然(莊子直然
L153n1636_p0426a05║其問者蓋約人性本來離情絕欲故直然之)惠子曰人而無情何
L153n1636_p0426a06║以謂之人(惠子意謂世人若無其情則非人也此俗人之常見也)莊子
L153n1636_p0426a07║曰道與之貌天與之形惡得不謂之人(道者性之
L153n1636_p0426a08║固有人之所當行也人稟此性而為人乃道與之貌即天與之形也既有此性豈非人乎)
L153n1636_p0426a09║惠子曰既謂之人惡得無情(此惠子全不知道理與常人所
L153n1636_p0426a10║見一般謂既是箇人豈得無情者乎)莊子曰是非吾所謂情也
L153n1636_p0426a11║吾所謂無情者言人之不以好惡內傷其身
L153n1636_p0426a12║常因其自然而不益生也(惠子意謂必有情欲乃可為人故以
L153n1636_p0426a13║無情不得為人為問莊子以正義荅之曰我所謂無情者非絕無君親父子夫婦之情也
L153n1636_p0426a14║蓋因世人縱情肆欲以求益生而返傷其生故我要絕其貪欲之情耳非是絕無人倫也)
L153n1636_p0426a15║惠子曰不益生何以有其身(惠子又以為人生必欲養其口
L153n1636_p0426b01║體乃可以有其身此全是常人之識見耳)莊子曰道與之貌天與
L153n1636_p0426b02║之形無以好惡內傷其身(莊子意謂人既道與之貌天與之形
L153n1636_p0426b03║矣苟無以好惡內傷其身如此則全生養身之至道又何庸益生為哉)今子外
L153n1636_p0426b04║乎子之神勞乎子之精倚樹而吟據槁梧而
L153n1636_p0426b05║暝(槁梧琴也乃惠子倚樹據琴而暝以辯論也莊子意謂惠子不能樂其天德而返外
L153n1636_p0426b06║其精神而倚樹據梧以逞辯論是非也)天選子之形子以堅白
L153n1636_p0426b07║鳴(謂天選子之形賦以全德今乃捨之而返恣堅白之論以自鳴失之甚矣)。
L153n1636_p0426b08║ 此篇以忘情絕欲以全天德故其德乃充
L153n1636_p0426b09║ 前已發揮全德之妙故結以無情非人以
L153n1636_p0426b10║ 盡絕情全德之意所以警俗勵世之意深
L153n1636_p0426b11║ 矣。
L153n1636_p0426b12║
L153n1636_p0426b13║
L153n1636_p0426b14║
L153n1636_p0426b15║莊子內篇註卷之三
L153n1636_p0427a01║   音釋
L153n1636_p0427a02║ [窾-士+上] (音[肄-聿+欠]空也)。   軱 (攻乎切音姑大骨也)。   謋 (霍虢切音砉謋然速也)。   蜄 (音腎
L153n1636_p0427a03║  大蛤可為盛器)。   樠 (模昆切音門脂出樠然也)。   柤 (莊加切詐平聲以木為闌也)。
L153n1636_p0427a04║ 診 (止忍切音軫占[騇-古+(一/心)]也)。   藾 (盧[蓋-去+太]切音賴蔭芘也)。   咶 (善指切音視與[舌*氐]同)。   [木*戈]
L153n1636_p0427a05║  (夷益切音弋所以格獸也)。   樿 ([上/日]善切音顫棺木之全一邊者)。   繲 (居隘切音懈浣
L153n1636_p0427a06║  衣也)。   翣 (色甲切音啑棺羽飾又纛也)。   謷 (牛刀切音敖大貌)。
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