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【經文資訊】嘉興大藏經(新文豐版) 第三十六冊 No. B348《靈峰蕅益大師宗論》
J36nB348_p0299b01║靈峰蕅益大師宗論卷第三之一
J36nB348_p0299b02║    古歙門人成時編輯
J36nB348_p0299b03║  荅問一
J36nB348_p0299b04║   荅卓左車彌陀疏鈔三十二問(原問附)
J36nB348_p0299b05║ (問,華嚴雖二乘盲聾,亦兼攝聲聞,以含無量乘故。此經雖二乘種不生,乃道品大小互通,正與華嚴
J36nB348_p0299b06║ 四聖諦品不異,故有生彼經劫方證小果者。大智度論云,彌陀亦以三乘度生,自應二藏五教總攝,
J36nB348_p0299b07║ 何云不攝小乘。且既通雜華,復不能通雜華所攝無量乘邪。)
J36nB348_p0299b08║荅,疏主判經,以頓通圓,不以圓攝頓。又約道品即小
J36nB348_p0299b09║成大,小果暫有終無之義,謂不互攝,豈一句彌陀,不
J36nB348_p0299b10║橫羅諸教,圓契五宗,不全體華嚴,全攝諸乘也。
J36nB348_p0299b11║ (問,餘門豎出,念佛橫出。餘門正指教中觀行,故禪稱別傳,淨云徑路,皆以超越觀行故。今云觀即是
J36nB348_p0299b12║ 念,念即是觀,直以台觀當之,不反鈍置念佛邪。)
J36nB348_p0299b13║荅,此之橫豎,約自力他力斷惑帶業而論,不約境諦
J36nB348_p0299b14║觀智。故念佛圓收圓超一切法門,亦不可以參禪為
J36nB348_p0299b15║例。若論諦智,四教觀行,有析空體空次第一心之不
J36nB348_p0299b16║同。謂前三豎出三界則可,謂非橫非豎之一心三觀,
J36nB348_p0299b17║亦為豎出可乎。況觀經以如來勝異方便,攝眾生性
J36nB348_p0299b18║具觀門,同宗一心,同歸淨土,觀念相即,何名鈍置。但
J36nB348_p0299b19║辯持名,不惟散善,非妙觀便不捷徑也。別傳之旨,尤
J36nB348_p0299b20║不容剩言滯句。末法之中,有名無義,果令四教不收,
J36nB348_p0299b21║便成離經魔說,烏在其為超越也。
J36nB348_p0299b22║ (問,天台三觀,得攝法界觀否。)
J36nB348_p0299b23║荅,華嚴法界,生佛同源。以收機不盡,不免現權隱實。
J36nB348_p0299b24║則阿含乃至涅槃,皆華嚴閫外,所以驅率土盡令臣
J36nB348_p0299b25║服也。法華實相,本跡同印,以說時未至,不免為實施
J36nB348_p0299b26║權。則般若乃至華嚴,皆法華前茅,所以會甸荒同令
J36nB348_p0299b27║執玉也。一名從本垂末,一名攝末歸本,非一心三觀,
J36nB348_p0299b28║何得事事無礙。非事事無礙,何名一心三觀。
J36nB348_p0299b29║ (問,合論判極樂淨土是權,淨名唯心淨土是實。然菩薩成佛,眾生來生,明言攝受往生之事,與彌陀
J36nB348_p0299b30║ 無二。疏言此指事一心者,豈事一心,便不名唯心邪。)
J36nB348_p0299c01║荅,合論以不斷惑生同居,乃如來權巧之力,非謂法
J36nB348_p0299c02║藏四十八願,莊嚴淨土,亦非實也。淨名心淨土淨,正
J36nB348_p0299c03║同法藏往因。至於菩薩成佛,眾生來生,何妨從實垂
J36nB348_p0299c04║權。若念佛人,因事入理,又何妨即權即實。權實事理,
J36nB348_p0299c05║總屬一心,雖分不分。古人判釋,皆當作如是觀。
J36nB348_p0299c06║ (問,觀雖十六,言佛便周。何故鈔只通普觀,為助因邪。)
J36nB348_p0299c07║荅,念佛觀佛,歸趣同,入門異。初心行人,雜則不成三
J36nB348_p0299c08║昧,故唯稱萬德洪名,便為多善根。然正助兼修,本無
J36nB348_p0299c09║定法,如行舟然,揚帆扯纜,撐篙搖櫓,各隨其便可也。
J36nB348_p0299c10║ (問,大本言生彼國者,皆當一生遂補佛處。然中下胎生,豈等覺菩薩邪。)
J36nB348_p0299c11║荅,非等覺,而可稱一生補處。以不更歷生死,必圓無
J36nB348_p0299c12║上菩提故。小本眾生生者,皆是阿鞞跋致,亦指此生
J36nB348_p0299c13║必補佛處而言,不以常塗三不退論。下又云,其中多
J36nB348_p0299c14║有一生補處,則別指現證等覺者,亦以此生必補。故
J36nB348_p0299c15║得云,其中多有也。所以極樂凡聖同居土,與常塗教
J36nB348_p0299c16║意迥別。常塗不過暫時同居,此與一切等覺,同淨寂
J36nB348_p0299c17║光,故云得與如是諸上善人俱會一處。諸上二字,不
J36nB348_p0299c18║概指無量聲聞菩薩,單指多有一生補處而言。又常
J36nB348_p0299c19║塗約感應,及聖者過去有漏業,得與權實聖人同居。
J36nB348_p0299c20║此則同一無漏不思議業感生,俱會一處。故又云,不
J36nB348_p0299c21║可以少善根福德因緣得生彼國。少字揀至別教地
J36nB348_p0299c22║前,并豎揀至圓教住前。以住前皆仗自力登住,入同
J36nB348_p0299c23║生性,方蒙諸佛護念故。吾每謂淨土大教,圓收一切
J36nB348_p0299c24║教,超出一切教,正謂此也。
J36nB348_p0299c25║ (問,單念佛人,不修餘行,得波羅密,即是多善多福。今念佛所證,止素法身邪,已具萬行莊嚴邪。)
J36nB348_p0299c26║荅,三身一體,普賢行門,不外毘盧性海。是以初心雖
J36nB348_p0299c27║不修餘行,令三昧易成。而三昧既成,三因圓顯,豈有
J36nB348_p0299c28║已證法身,莊嚴終缺。亦何須未證法身,預恐不具足
J36nB348_p0299c29║邪。然或一門深入,或餘行助成,未許執一。一行三昧,
J36nB348_p0299c30║一即是多。萬善同歸,多即是一。
J36nB348_p0300a01║ (問,念佛的是誰,與別則公案無二。鈔云,體究念佛,與舉話頭下疑情意極相似。然四種念佛,未列體
J36nB348_p0300a02║ 究一法。經文本無此意,不應入淨業門。今兩路雙徵,若參此不悟,亦不失往生。此為參門留一退步,
J36nB348_p0300a03║ 正墮偷心。若此疑不破,便不得生。此為念門啟一疑情,卻成異說。智徹慈炤天奇毒峰諸師,皆主此
J36nB348_p0300a04║ 說,何所本邪。雲棲若祖諸師,何不直拈誰字。若只相似而已,願聞不全是處。)
J36nB348_p0300a05║荅,因念佛人不見佛性,偷心不死,故以此語昭告之,
J36nB348_p0300a06║令直下相應,即於一念中圓見三身。圓淨四土,階理
J36nB348_p0300a07║一心,此一門深入一心不亂之前茅也。後人聞此誠
J36nB348_p0300a08║言,無論悟與不悟,便可死心念佛,更何用參此段公
J36nB348_p0300a09║案。直須如此了得。當知昔人下此語時,絕無禪淨之
J36nB348_p0300a10║分。後祖收之,但入本宗,非入淨業。何以故,公案現在
J36nB348_p0300a11║故。今疏主收入淨業,仍為禪宗。何以故,救有禪無淨
J36nB348_p0300a12║土之病故。然則若信得及,以悟為則,以淨土為歸,真
J36nB348_p0300a13║實不欺,不留退步,即此似處,即已全是。若信不及,死
J36nB348_p0300a14║我偷心,而偷心轉甚,正好實念。而念反狐疑,只此似
J36nB348_p0300a15║處,即全不是。故曰,學道須是鐵漢,著手心頭便判。有
J36nB348_p0300a16║疑則參,雖罷參而不能。無疑則念,欲起疑而何自。如
J36nB348_p0300a17║是則直念苦參,亦無非往生正行也。
J36nB348_p0300a18║ (問,如子憶母,必想儀容。今但念聲相續,不取相貌,易馳散否。或依出入諸息,得非小乘法邪。)
J36nB348_p0300a19║荅,子之憶母,或善想儀容,或呼號血淚。觀經云,彼人
J36nB348_p0300a20║苦逼,不遑念佛(此指觀想)。善友教言,汝若不能念彼佛者,
J36nB348_p0300a21║應稱無量壽佛(此指稱名)。夫三界無非劇苦,何止臨命終
J36nB348_p0300a22║時。以畏苦心呼號求救,馳散何從。否則攝心調息諸
J36nB348_p0300a23║法,亦自不惡。圓人受法,無法不圓,豈有定屬小乘者。
J36nB348_p0300a24║試問記珠定香鳴魚擊磬等,大乘邪,小乘邪。
J36nB348_p0300a25║ (問,大本有一念定生彼國,疏中不及。豈以此經七日入定乃生,故揀去剎那生滅之一念邪。若釋一
J36nB348_p0300a26║ 以義不以數,大本不應擊十念後。若止如經文,作一念喜愛,何不動如來佛剎,不以愛戀得生。)
J36nB348_p0300a27║荅,按寶王論,利根之士,元只一念往生。鈍根之人,臨
J36nB348_p0300a28║終十念脫苦。一念者,一心不亂之一念也。當知十念,
J36nB348_p0300a29║七日十日七七日九十日等,究竟亦唯一念。此一念,
J36nB348_p0300a30║斷非剎那生滅之散心,亦不必四禪四空之禪定,故
J36nB348_p0300b01║云一念喜愛。阿[門@(人/(人*人))]經喜戀心,本指欲染。
J36nB348_p0300b02║ (問,七日後,若永不復亂,不應只名七日。若更亂者,已經退轉,何能感佛。)
J36nB348_p0300b03║荅,前此若無真實意樂,則七日決不能一心不亂。後
J36nB348_p0300b04║此若無真實受用,又安見七日功成邪。
J36nB348_p0300b05║ (問,鈔謂,理一心為觀力成就,則體究全屬觀門。然前言妙觀難成,故顯持名殊勝。今又通觀法,不仍
J36nB348_p0300b06║ 觀勝持邪。若參誰字是體究,又全屬宗門。正參話時,不應有如智不二,寂照難思等理路可傍。)
J36nB348_p0300b07║荅,事理二塗,混不得,分不開。疏主一往以稱名為事
J36nB348_p0300b08║持,體究為理持,仍云機亦互通,不必疑阻。謂不假方
J36nB348_p0300b09║便,自得心開,事持能成就理一心也。又謂體究之極,
J36nB348_p0300b10║於自本心,忽然契合,名理一心。則未契時,體究無閒,
J36nB348_p0300b11║止名究理,正是事功。然體究一門,與近時禪宗相合,
J36nB348_p0300b12║實與台宗妙觀不同。台觀必圓解了了,全性起修,隨
J36nB348_p0300b13║舉一觀,無非不思議境。體究以未明心性,鞫其根源,
J36nB348_p0300b14║契合之後,達如智不二,寂照一心,方與台宗圓解吻
J36nB348_p0300b15║合。非正參話時,有理路可傍也。初學妙理既未精通,
J36nB348_p0300b16║不可彷彿相傍,心麤境細,妙觀難成,以此。
J36nB348_p0300b17║ (問,疏鈔大意,全重理持,則所明持法,最為要害。今既持名,復云理觀,既是理觀,復拈話頭,禪淨止觀,
J36nB348_p0300b18║ 三法混淆。行人念不歸一,將何為宗。與一門深入專修無閒之旨,何復不侔。)
J36nB348_p0300b19║荅,疏主欲即事入理,非以理奪事。當知持名是正行,
J36nB348_p0300b20║理觀是所通,話頭是持名轉局也。序云,著事而念能
J36nB348_p0300b21║相繼,不虛入品之功,執理而心實未明,反受落空之
J36nB348_p0300b22║禍,亦未專重理持。所以處處明理者,恐狂罔謗為凡
J36nB348_p0300b23║愚之行耳。後裔無知,反執理輕事,以遭落空之記。哀
J36nB348_p0300b24║哉。
J36nB348_p0300b25║ (問,疏言,一心,即達磨直指之禪。又云,六祖斥無,乃門庭施設不同。假使纔弘直指,復讚西方,則直指
J36nB348_p0300b26║ 之意,終無由明。既言即是直指,復言為門不同,是少林曹谿亦不同邪。)
J36nB348_p0300b27║荅,心地法門,包含無際,總不外一心。門庭施設不同,
J36nB348_p0300b28║一心旨歸不異。今一心即直指之禪,言其指歸也。六
J36nB348_p0300b29║祖斥無,是老婆罵婢子,只圖齒切耳。非謂但是宗門,
J36nB348_p0300b30║便須撥淨土也。永明云,有禪有淨土,猶如戴角虎。中
J36nB348_p0300c01║峰云,禪者淨土之禪,淨土者禪之淨土。豈贊西方,直
J36nB348_p0300c02║指便不明邪。若言六祖定作是語,莫謗六祖好。
J36nB348_p0300c03║ (問,疏指至心念佛一聲,滅八十億劫生死重罪,屬理一心。又釋佛名經,一聞佛名,滅無量劫生死之
J36nB348_p0300c04║ 罪。云一聞,不待憶念,無量,不但八十億劫,則何獨理一心也。又此經聞經聞名,皆得不退,事邪理邪。)
J36nB348_p0300c05║荅,觀經十念,除罪往生。由怖苦心切,善友緣強,一念
J36nB348_p0300c06║猛利。過百年悠悠,非必有究理之行,然勝於尋常事
J36nB348_p0300c07║持。疏主或借顯事功極者,即不違理乎。若佛名經所
J36nB348_p0300c08║言,以彼佛具無量威德願力,故聞者獲如是益。聞不
J36nB348_p0300c09║信,亦獲無量罪。要非少善根福德眾生,所能得聞也。
J36nB348_p0300c10║不退亦不一等,隨聞證者。有位行念三不退,僅歷耳
J36nB348_p0300c11║根者,如食少金剛,究竟不消,為遠因終不退也。
J36nB348_p0300c12║ (問,棗柏言,華嚴一乘大道,非往生菩薩境界。何故華嚴長子,十願導歸極樂邪。生公說,闡提有佛性,
J36nB348_p0300c13║ 則後出涅槃為證。今後出行願,全與棗柏不符,宗旨竟將安歸。)
J36nB348_p0300c14║荅,淨土豎該橫遍,寂光惟佛土,實報乃法身大士所
J36nB348_p0300c15║居,方便攝三乘權位,同居則凡夫皆與。合論指大心
J36nB348_p0300c16║凡夫,回心羅漢,出五濁,生同居方便二淨土,未悟毘
J36nB348_p0300c17║盧性海,入因陀羅網法界也。普賢十願導歸極樂,正
J36nB348_p0300c18║不思議解脫境界。徹果徹因,通凡通聖。聖全法界入
J36nB348_p0300c19║一塵,凡從一塵通法界。棗柏但言一乘大道,非往生
J36nB348_p0300c20║菩薩境界,不謂往生菩薩,非一乘大道法門也。若云
J36nB348_p0300c21║華藏大,極樂小,大小之見未忘,未夢華嚴法界在。
J36nB348_p0300c22║ (問,既以事持屬定,理持屬慧,而云,事持未能破妄,利根徑就理持,將事不顯理,慧不由定邪。)
J36nB348_p0300c23║荅,三無漏學,後必具前。故理一心,或從體究,忽然契
J36nB348_p0300c24║合,或從念佛,自得心開,皆由定來。今重悟理,不止除
J36nB348_p0300c25║散。雖體究無閒時,便可名事一心,亦有定力,而仍屬
J36nB348_p0300c26║慧門。實則定慧二門,各有利鈍,疏主略未言耳。
J36nB348_p0300c27║ (問,決志求驗,正在平時,經胡止言臨終佛現。)
J36nB348_p0300c28║荅,行人見佛,隨淨業淺深。經明往生,故言接引耳。今
J36nB348_p0300c29║只在執持名號處努力加鞭,無論見與未見,但得信
J36nB348_p0300c30║願行成就,往生自可無疑,慎勿生僥倖退息心也。
J36nB348_p0301a01║ (問,心不顛倒,故能預知時至。乃云死時何苦欲先知,何邪。)
J36nB348_p0301a02║荅,不貴預知,正欲令其心不顛倒。頗有因欲先知而
J36nB348_p0301a03║愈重其顛倒者。
J36nB348_p0301a04║ (問,大本十念,不言臨終。此與觀經,為同為別。)
J36nB348_p0301a05║荅,大本云,志心信樂,乃至十念。觀志心信樂,何等深
J36nB348_p0301a06║切。不必在臨終時,實與臨終同一猛利。後世祖師,因
J36nB348_p0301a07║立晨朝十念行門,畢生不缺,亦決往生。
J36nB348_p0301a08║ (問,文殊亦發願往生,何反揀去勢至。鈔言,耳根不攝念佛,念佛能攝耳根。又何邪。)
J36nB348_p0301a09║荅,法無優劣,機有抑揚,無煩戲論。觀音六根中,從耳
J36nB348_p0301a10║根入。勢至七大中,從根大入。論入門,耳根此方獨利。
J36nB348_p0301a11║論收機,淨念三根普通。又圓人法法貫徹,耳根淨念,
J36nB348_p0301a12║互攝互融。初機耳唯一根,念乃都攝,亦可抑揚。
J36nB348_p0301a13║ (問,用攀緣心為自性,如煮沙成饌。今念佛心,是攀緣邪,非攀緣邪。若是,則一切覺觀思惟,皆生死根
J36nB348_p0301a14║ 本。若非,又何言念性生滅,因果殊感邪。若生滅即不生滅,何云煮沙。此與波水之喻,當自不倫。波即
J36nB348_p0301a15║ 是水,沙非是饌。然法華若人散亂心,南能不斷百思想者,又非即用此生滅心邪。)
J36nB348_p0301a16║荅。錯不在用攀緣心,在以之為自性,所謂認驢鞍橋
J36nB348_p0301a17║作阿爺下頷,便成沙饌之喻。若識得攀緣心,本無自
J36nB348_p0301a18║性,則能用攀緣。不被攀緣用,所謂家賊難防時,識得
J36nB348_p0301a19║不為怨,便合波水之喻。況勢至一門,本屬根大。意根
J36nB348_p0301a20║為主,五根從之,故曰都攝六根,淨念相繼。意根即第
J36nB348_p0301a21║七識,七識無始來,念念執我。今以妙觀察智力,令直
J36nB348_p0301a22║下念佛,甜瓜換苦瓠,非尋常攀緣心比。尋常眼識緣
J36nB348_p0301a23║色,乃至意識緣法,皆順生死法。念佛時,佛非色非非
J36nB348_p0301a24║色,乃至非法非非法。超世閒法,離語言道,但可淨念
J36nB348_p0301a25║憶持,原非情量所行境界,豈念佛心是攀緣邪。且以
J36nB348_p0301a26║攀緣六塵增長生死者,轉攀緣慈父,永脫苦輪,亦自
J36nB348_p0301a27║不惡,安得一概論邪。又娑婆根性,唯耳根易顯圓常。
J36nB348_p0301a28║念性猶屬生滅。非已悟如來藏性者,終不達念性本
J36nB348_p0301a29║圓通也。末世學人,鮮登圓解,耳根入道,亦甚難言。儻
J36nB348_p0301a30║不能向佛頂前四卷,痛思深義,窮源徹底,則初於聞
J36nB348_p0301b01║中入流亡所工夫,畢竟如何理會。圓頓法門,非小根
J36nB348_p0301b02║劣智所能擬議。無米索炊,畫空成繪,反不若因果殊
J36nB348_p0301b03║感者,自得心開耳。
J36nB348_p0301b04║ (問,經末先言不退,後明往生,正以現生取辦,超乎餘教。何反開少壽多障,不克往生,來世得生一路。)
J36nB348_p0301b05║荅,真念佛,決無不生淨土。退菩提者,第恐障深慧淺
J36nB348_p0301b06║之流。見自他未效,不罪工力淺,肉眼瞇,反疑佛法無
J36nB348_p0301b07║靈,現生退惰。故曲顯勝益,策令現生取辦也。
J36nB348_p0301b08║ (問,顯密並圓,何云持名勝準提。)
J36nB348_p0301b09║荅,極準提神力,肉身往詣十方淨土,極念佛三昧,肉
J36nB348_p0301b10║眼等見十方如來,誠無勝劣。然約生佛因緣,法門所
J36nB348_p0301b11║被,通塗教意,理應獨顯今宗。
J36nB348_p0301b12║ (問,參究念佛,謂向上一著,千聖不傳,必從參究方得。既一代時教,皆屬他寶,何禪門公案,便屬家珍。
J36nB348_p0301b13║ 若云禪是教之綱領,何故世尊不說。若云經文亦可參究,又何勞千七百則邪。參話一節,迦文既未
J36nB348_p0301b14║ 拈示,西來亦無此門。若謂門庭既熟,便成窠臼,故換此法,今參話亦成熟路,更換一法何如。)
J36nB348_p0301b15║荅,向上一著,千聖不傳,可云必從參究得邪。然亦一
J36nB348_p0301b16║種方便,本無實法綴人,故古稱敲門瓦子,何嘗以公
J36nB348_p0301b17║案作家珍。苟昧綱宗,死在句下,謂參話方能悟道,病
J36nB348_p0301b18║參話亦成門庭,皆益戲談,何關宗教。當知舉一明三,
J36nB348_p0301b19║目機銖兩之士,隨拈一法,透一切法,盡屬家珍,誰為
J36nB348_p0301b20║他寶。若緣木求魚,守株待兔,三藏十二部,是拭瘡疣
J36nB348_p0301b21║紙,千七百公案,亦陳腐葛藤。法無得失,得失在人。但
J36nB348_p0301b22║當因言會心,何得迷心逐語。果契心源,知佛祖皆無
J36nB348_p0301b23║一法與人,將以何法換去何法邪。
J36nB348_p0301b24║ (問,五逆可以往生,佛何不能滅定業邪。又造業人,若借此自寬,寧不入地獄如箭射邪。)
J36nB348_p0301b25║荅,千年暗室,一燈能破。懺力既殷,業便無定。若頑愚
J36nB348_p0301b26║迷津,得船不上,牽裳作筏,抱石為舟,既無迴轉之力,
J36nB348_p0301b27║是真定業難逃矣。
J36nB348_p0301b28║ (問,涅槃法師,以未誦彌陀經,不得往生。法華云,聞此經,如說修行,命終生安樂世界。何不同邪。)
J36nB348_p0301b29║荅,淨土一門,願為前導,未誦彌陀,即平日願樂不深。
J36nB348_p0301b30║若法華所云,是世尊直以妙經為蓮邦左券,勸願明
J36nB348_p0301c01║矣。法華即是彌陀,妙經勸願,即是彌陀勸願,即是涅
J36nB348_p0301c02║槃勸願,亦即是一切諸經勸願,無不同也。
J36nB348_p0301c03║ (問,彼土為人天錯居,為各分九品。佛浴池及菩薩聲聞,為在天上,在人閒。既注彼境,應令依正條然。)
J36nB348_p0301c04║荅,淨土純樂,天人豈應迢絕。九品往生,未判人天,或
J36nB348_p0301c05║皆九華化生,或天不須托質,皆未可知。大本謂宮殿
J36nB348_p0301c06║樓閣,有在池者,在空者。觀經謂樹上寶網,妙華宮殿,
J36nB348_p0301c07║諸天童子,自然在中。然則淨界莊嚴,豈可凡情測量,
J36nB348_p0301c08║俾其條然邪。
J36nB348_p0301c09║ (問,淨土既宣道品,何觀經止言讀誦大乘。不及小乘。又淨業門,有不禮餘佛不誦餘經者,不併違觀
J36nB348_p0301c10║ 經邪。)
J36nB348_p0301c11║荅,般若每列三十七品。隨結云,乃至一切智智清淨,
J36nB348_p0301c12║無二無二分,無別無斷故。道品豈非大乘法門邪。淨
J36nB348_p0301c13║業古宿,有一門深入者,乃圓人禮一佛,即禮一切佛,
J36nB348_p0301c14║誦一經,即誦一切經。恆沙寶性,無量法藏,一齊委付,
J36nB348_p0301c15║一時領知。大乘方等經典,須如是讀誦始得。
J36nB348_p0301c16║ (問,一句彌陀,若不通種種法門,莫罄其致。乃云,修餘法門,便屬二心。豈非受一非餘邪。)
J36nB348_p0301c17║荅,不知一切法即一法,廣修誠屬二心。若一法中透
J36nB348_p0301c18║一切法,專習即是總持。佛行魔行,豈在法也。
J36nB348_p0301c19║ (問,奘師以兜率近,判內院易生,鈔以論因不論地揀之。後言勝蓮,雖超極樂,然樂邦近,何又論地邪。)
J36nB348_p0301c20║荅,皆論因也。勝蓮境界,去博地凡夫甚遠,不同彌陀,
J36nB348_p0301c21║近垂方便,十念便可成因。未有不能生極樂,而能生
J36nB348_p0301c22║勝蓮者。但深信佛語,入淨土玄閫,極樂未必不即勝
J36nB348_p0301c23║蓮。如情生遍計,疑極樂為權施,則勝蓮遠矣。
J36nB348_p0301c24║ (問,鈔中蓮臺二義。今金剛臺,紫金臺,為是房臺,是基臺。)
J36nB348_p0301c25║荅,汎言二義。若托質金臺,本在花內,基臺非所論也。
J36nB348_p0301c26║   荅印生四問(原問附)
J36nB348_p0301c27║ (問,未得戒時,以何法攝心。十戒有犯,許懺悔否。懺悔後,即許進具否。作何懺法,方名得戒。)
J36nB348_p0301c28║荅,得戒須具殷重心,清淨心,希求勝法。懺悔須具慚
J36nB348_p0301c29║愧心,決斷心,翻前惡境。即此為攝心法,即此是得戒
J36nB348_p0301c30║因。十戒有犯,誓不更造,律許進具。應鄭重,不宜欲速。
J36nB348_p0302a01║ (問,一代時教,初心許遍閱否。參禪許看教否。若悟後方看,此生恐難保任,若麤了即參,又恐知解纏
J36nB348_p0302a02║ 繞。)
J36nB348_p0302a03║荅,看教貴精不貴多。一部中精研妙義,徹骨徹髓,自
J36nB348_p0302a04║然旁通眾典,勢如破竹。欲徹骨髓,必須看時,即是觀
J36nB348_p0302a05║心。既曰觀心,功同參悟,原非尋言逐句,有何相礙。教
J36nB348_p0302a06║理資神,如膏助火,是在精了其義,不應麤了。未能精
J36nB348_p0302a07║了,而曰知解纏繞,何異戰敗之士,咎武藝太多邪。
J36nB348_p0302a08║ (問,黃蘗已前無話頭,未審何法得悟。我今當從何入門下手邪。作何主宰,不被境奪邪。何時當見人,
J36nB348_p0302a09║ 何地方究竟邪。幸詳示之。)
J36nB348_p0302a10║荅,直下知歸,那有實法。參話本後世方便,死人偷心
J36nB348_p0302a11║耳。從上諸祖,但向本分中留心。只今學人,須向本分
J36nB348_p0302a12║中下手。一切時,一切處,只為此本分事,自不見有境,
J36nB348_p0302a13║豈為所奪。善知識者,時時當見,決擇身心,直至圓滿
J36nB348_p0302a14║菩提,方為究竟。是在當人發大勇猛,擴大虛懷,啟迪
J36nB348_p0302a15║大智,長養大悲,捨一切愛見,修一切方便,乃不墮外
J36nB348_p0302a16║道二乘權教諸境界耳。
J36nB348_p0302a17║ (問,參究念佛之說,當得話頭否。既恐今生不悟,來生難保,故用此法,以攝往生。然又恐為參禪開一
J36nB348_p0302a18║ 退步,當作何融通邪。一生參禪,臨終發願何如。)
J36nB348_p0302a19║荅,眾生顛倒,轉說轉疑。吾今徹底道破,亦令當來諸
J36nB348_p0302a20║有志者,毋泣歧路。既一門深入,何須疊床架屋,更涉
J36nB348_p0302a21║參究。但觀蓮宗諸祖,便知淨不須禪。若為大事因緣,
J36nB348_p0302a22║有疑未破,欲罷不能,而行參究,正應殷勤回向西方。
J36nB348_p0302a23║但觀永明等諸大祖師,便知禪決須淨。本分中事了
J36nB348_p0302a24║然可辨,何須曲為融通也。信則便信,疑則別參。
J36nB348_p0302a25║   代荅劉心城又上博山四問(原問博山書附)
J36nB348_p0302a26║ (蒙示,即今若有取捨,同之一字,即是妄言。然妙宗云,取捨若極,與不取捨亦非異轍。正謂取捨愈有
J36nB348_p0302a27║ 愈無,斯為圓妙。若無之始無,不落小乘邪。)
J36nB348_p0302a28║荅,極者,謂取至無可取處,捨至無可捨處,恰與不取
J36nB348_p0302a29║捨合,非僅以取捨作無取捨會也。正欲極之,不欲無
J36nB348_p0302a30║之。若未致其極,便欲無之。且墮惡取,便擬欲同,正屬
J36nB348_p0302b01║妄言。
J36nB348_p0302b02║ (蒙示,以葛藤埽葛藤,與不絆葛藤者,優劣若何。夫台宗二而不二,不二而二,正爭此葛藤之有無。則
J36nB348_p0302b03║ 教理不廢葛藤,葛藤無非圓頓。)
J36nB348_p0302b04║荅,文字性離,非離文字。未達斯旨,謾云不立。只此不
J36nB348_p0302b05║立,便是文字。悟時轉法華,此不絆葛藤也。誰為所埽,
J36nB348_p0302b06║誰為能埽。智者九旬談妙,字字從祕藏流出,字字能
J36nB348_p0302b07║含攝祕藏。豈似尋章逐句,入海算沙,全墮葛藤窠臼,
J36nB348_p0302b08║乃云葛藤埽葛藤邪。
J36nB348_p0302b09║ (蒙示,多句不如一句,須得水源。若尋枝蔓,妄云句歸何處,不太蚤計邪。竊聞台宗,專用六識,謂伐樹
J36nB348_p0302b10║ 得根,灸病得穴。既得其本,即蔓是本,既得其源,即流是源。)
J36nB348_p0302b11║荅,定穴定根,所以待灸待伐,故曰須得水源。若培業
J36nB348_p0302b12║根而不伐,護膏肓而不灸,則錯認源流,倒置本末,悖
J36nB348_p0302b13║台宗奧旨,入生死迅流矣。
J36nB348_p0302b14║ (蒙示,一念識心保無失腳,未知用那個心保得。若用識心,隔陰不知宿命。然台宗專用六識,為圓頓
J36nB348_p0302b15║ 無上止觀,懸合楞嚴。楞嚴云,憶佛念佛,現前當來,必定見佛。憶念非用六識邪。教中明用六識,六識
J36nB348_p0302b16║ 明知位次。若能依教修學,教理可作保人。)
J36nB348_p0302b17║荅,台宗觀一念識心,即不思議境者。以圓解之人,既
J36nB348_p0302b18║達如來藏性,故即流是源也。若謂專用六識,是以攀
J36nB348_p0302b19║緣為自性,乃生死根本,正楞嚴所訶。猥云懸合,不幾
J36nB348_p0302b20║謗止觀邪。又勢至圓通,屬七大中根大,故曰都攝六
J36nB348_p0302b21║根,淨念相繼,意根為主,五根從之。以根為識,確為有
J36nB348_p0302b22║過。台宗云,觀心若起,本跡俱絕。從此方能斷惑證理,
J36nB348_p0302b23║安立位次。若六識明知位次,便屬法塵分別影事,何
J36nB348_p0302b24║名圓頓法門。既留心台教,藉為保人,未識保人作何
J36nB348_p0302b25║面孔,能決定相保邪。果然識得保人,管取亦能自保。
J36nB348_p0302b26║   擬荅忘所上博山書問(原問博山柬附)
J36nB348_p0302b27║ (法久逾衰,非時使然,授受濫觴,不可援耳。且以學人論之,根之利鈍,誰免相生住滅,及流注生住滅。
J36nB348_p0302b28║ 縱不落識情,分別迴絕,相許言斷,流注能截然乎。即使截然,尚名真如流注。夫眾生妄想執著,世尊
J36nB348_p0302b29║ 四十九年鏟刷,令執著遣盡,然後拈花示眾。此一拈花,豈非佛四十九年說的。眾生積劫迷的,以迷
J36nB348_p0302b30║ 則不敢拈,非佛不能作捷徑法,最初了此一大事也。今於善知識棒喝機鋒能如是承當否。復以師
J36nB348_p0302c01║ 範言之,達磨西來,正為此方,名言習氣沸盛,別投一劑無意路還元丹也。至曹谿分衍,仍恐又墮言
J36nB348_p0302c02║ 說。所以五家各立門戶,借賓主君臣玄要,以探虛實。古人於此事,真劍刃上行。乃今之宗乘,又為昔
J36nB348_p0302c03║ 之教法,安得再有一達磨來,藥病俱埽,埽亦不留,面少林九年壁乎。不爾,亦當如趙州黃蘗之大用。
J36nB348_p0302c04║ 其餘又不勝數,要皆以新法勝人也。此新法正是無師智,自然智,佛不能傳,語所不載,如大將軍臨
J36nB348_p0302c05║ 敵,韜略俱捨,以敵亦熟明此法故。然亦離此韜略一字不得,以韜略正載此活法,人自死耳。得之者
J36nB348_p0302c06║ 死語拈來皆活,不得者活句拈來皆死。無法無新,新在自得。語不出人意表,何以解人無始黏縛,點
J36nB348_p0302c07║ 鐵成金乎。)
J36nB348_p0302c08║從上佛祖,本無實法與人。拈花微笑,乃至達磨初來,
J36nB348_p0302c09║雖云傳佛心印,豈離眾生心外更有佛心可傳。不過
J36nB348_p0302c10║為人解黏去縛,令達妄想無性耳。達得妄想無性,二
J36nB348_p0302c11║種生住滅當下寂然。若欲向生住滅處截斷,正恐一
J36nB348_p0302c12║番鏟刷,倍增一番執著。且達磨單傳之旨,如畫龍點
J36nB348_p0302c13║睛,令其飛去,非離文字,說於解脫。則昔日之教法,本
J36nB348_p0302c14║未嘗埽,今日之宗乘,又何用新。謂一切知識皆以新
J36nB348_p0302c15║法勝人,幸莫謗知識也。且既知離卻舊法,別無新法,
J36nB348_p0302c16║豈不知欲作新法,便成舊法。死語活句,亦復如是。當
J36nB348_p0302c17║今學者,濁智流轉,偷心熾然,不思追蹤往哲,但欲奪
J36nB348_p0302c18║彩時流。為善知識,正應據先聖之典型,杜其僭竊。不
J36nB348_p0302c19║惟棒喝機鋒漸成惡套,即有藥病俱埽,埽亦不留之。
J36nB348_p0302c20║達磨來,恐不留,復成窠臼。如波逐波,有何了期。莫若
J36nB348_p0302c21║向源頭處討箇脈路,則循規蹈矩,不施一巧,坐致太
J36nB348_p0302c22║平。幸薦取本分草料,莫更求格外鉗錘也。
J36nB348_p0302c23║   擬荅白居易問寂音禪師書(問在林閒錄)
J36nB348_p0302c24║如來出世,惟為一乘。眾生根性不等,方便說三。雖復
J36nB348_p0302c25║說三,究竟歸一。恐不信沒在苦,故須鑒彼當機。恐以
J36nB348_p0302c26║三乘作實法會,故云無有高下。夫眾生種種病,只是
J36nB348_p0302c27║一病,以不識佛性故。如來種種藥,元是一藥,究竟為
J36nB348_p0302c28║一佛乘故。然受病既久,變症多端。醫王用藥,亦須隨
J36nB348_p0302c29║宜得所。然則病愈藥除,乃如來本意,藥應病與,乃方
J36nB348_p0302c30║便智門,惟達如來設教元由,自得末世利人妙用。為
J36nB348_p0303a01║下種者,強毒以大亦可,為熟脫者,善巧說三亦可。若
J36nB348_p0303a02║權實之致不明,悉檀之義未委,豈惟順機說三為妄
J36nB348_p0303a03║分別,即一味道亦瞞盰儱侗。故六種經中所有二義,
J36nB348_p0303a04║恰恰相成也。五蘊十二因緣者,蘊以積聚覆蓋為義,
J36nB348_p0303a05║分名為四,對色成五,只名色一支便具,何得約十二
J36nB348_p0303a06║因緣倫次成難邪。十二因緣,約三世因果輪迴,以能
J36nB348_p0303a07║生果為因,展轉相藉為緣。是故蘊惟苦諦,緣兼苦集,
J36nB348_p0303a08║蘊法約橫,因緣約豎。始從無明,終至老死,一一支中,
J36nB348_p0303a09║皆具五蘊。不依五蘊,何得無明,安有諸行。生即五蘊
J36nB348_p0303a10║虛妄和合,老即五蘊虛妄變異,死即五蘊虛妄散壞
J36nB348_p0303a11║耳。
J36nB348_p0303a12║   荅人問參究初心方便說
J36nB348_p0303a13║向上一機,自有祖庭正令,不落方便。既曲為中下,設
J36nB348_p0303a14║方便門。有一病,隨有一藥。病既萬端,藥亦千變。良醫
J36nB348_p0303a15║合宜而用,砒霜活人,庸醫昧機而施,醍醐傷命。立一
J36nB348_p0303a16║法必伏一獘,有一利,必具一害。棒喝機鋒,提持公案,
J36nB348_p0303a17║皆藥也,亦皆病也,未可軒輊,亦未可決定執為初心
J36nB348_p0303a18║方便。如人行路,不與導師同程,莫若博問路徑。不然,
J36nB348_p0303a19║惜一時之躊躇,貽歷年之錯誤,入鬼國,墮深坑,遇蠱
J36nB348_p0303a20║毒,逢劫賊,敢保十箇五雙有分在。
J36nB348_p0303a21║   荅菩薩戒九問(原問附)
J36nB348_p0303a22║ (問,梵網云,於未受戒人前,說七佛教戒者,犯輕垢罪,謂但遮誦時,不遮講時。何意。)
J36nB348_p0303a23║荅,比丘戒法,關係僧輪,為防賊住,一切俱遮。菩薩戒
J36nB348_p0303a24║法,普收五道,解義發心,事非所禁。但誦時恐有發露,
J36nB348_p0303a25║不合令未受者知,故云不得說也。
J36nB348_p0303a26║ (問,戒本四重,梵網十重,詳略不同。梵網犯重,見相更受,戒本但云更受。寬嚴有異,何也。)
J36nB348_p0303a27║荅,戒本出地持,地持合殺盜婬妄名出家八重。善生
J36nB348_p0303a28║經列殺盜婬妄酤酒說過,名優婆塞六重。梵網備二
J36nB348_p0303a29║經之義,總為十重,纓絡亦同,由被機不等故也。今戒
J36nB348_p0303a30║本四重,復有三義。一者,在家出家欲受此戒,必已先
J36nB348_p0303b01║受五戒十戒具戒,是則殺盜婬妄根本性重,不須更
J36nB348_p0303b02║列,惟列增上戒也。二者,菩薩戒法,逆順無方,為眾生
J36nB348_p0303b03║故,容少分現行性罪,此四理無開許,故獨列之。三者,
J36nB348_p0303b04║根本四罪,一犯永墮,大乘雖通懺悔,亦必期于見相。
J36nB348_p0303b05║今此四法,設有犯者,猶堪更受,恐濫前四,故獨列之。
J36nB348_p0303b06║然梵網犯重,必見好相者。釋迦和尚,一往法嚴。彌勒
J36nB348_p0303b07║闍梨,輕重開遮,理須詳悉。今准經論參合發明。殺盜
J36nB348_p0303b08║等四,隨犯一種,諸戒並失,得見好相,大可重受。而比
J36nB348_p0303b09║丘法中,仍無僧用酤酒等六,隨犯一種,失菩薩戒。具
J36nB348_p0303b10║戒以下,不名為失,故殷勤悔過,許其重受。二經互相
J36nB348_p0303b11║影略,非相違也。
J36nB348_p0303b12║ (問,比丘遮罪難緣乃開。今性罪開而遮罪無文,且逆行凡夫安能利人邪。)
J36nB348_p0303b13║荅,遮罪為護眾生,大士皆應同學。難緣所開,已同聲
J36nB348_p0303b14║聞,惟性罪一向遮,故須開也。不揀是凡是聖,果能悲
J36nB348_p0303b15║心代苦,慚愧不為功,則戒身無恙。儻藉口任情,止成
J36nB348_p0303b16║自欺,必虧戒體。莫貪大士虛名,而招長夜苦報也。
J36nB348_p0303b17║ (問,受戒羯磨文,若無授者,聽像前自受。梵網自誓受戒,必須要見好相,不見好相,不名得戒。何也。)
J36nB348_p0303b18║荅,受戒一事,須論因緣。因是內心殷重,緣是授受分
J36nB348_p0303b19║明。修證貴因深,教道藉緣具。是以比丘律藏,嚴住持
J36nB348_p0303b20║僧寶之體,專重眾緣。瓔珞地持,開趨向菩提之路,但
J36nB348_p0303b21║觀因地。梵網最初結戒,理須二法並扶,故雖許自受,
J36nB348_p0303b22║必見相為期也。又復應知,如起信所明,或有眾生以
J36nB348_p0303b23║大悲故,能自發心,或正法欲滅,以護法因緣故,能自
J36nB348_p0303b24║發心。復有見佛色相,而發其心。今梵網求相,所以使
J36nB348_p0303b25║發菩提。地持像前得受,但指已發心者。梵網嚴立法,
J36nB348_p0303b26║地持嚴擇人,互表裏也。復次瓔珞經云,諸佛菩薩現
J36nB348_p0303b27║在前受,名上品戒,法師相授,名中品,千里無師像前
J36nB348_p0303b28║自受,名下品。亦無求見好相之言。然猶約外緣分別。
J36nB348_p0303b29║復有論云,發增上心,得增上戒。又心無盡者,戒亦無
J36nB348_p0303b30║盡,是約內因分上中下也。今人大須自審,果念念與
J36nB348_p0303c01║悲智相應,上荷正法,下憫含生,便遵瓔珞地持。如雖
J36nB348_p0303c02║希佛道,悲智未深,則須秉持梵網。或現有明師,心存
J36nB348_p0303c03║憍慢,不從求受,別向像求,斯則兩經咸不聽,五悔終
J36nB348_p0303c04║不成。既欲遠趨極果,豈容因地不真。豪傑士斷不宜
J36nB348_p0303c05║自誑矣。
J36nB348_p0303c06║ (問,大乘重內因。今時律師,可知人內因真否。如不真,得戒否。如不得戒,設犯還定罪否。)
J36nB348_p0303c07║荅,羯磨文有觀察當機之法,不知內因而妄授,不免
J36nB348_p0303c08║無解作師之過。受者不善無記心,雖不發戒,然濫膺
J36nB348_p0303c09║菩薩名,自當依法判罪。非比丘戒中,竟以賊住論也。
J36nB348_p0303c10║ (問,懺罪羯磨,許向小乘悔過。梵網經,不得向未受菩薩戒者說。尚不向說,可向悔邪。)
J36nB348_p0303c11║荅,住持僧寶,堪受懺悔。又聲聞人,雖未識長者是父,
J36nB348_p0303c12║實是真子,非餘一切未受戒者比也。至半月說戒,遣
J36nB348_p0303c13║之令出,是布薩常規。亦彈斥微旨,然當必有菩薩比
J36nB348_p0303c14║丘主之,仍是攝取於僧矣。
J36nB348_p0303c15║ (問,梵網有見上座和尚阿闍梨,及請二師之文。又五逆,加弒二師,成七。今授戒,何止一師。)
J36nB348_p0303c16║荅,瓔珞地持,並止一師。又梵網受法,傳自什師,載於
J36nB348_p0303c17║義疏,亦止一師。其請二師,是請佛菩薩,所云應如法
J36nB348_p0303c18║供養二師。及弒二師成逆,則遍指比丘戒等二師。
J36nB348_p0303c19║ (問,重定受戒法,初已發菩提願,何後復令發四弘,招重繁過。)
J36nB348_p0303c20║荅,前審因,後秉法;前發心向道,後誓鎧莊嚴;前總後
J36nB348_p0303c21║別;前覺悟始因,後要期極果;前一心思惟知識開示,
J36nB348_p0303c22║後三寶加持道場剋證。由前故有後,由後以成前,豈
J36nB348_p0303c23║云重複。如先請師,像前復請。又如授比丘戒,屏問遮
J36nB348_p0303c24║難,僧中復問,亦重繁邪。
J36nB348_p0303c25║ (問,既謂機感有殊,授法不一,若簡若繁,俱無乖舛,則直宗一轍,何必會三家成一式。)
J36nB348_p0303c26║荅,始予獨遵慈氏羯磨,往往有嫌太略者,乃敢折衷,
J36nB348_p0303c27║會三為一。但用經論成言,更不別加文飾。三典並現
J36nB348_p0303c28║流通,想是機宜有在,聊順一時之機,匪敢執今非古。
J36nB348_p0303c29║可用與否,一任後賢。
J36nB348_p0303c30║   荅黃稚谷三問(原問附)
J36nB348_p0304a01║ (問,佛不能滅定業,地藏菩薩胡為有滅定業真言邪。且既達本來罪福皆空,又何謂邪。)
J36nB348_p0304a02║荅,業之與報,皆是自心現量。心空一切皆空,心假一
J36nB348_p0304a03║切皆假,心中一切皆中。特凡夫不達能造所造,能受
J36nB348_p0304a04║所受,當體三德祕藏,而以殷重倒心,作殷重惡業,必
J36nB348_p0304a05║招殷重苦報,名為定業。彼心既定,不可挽回,大覺亦
J36nB348_p0304a06║不能即令消滅。故大慈悲巧設方便,令地藏大士說
J36nB348_p0304a07║咒勸持,即是轉其定心,漸使消滅也。是故菩薩功能,
J36nB348_p0304a08║全是佛之功能。佛既不居,菩薩亦不居。究竟只在當
J36nB348_p0304a09║人一念信受持咒之心耳。此正所謂既達本來罪福
J36nB348_p0304a10║皆空之旨,原非撥無因果。以罪福因果當體即空,亦
J36nB348_p0304a11║復即假即中。迷則滅與不滅,俱非達本。達則滅與不
J36nB348_p0304a12║滅,總不礙空也。古人云,如何是本來空,業障是。如何
J36nB348_p0304a13║是業障,本來空是。透此二語,便出野狐窠臼矣。
J36nB348_p0304a14║ (進問,畢竟佛何不自說,所謂佛不能滅,尚有疑在。)
J36nB348_p0304a15║荅,釋此須知三義。一諸佛說法,必係四悉因緣。有聞
J36nB348_p0304a16║佛說而歡喜生善滅惡入理者,佛即自說。如楞嚴尊
J36nB348_p0304a17║勝諸咒,皆滅定業也。有聞菩薩說而歡喜生善滅惡
J36nB348_p0304a18║入理者,須菩薩說。如此咒及大悲等咒是也。二罪不
J36nB348_p0304a19║自滅,不他滅,不共滅,不無因滅,而有時唯說自滅。云
J36nB348_p0304a20║心空業空,有時惟說他滅。云佛菩薩力,有時說須共
J36nB348_p0304a21║滅,雙舉內因外緣,有時說無因滅。云非自非他,皆四
J36nB348_p0304a22║悉因緣,否則便成四謗也。三不能滅,約三藏跡佛。能
J36nB348_p0304a23║滅,指圓教因人。如華嚴云,初發心時,已勝牟尼,亦其
J36nB348_p0304a24║例也。知此三義,一切法無不通達。
J36nB348_p0304a25║ (問,萬緣搆時息心休定,覺甚快樂,而攝入之功甚難。若行數息作觀等門,恐多一番作意起滅,如何
J36nB348_p0304a26║ 頓入一念不生境界。)
J36nB348_p0304a27║荅,一切境界,本自不生,亦不住滅。迷此理本,皆是生
J36nB348_p0304a28║住滅相,妄見萬緣搆集,妄生苦惱。又於息心休定境
J36nB348_p0304a29║界,妄生快樂,苦惱快樂,皆醉見也。緣集緣散,皆屋轉
J36nB348_p0304a30║也。直須酒醒,方知屋本不轉。又須知屋本不轉,迷醉
J36nB348_p0304b01║方可醒耳。數息作觀等妙法,各逗一機。欲頓悟境界
J36nB348_p0304b02║不生,莫若四性推揀。觀此現前一念,為自生邪,他生
J36nB348_p0304b03║共生無因生邪。念若自生,何藉外緣。若他生,何關自
J36nB348_p0304b04║己。若共生,應一分有知,一分無知。有因尚不可,況無
J36nB348_p0304b05║因生。仔細檢責,覓念生相,實不可得。念既無生,境界
J36nB348_p0304b06║安有。二俱不生,不復更滅。一切時中,重重照破,不捨
J36nB348_p0304b07║一切法,不住一切法,不厭一切法,不著一切法。作意
J36nB348_p0304b08║即非作意,起滅亦無起滅,一門超出妙莊嚴路也。
J36nB348_p0304b09║   荅陳弘袞二問(原問附)
J36nB348_p0304b10║ (問,橫死之說,與業報矛盾。又既有不應死而死,必有不應生而生,推之富貴貧賤莫不皆然。范鎮謂
J36nB348_p0304b11║ 人生如樹花同發,隨風而散,或墜茵席之上,或落糞溷之中,不誠有理邪。)
J36nB348_p0304b12║荅,一切因果,從來不爽。橫死之果,的由橫死之因。蓋
J36nB348_p0304b13║業有三世不同,謂現報業,生報業,後報業。此三世業
J36nB348_p0304b14║力,又各論強弱,互相傾奪。且如有人,前生業報。今應
J36nB348_p0304b15║長壽。乃忽起猛惡夭折之因,遂入橫死科中。據現報
J36nB348_p0304b16║則非橫死,據夙善即不應死而死。惟業果由心招感,
J36nB348_p0304b17║故心能轉業,則定而不定。心被業牽,則非定而定。請
J36nB348_p0304b18║為決曰,人生如樹花,隨善業風吹,墮人天茵席之上。
J36nB348_p0304b19║隨惡業風吹,墮三塗糞溷之中。噫,安得深達唯心之
J36nB348_p0304b20║士,與曠觀業性差別哉。
J36nB348_p0304b21║ (進問,因果三世義備矣,儒不信也。易曰積善之家,必有餘慶。積不善之家,必有餘殃,論其身及其子
J36nB348_p0304b22║ 孫而止耳。故德之厚者,必曰宗廟饗子孫保,以斬然無後為德之至薄。佛亦有以此論因果者否。)
J36nB348_p0304b23║荅,因果道理,窮深極遠,徹妄該真。尼山大聖,姑就見
J36nB348_p0304b24║聞開曉,乃因果一義耳。即此而通之,可信佛法。執此
J36nB348_p0304b25║而自是,兼礙儒門。夫積善餘慶,何堯舜無肖子,夷齊
J36nB348_p0304b26║無後昆。積惡餘殃,何盜蹠永壽,曹馬高爵,此非通于
J36nB348_p0304b27║三世,終墨墨矣。由一切無非因果,故窮通壽夭,榮辱
J36nB348_p0304b28║得失,雜然互感,事非一轍。乃至父母子孫,皆以同業
J36nB348_p0304b29║相召。佛經亦雅言之。然世閒因果,虛幻不實。且如大
J36nB348_p0304b30║舜,宗廟饗,子孫保,已不能留至今日。三千年來,彈指
J36nB348_p0304c01║已過,何如度脫親因,永超生死,為出世大孝邪。是以
J36nB348_p0304c02║儒明因果,非不合佛法,但知一不知二,知近不知遠。
J36nB348_p0304c03║此拘虛者之所不信,明達者之所必求也。
J36nB348_p0304c04║   荅元賡問
J36nB348_p0304c05║真言與佛名,功德平等,機緣不同,各具四益。今勸持
J36nB348_p0304c06║咒,與勸持佛名無異。當信菩薩機緣,及吾人願力。各
J36nB348_p0304c07║自離過絕非,不可思議。儻謂持名為是,持咒為非,華
J36nB348_p0304c08║嚴所謂受一非餘,魔所攝持也。記數之法,普被三根。
J36nB348_p0304c09║上根不礙記,下根必須記。故總以數期之。俾利者即
J36nB348_p0304c10║此打成一片。而鈍者亦不失緣因善根。儻託言事理
J36nB348_p0304c11║一如,不須記數,恐上智少下愚多,不至忘失者幾希
J36nB348_p0304c12║矣。
J36nB348_p0304c13║   荅鄧靖起三問
J36nB348_p0304c14║禪門流弊久矣,未可力爭也。賴有識之士,用其法不
J36nB348_p0304c15║染其病,鑒其失不廢其法耳。凡鍼灸藥石可起病者,
J36nB348_p0304c16║無論君臣佐使,皆心上化工也。古人訶坐禪,勸坐禪,
J36nB348_p0304c17║勸提話,訶提話,各逗機宜。善用之無非是藥,不善用
J36nB348_p0304c18║無不增病。必執訶坐為是,何異執話頭者訶放下也。
J36nB348_p0304c19║真到參無可參處,教外別傳,正法眼藏,是甚麼馬屁
J36nB348_p0304c20║[土*孛]。
J36nB348_p0304c21║念佛三昧,三昧中王,信不容易。但既三根普被,又不
J36nB348_p0304c22║宜一味說難。且七日一心不亂,不可判淺。夜夜伴佛
J36nB348_p0304c23║眠,不可判深。蓋一心不亂,有事有理。事一心已不容
J36nB348_p0304c24║易,理一心何容強臻。而共眠共起之佛,不過本具性
J36nB348_p0304c25║德,蠢動皆爾,非關修證,殊未希奇。若達共起共眠之
J36nB348_p0304c26║佛,仍熾然言念無閒,方得名理一心。若未達共起共
J36nB348_p0304c27║眠之佛,一味言念他佛,念至打成一片,得見他佛,即
J36nB348_p0304c28║頓悟共起共眠之佛矣。勢至云,不假方便,自得心開。
J36nB348_p0304c29║十六觀云,諸佛有異方便,令汝得見,此之謂也。故一
J36nB348_p0304c30║聲彌陀,無論解與不解,如染香人,身有香氣,念念都
J36nB348_p0305a01║是成佛真因。而漫云炒砂成飯,不幾謗三世諸佛大
J36nB348_p0305a02║方便法輪乎。
J36nB348_p0305a03║攝律儀戒成法身德,攝善法戒成般若德,攝眾生戒
J36nB348_p0305a04║成解脫德,三德即三身極果。戒為法界,一切法所歸
J36nB348_p0305a05║趣,一切法所從出。故云,惟佛一人持淨戒,其餘皆名
J36nB348_p0305a06║破戒者。又云,若人受佛戒,即入諸佛位。佛頂謂,縱有
J36nB348_p0305a07║多智禪定現前,若不斷婬殺等,必落魔道神道。惟以
J36nB348_p0305a08║戒攝心,令其生定發慧,方名三無漏學。故知受戒修
J36nB348_p0305a09║行,如黃帝堯舜垂衣裳而天下治,不假兵戈也。至別
J36nB348_p0305a10║商參究話頭等對治法門,是兵者不得已而用之耳。
J36nB348_p0305a11║六祖既悟心宗,出世仍須稟具。清涼華嚴菩薩,十誓
J36nB348_p0305a12║凜如冰霜。遠公蓮社始祖,臨終考午後蜜。千古芳規,
J36nB348_p0305a13║昭昭具在,何狂禪肆無忌憚,淺學絕不經懷也。
J36nB348_p0305a14║   荅淨性三問(原同附)
J36nB348_p0305a15║ (問,心外無法,同體之義明矣,如何大心不發而自利。法外無心,法法皆是法界明矣,云何逢緣又生
J36nB348_p0305a16║ 取捨。若云名字位中雖知此理,柰煩惱習氣所使,還捨習氣,不捨習氣邪。)
J36nB348_p0305a17║荅,汝之所明者,語言道理而已。法塵妄影,尚不能自
J36nB348_p0305a18║利,何況大心。已是取捨,何待逢緣。此即是汝煩惱習
J36nB348_p0305a19║氣。若果了同體法界,更有何習氣可捨哉。
J36nB348_p0305a20║ (問,十界一心,何不相知。若惟佛知,則生佛不同。若名字知,非究竟知,還屬修功。若云不須論修,現現
J36nB348_p0305a21║ 成成,則生佛無別。)
J36nB348_p0305a22║荅,妄謂各不相知,便於心外別計十界矣。若知十界
J36nB348_p0305a23║唯一心,則心尚不可得,何有各各不相知之十界邪。
J36nB348_p0305a24║悟十界唯一心者,假名為佛,如醒人見屋不轉。迷一
J36nB348_p0305a25║心計十界者,假名眾生,如醉人妄見屋轉。生佛不同
J36nB348_p0305a26║者醒醉,所同者,從來不轉之屋也。就理同處,何須論
J36nB348_p0305a27║修。醉人屋非現現成成不轉者乎。
J36nB348_p0305a28║ (進問,體同用亦應同,何有十界之異。若體性真實是同,虛妄相狀是異,性相豈有二邪。若云相即無
J36nB348_p0305a29║ 相,相即法界,則地獄何必趣於佛界。若不須趣,畢竟如何成佛。)
J36nB348_p0305a30║荅,十界體用,本無不同。迷者謂相異性亦異,體用元
J36nB348_p0305b01║不曾減。悟者知性同相亦同,體用亦仍不增。故獄界
J36nB348_p0305b02║即法界,元無佛界可趣,獄界可捨。約此實義,假名出
J36nB348_p0305b03║獄成佛,柰何終日向假名上分別,忘卻法界真體性
J36nB348_p0305b04║邪。不達體性,終日說法界,是極惡名言習氣。
J36nB348_p0305b05║   荅淨塵問(原問附)
J36nB348_p0305b06║ (問,大慧云,光未透脫的,不曾親見法身,到底覺得面前有物,此豈非昭昭靈靈之一物也。此物既從
J36nB348_p0305b07║ 真心而有,全體是真,如此了得,盡大地是個法身,是個自己,云何復說有見不見,透脫不透脫。然如
J36nB348_p0305b08║ 此,為甚觸境逢緣,又用不著。被習氣所使,過在甚麼處。又大慧此旨,與台宗觀心法門,為同為異。)
J36nB348_p0305b09║荅,大慧正是拈出禪病,要人討個透脫,親見一回。若
J36nB348_p0305b10║實透脫,便不作透脫不透脫想,若實親見,便不作見
J36nB348_p0305b11║不見想。今云此物既從真心而有,乃至如此了得云
J36nB348_p0305b12║云,全墮見解窠臼。正所謂到底覺得面前有物者也,
J36nB348_p0305b13║何必昭昭靈靈而後謂之一物哉。惟坐此見解窠臼,
J36nB348_p0305b14║所以說有逢緣觸境用著用不著等。儻實透脫親見,
J36nB348_p0305b15║你喚甚麼作緣境,誰去逢觸,你要用個甚麼,又誰去
J36nB348_p0305b16║用。只者習氣,從甚處來,又誰被使,豈不百雜粉碎,更
J36nB348_p0305b17║喚甚麼作法身,作自己。設或未然,大非容易。須將身
J36nB348_p0305b18║心世界,及種種名言習氣,乃至平日思前慮後諸般
J36nB348_p0305b19║念頭,全體放下。單單用個推檢法,看此能了達的,所
J36nB348_p0305b20║了達的,畢竟是個甚麼。此台宗絕妙工夫,與宗門不
J36nB348_p0305b21║隔絲毫。若但看麻三斤,狗子無等,一則公案,又是一
J36nB348_p0305b22║種方便。下手不同,到家則一。皆須勿忘勿助,拌命死
J36nB348_p0305b23║挨,不論時劫。切忌將心待悟,切忌坐在無事甲裏,切
J36nB348_p0305b24║忌作道理商量,切忌性急求速發明,切忌今日張三
J36nB348_p0305b25║明日李四,東鑽西撞,空喪光陰。但生死心切,綿綿密
J36nB348_p0305b26║密,日久歲深,不計程限,自然或向看經處,或向習坐
J36nB348_p0305b27║時,或著衣喫飯邊,或見色聞聲際,驀然拶入,方信從
J36nB348_p0305b28║來說的,都是夢話。
J36nB348_p0305b29║
J36nB348_p0305b30║靈峰蕅益大師宗論卷第卷三之一
J36nB348_p0305c01║靈峰蕅益大師宗論卷第三之二
J36nB348_p0305c02║  荅問二
J36nB348_p0305c03║   荅張叔韓問
J36nB348_p0305c04║作善作惡,固皆生死根本。不作善惡者,獨非生死根
J36nB348_p0305c05║本乎。天堂地獄,於我何有。獨不曰,作善作惡,於我何
J36nB348_p0305c06║有乎。鳥窠諸惡莫作,眾善奉行,與吹布毛之旨何別。
J36nB348_p0305c07║若不以斷惡修善為門,但願無善無惡,無生無死。此
J36nB348_p0305c08║善星所以毫釐有差,天地懸隔也。
J36nB348_p0305c09║   荅敷先問
J36nB348_p0305c10║法華三昧,圓該始終,貫徹凡聖。動靜云為,全在此三
J36nB348_p0305c11║昧中。無柰情生智隔,日用不知。縱令不知,理性何減。
J36nB348_p0305c12║欲知理性,秖諦觀現前一念心性,為在內外中閒諸
J36nB348_p0305c13║處邪,為屬過未現在邪,為有青黃長短等方隅色像
J36nB348_p0305c14║可蹤跡邪,為竟空無斷滅不可道邪。若心性離四句
J36nB348_p0305c15║絕百非,如此從心所現諸法,安得不離句絕非也。又
J36nB348_p0305c16║諸法各有名貌,各可指陳。心何名貌,如何指陳。由此
J36nB348_p0305c17║言之,法外無心明矣。然設無心,誰知諸法。法現心中,
J36nB348_p0305c18║如影現鏡中,雲現空中。既不可分別是心是法,又不
J36nB348_p0305c19║可分別非心非法,謂非實相實性可乎。佛界實相,乃
J36nB348_p0305c20║至獄界亦實相也。佛界實相無相無不相,具足百界
J36nB348_p0305c21║千如,乃至獄界實相,亦無相無不相,具足百界千如
J36nB348_p0305c22║也。十界正報是實相,十界假名國土亦實相也。既無
J36nB348_p0305c23║一法非實相,則無一法非法華三昧。不於實相法界,
J36nB348_p0305c24║妄起凡夫二乘見解。縱偶起之,隨了此見,亦是實相,
J36nB348_p0305c25║亦是法界。如此了達,勿忘勿助,久久打成一片,自然
J36nB348_p0305c26║與法華三昧相應。切莫捨此別圖圓頓,亦莫畏此別
J36nB348_p0305c27║圖捷徑。此最圓頓最捷徑法也。若事行助成理觀,有
J36nB348_p0305c28║智者三昧懺儀在,勤而行之,果證可剋。若不誦一經,
J36nB348_p0305c29║不入壇行道,則如常不輕,觀一切眾生決定作佛,觸
J36nB348_p0305c30║境逢緣,恆作佛法界觀。由眼所見無非佛色,耳所聞
J36nB348_p0306a01║無非佛聲,鼻所嗅無非佛香,舌所宣無非佛號,身所
J36nB348_p0306a02║觸無非佛境,意所緣無非佛法,故得六根清淨,三障
J36nB348_p0306a03║圓轉。此所謂能轉法華,不墮說食數寶之譏,亦不招
J36nB348_p0306a04║闇證無聞之禍矣。
J36nB348_p0306a05║   荅庸菴二問
J36nB348_p0306a06║善惡無性,先須論心。心若迷善,功微而惡罪大。心若
J36nB348_p0306a07║悟善,功大而惡力微。以善惡雖皆性具,一順一逆故
J36nB348_p0306a08║也。招報隨其念之強弱,亦無一定。學人失念,秖貴覺
J36nB348_p0306a09║照。果能覺照,煩惱雖熾,必漸減矣。覺於臨境貴猛,覺
J36nB348_p0306a10║於平日貴密。又貴事理並運,顯密互資。危微精一之
J36nB348_p0306a11║功在己,不在人也。
J36nB348_p0306a12║法執根本無明,我執枝末無明。論生起先法後我,論
J36nB348_p0306a13║斷除先我後法。然圓人直觀心性,我法本自虛融,何
J36nB348_p0306a14║有先後。或開圓解,我執習強者,不妨先作人空觀也。
J36nB348_p0306a15║   荅湛持公三問(原問附)
J36nB348_p0306a16║ (問,知之一字,妙禍之門。二門同是一知,工夫如何下手。又此知若有所知,對待成妄。若無所知,何所
J36nB348_p0306a17║ 表而云知也。又用知知於知邪,不起知知於知也。)
J36nB348_p0306a18║荅,知見立知,禍門也。知見無見,妙門也。若不達能所
J36nB348_p0306a19║性空,妄計心外有法,此知即名不覺。若達心外無法,
J36nB348_p0306a20║能所不二,此知即名始覺,亦名妙觀察智,亦名無塵
J36nB348_p0306a21║智。此智從本體起,還照本體,雖復自照,實無能照所
J36nB348_p0306a22║照,以達無二體故。名字位中直用此智,念念體達心
J36nB348_p0306a23║外無法,法法唯心。不論時劫,不論功用。至金剛後心,
J36nB348_p0306a24║永斷生相無明。始覺合本,稱究竟覺。今下手工夫,正
J36nB348_p0306a25║要起知,知於知體之外更無餘法。永嘉所謂但知而
J36nB348_p0306a26║已。若不起知,知於但知,未有不隨妄能妄所者。大乘
J36nB348_p0306a27║止觀三明以何依止中言之頗詳。
J36nB348_p0306a28║ (進問,若起知知於但知,恐但知而成所知。起知之知,不無能所。恐用心時,更落妄想窠臼。如何善用
J36nB348_p0306a29║ 心者,起知知於但知,仍不墮妄能妄所邪。)
J36nB348_p0306a30║荅,非除他物,但取於知也。以知外無法,名但知也。達
J36nB348_p0306b01║得但知,則知之一字,亦是強名,原無一物,豈成所知。
J36nB348_p0306b02║若有所知,又成一物,非但知矣。下手方便,強觀諸法
J36nB348_p0306b03║無實,唯是一心。隨觀心無心相,覓不可得,然後悟入
J36nB348_p0306b04║但知法門。前二方便,皆唯心識觀。初除分別性,次除
J36nB348_p0306b05║依他性。悟入但知,是真如實觀,證圓成實性也。
J36nB348_p0306b06║ (問,摩訶止觀,初以識陰為所觀境。然能觀亦用意識,能所有何辨邪。)
J36nB348_p0306b07║荅,前念為能觀,後念為所觀。由能觀全用一心三觀,
J36nB348_p0306b08║便知所起後念,全是一境三諦。既一境三諦,則起即
J36nB348_p0306b09║無起,亦不妨無起而起。起無起名為諦,無起起名為
J36nB348_p0306b10║觀,是謂諦觀。名別體復同,是故能所二非二也。
J36nB348_p0306b11║   壇中十問十荅(有引)
J36nB348_p0306b12║ 病臥深山,力疾商梵網佛頂。乘戒源頭,性修旨趣,
J36nB348_p0306b13║ 圓通本根,常住妙理,和盤托出矣。然根節所聚,窾
J36nB348_p0306b14║ 會所關,無有發一言啟予者。豈未知所以問邪。論
J36nB348_p0306b15║ 畢,予結壇課咒,同志亦仍于此結後安居,每布薩
J36nB348_p0306b16║ 輒一晤言,因設問端十條,同志各荅,長短俱露。大
J36nB348_p0306b17║ 約平日依文解義處多,入理觀心處少,故不能遊
J36nB348_p0306b18║ 刃於節閒也。于是更作十荅。嗟乎,語言即道,道非
J36nB348_p0306b19║ 語言。此之問荅,大似嚼飯喂嬰,他年好惡知端的
J36nB348_p0306b20║ 時,當發嘔耳。然臭腐神奇,善用茹退者,不又為新
J36nB348_p0306b21║ 穀作增上緣乎。
J36nB348_p0306b22║問,戒乘緩急,四句料揀,本出經論。畢竟以何為戒,以
J36nB348_p0306b23║何為乘。如大論十戒,則戒即乘。梵網暫離菩提心犯
J36nB348_p0306b24║輕垢,則乘即戒。又四教各有戒有乘。須一一知其歸
J36nB348_p0306b25║著。然後商其緩急何如。 荅,乘戒同依一性,元非異
J36nB348_p0306b26║體。故緣了二修,亦常相即,如梵網大論所明是也。但
J36nB348_p0306b27║眾生積迷既久,事理二障,各有輕重,致令修時,亦分
J36nB348_p0306b28║緩急。此則性遮諸業為戒,念處觀慧為乘。而藏通二
J36nB348_p0306b29║教,戒指七眾律儀,乘指生滅無生二種念觀。別圓二
J36nB348_p0306b30║教,戒指梵網重輕,并七眾律儀,乘指無量無作二種
J36nB348_p0306c01║念觀。各就當教,自有事障重理障輕者,堪修觀慧,易
J36nB348_p0306c02║犯性遮,名乘急戒緩。自有理障重事障輕者,堪能護
J36nB348_p0306c03║戒,不達理觀,名戒急乘緩。若二障俱輕,則戒乘俱急。
J36nB348_p0306c04║二障並重,必戒乘俱緩。此歸著大略也。今既聞皆有
J36nB348_p0306c05║佛性,又知戒即全性所起緣因,乘即全性所起了因,
J36nB348_p0306c06║仍復全修在性。則急戒即急乘,急乘即急戒。豈肯再
J36nB348_p0306c07║歷三塗,方得悟道。又豈肯久滯人天,不歸真際哉。
J36nB348_p0306c08║問,梵網明不受佛戒,為畜生木石。又犯戒人,畜木無
J36nB348_p0306c09║異。夫不受戒,虛生浪死,故名畜生,覺悟無期,故如木
J36nB348_p0306c10║石也。受戒即入佛位,而犯者仍與畜生木頭無異,則
J36nB348_p0306c11║受戒之益毫無邪。 荅,永居門外,永棄佛海,厥苦是
J36nB348_p0306c12║均。然不受戒,未必盡墮地獄,破戒決墮地獄。一則常
J36nB348_p0306c13║處暗暝,固為可憫。一則捨明入暗,尤為可悲。但不受
J36nB348_p0306c14║戒,無成佛期。破戒墮落,猶為成佛緣種,此受戒之勝
J36nB348_p0306c15║益也。至於未受而發心秉受,誤犯而殷重悔除,木石
J36nB348_p0306c16║皆非木石矣。
J36nB348_p0306c17║問,人謂不受戒,雖失大益,而無破戒罪。然則地獄中,
J36nB348_p0306c18║更無不受戒人邪。又謂受而不學,則不知不坐罪。戒
J36nB348_p0306c19║壇挂名,便可看教參禪。且如暗中踏茄,誤謂蝦蟆,命
J36nB348_p0306c20║終墮獄。若據律誤踏蝦蟆,尚不結罪,況復踏茄。則學
J36nB348_p0306c21║律者坐罪乎,不學者坐罪乎。若謂彼惟妄計破戒故
J36nB348_p0306c22║墮,若無疑畏便不墮,則寶蓮香尼,善星比丘,皆無疑
J36nB348_p0306c23║畏,何以均墮邪。若謂性罪不可作,遮罪不學無妨,何
J36nB348_p0306c24║以醫羅龍王,損樹葉招劇苦,難提比丘,破根本獲果
J36nB348_p0306c25║證邪。 荅,不受戒者,設造重惡,亦墮三塗。毀淨戒者,
J36nB348_p0306c26║雖具性遮二罪,設勤懺悔,罪亦可滅。是故必須受戒
J36nB348_p0306c27║也。學律者,洞明開遮持犯,未犯知護,已犯能除。不學
J36nB348_p0306c28║者,既不知避罪,又不知出罪,過必日積。是故受已必
J36nB348_p0306c29║須學也。夫菩薩於小罪中,恆生大畏,惟不造三惡因,
J36nB348_p0306c30║故無惡道怖耳。若硬作主宰,大膽欺心,妄言無罪,寶
J36nB348_p0307a01║蓮醫羅,真殷鑒矣。
J36nB348_p0307a02║問,儒云,君子尊德性而道問學,致廣大而盡精微,極
J36nB348_p0307a03║高明而道中庸,溫故而知新,敦厚以崇禮,與佛法同
J36nB348_p0307a04║邪別邪,亦同亦別邪,非同非別邪。象山重尊德性,紫
J36nB348_p0307a05║陽重道問學,互相矛盾,致成大諍,為一是一非邪,俱
J36nB348_p0307a06║是俱非邪。且如何超出是非,究竟無獘邪。 荅,儒佛
J36nB348_p0307a07║有名同義異者,如德性廣大精微等。一世閒道理,一
J36nB348_p0307a08║出世道理也。有名義俱同,而歸宗異者。如問學致盡
J36nB348_p0307a09║等,下手無別,到家實分世出世也。然為實施權,儒亦
J36nB348_p0307a10║五乘中之人乘。開權顯實,則世閒道理亦順實相。故
J36nB348_p0307a11║同別四句,執之皆謗。善用之即四悉檀。象山雖重尊
J36nB348_p0307a12║德性,非棄問學。紫陽雖重道問學,非遺德性。得其旨
J36nB348_p0307a13║似頓悟漸修兩門,失其意則為狂罔愚劣二病。可謂
J36nB348_p0307a14║是則俱是,非則俱非。然廣大精微等,皆德性本具之
J36nB348_p0307a15║義。致盡等,皆道問學以尊之之事。原非兩法相濟,孰
J36nB348_p0307a16║能偏重偏輕。此則超出是非兩關,永無流獘者也。
J36nB348_p0307a17║問,佛頂明歇即菩提,何藉修證。為盡漏紆疑悔者言
J36nB348_p0307a18║也。又明非歷劫辛勤,不能免難,為開悟未除漏者言
J36nB348_p0307a19║也。一所知障重,一煩惱障重,故如來因病發藥如此。
J36nB348_p0307a20║我輩二障俱重,又未開悟,又未除漏,為先除漏邪,先
J36nB348_p0307a21║開悟邪,為二功並進邪。漏云何除,悟云何開,並進云
J36nB348_p0307a22║何下手。 荅,二障雖重,非有實體。只徹究圓宗,即以
J36nB348_p0307a23║圓解,淨除業習。下手之方,不出十乘觀法。上根惟一,
J36nB348_p0307a24║中二之七,下具用十。精勤修之,何障不破。
J36nB348_p0307a25║問,耳門最勝,根勝邪,性勝邪。若根勝,則兼耳與勞,同
J36nB348_p0307a26║是菩提。瞪發勞相,豈可依此生滅為本修因。若性勝,
J36nB348_p0307a27║則耳之性,應非即是餘五根性。云何說性中相知,及
J36nB348_p0307a28║六解一亡。 荅,耳門易顯性故勝。非性有優劣,亦非
J36nB348_p0307a29║竟用耳根,但借耳境,以觀真性。性即不生不滅,亦復
J36nB348_p0307a30║非一非六。故得一返六皆脫,六解一亦亡也。
J36nB348_p0307b01║問,耳門具三真實義,為根是圓通常邪,性是圓通常
J36nB348_p0307b02║邪。若根是,不應云黏湛發聽,聽精映聲,卷聲成根。又
J36nB348_p0307b03║不應云離動離靜,元無聽質。若性是,則耳之性為即
J36nB348_p0307b04║五根之性,為非五根之性。若非,還如前難。若即,則既
J36nB348_p0307b05║觀其性,應兼得其相。若不兼,則性外有相。若果兼,則
J36nB348_p0307b06║應於耳中,見色聞香嘗味覺觸。若不能見色等,不名
J36nB348_p0307b07║圓通之性。若云能者,畢竟如何以耳見聞嘗覺邪。若
J36nB348_p0307b08║謂六根互用,須待證入,則因果仍不相應。若謂雖未
J36nB348_p0307b09║有用,其理確然,如何指點知其不謬。 荅,元以一精
J36nB348_p0307b10║明,分作六和合。則六和合之本性,皆圓通常,亦非有
J36nB348_p0307b11║二性也。特就迷情揀取,此方耳門易顯真實名利,餘
J36nB348_p0307b12║門難顯名鈍,非竟以耳根為圓通常也。初下手時,正
J36nB348_p0307b13║欲棄生滅而守真常。所謂入流亡所,尚不許用此耳
J36nB348_p0307b14║根,外循動靜二相,柰何責以見色聞香等事。如清水
J36nB348_p0307b15║未現,便責以一切變現。設能變現,增其渾濁矣。若不
J36nB348_p0307b16║能見色聞香,便疑因果不相應,如濁水未有變現,遂
J36nB348_p0307b17║謂中無清水可乎。至於現前指點,則耳自聽法,口問
J36nB348_p0307b18║身承,即性中相知義。不能以耳見色等,正用中相背
J36nB348_p0307b19║義。將此相知相背二種迷情妄見,一總放下,方許入
J36nB348_p0307b20║耳門三昧。
J36nB348_p0307b21║問,天台言善惡皆性具,此義不然。謂性非善惡,不礙
J36nB348_p0307b22║善惡可耳。若性實具善,便不容惡,性實具惡,便不容
J36nB348_p0307b23║善。如佛頂經,滿慈以水火不相陵滅為難,如來亦但
J36nB348_p0307b24║釋云,虛空體非群相,不拒諸相發揮,妙覺明心,先非
J36nB348_p0307b25║水火,何不相容。細玩體非群相,先非水火二語,性非
J36nB348_p0307b26║善惡明矣。夫七大一往皆無記法,尚須棄相,方得會
J36nB348_p0307b27║性。況善惡有記之法,可云同具邪。 荅,若謂性非善
J36nB348_p0307b28║惡,不礙善惡,則善惡從何處來,混擾於性。既顯性後,
J36nB348_p0307b29║善惡復歸何處。且正現善惡時,非善惡之性,避至何
J36nB348_p0307b30║處,為復斷滅。善惡去時,非善惡之性,又從何來,為復
J36nB348_p0307c01║更生邪。若謂善惡無性,隨妄緣有,既無其性,誰隨緣
J36nB348_p0307c02║者。既隨緣必有能隨所隨,所隨即迷悟染淨,能隨豈
J36nB348_p0307c03║非性善性惡。又即彼所隨迷悟染淨之緣,為在性外
J36nB348_p0307c04║在性內。若在性外,性不遍常。若不離性,那云非具。詎
J36nB348_p0307c05║知無性之性,正善惡實性。設性中不具善惡,縱遇迷
J36nB348_p0307c06║悟染淨等緣,決不能現修中善惡。如沙無油性,縱遇
J36nB348_p0307c07║壓緣,終不出油。請即就喻以申明之。使空非即群相,
J36nB348_p0307c08║相豈從空外來。空現時,相豈出空外去。且正現相時,
J36nB348_p0307c09║空避至何方,為復斷滅。相去後空又從何來,為復更
J36nB348_p0307c10║生邪。當知虛空無去無來,無滅無生,則知群相之中,
J36nB348_p0307c11║空性不動。可例知現善現惡之時,藏性不變。既知正
J36nB348_p0307c12║隨緣而即不變,又可例知正不變而即隨緣矣。故達
J36nB348_p0307c13║不變隨緣之義,則未起修善修惡時,非無善惡之性。
J36nB348_p0307c14║如水火諸相未現,非無水火之性,以性空真水,性空
J36nB348_p0307c15║真火故。達隨緣不變之義,則熾然造善惡時,亦無善
J36nB348_p0307c16║惡實法。如水火正現,非異虛空之性,以性水真空,性
J36nB348_p0307c17║火真空故。迷於相全性即相,妄見傾奪,故云觀相元
J36nB348_p0307c18║妄,謂但觀性家之相,相妄性亦妄也。悟其性全相即
J36nB348_p0307c19║性,隨拈一相,皆俱即俱非,離即離非,是即非即,故云
J36nB348_p0307c20║觀性元真,謂能觀相家之性,性真相亦真也。然則虛
J36nB348_p0307c21║空非群相,群相亦非群相矣。空不礙諸相發揮,群相
J36nB348_p0307c22║亦不礙諸相發揮矣。所以得有俱現之義,又心先非
J36nB348_p0307c23║水火,水火亦先非水火矣。先非先後之先,只是元本
J36nB348_p0307c24║之義。故不惟未現水火時,水性即火性,火性即水性,
J36nB348_p0307c25║決定不相陵滅。雖正現水火時,水元非水,火元非火,
J36nB348_p0307c26║亦決不相陵滅。所以有入水不濡,入火不焚,身上出
J36nB348_p0307c27║水,身下出火,入地如空,處空如地等事也。彼妄見生
J36nB348_p0307c28║剋傾奪,但隨心應量,循業發現而已。故知相外無性,
J36nB348_p0307c29║棄相即棄性,性外無相,會性則會相。若棄相方得會
J36nB348_p0307c30║性,此大不然。夫棄色相,是空相。棄空相,是色相。棄有
J36nB348_p0308a01║情心相,是無情色空相。棄無情相,是有情相。棄無分
J36nB348_p0308a02║別之根塵相,是有分別識相。棄分別相,是無分別相。
J36nB348_p0308a03║棄根塵識妄相,是覺明真相。棄真相,是妄相。畢竟何
J36nB348_p0308a04║相可棄,何性可會邪。經云,棄生滅守真常者,直棄其
J36nB348_p0308a05║於真常中妄見生滅之情,守其即生滅處,了悟真常
J36nB348_p0308a06║之智耳。試玩七大文中,先以空融地水火風,次以覺
J36nB348_p0308a07║融空等五大,次以精融根塵六大,次以知融識等七
J36nB348_p0308a08║大,則色空不二,依正不二,見相自證不二,真妄不二
J36nB348_p0308a09║明矣。是以不變之性,正由全具善惡,故能舉體隨緣。
J36nB348_p0308a10║而善惡二修,正由全攬真性,故復舉體不變。不變舉
J36nB348_p0308a11║體隨緣,故稱理具三千。隨緣舉體不變,故稱事造三
J36nB348_p0308a12║千。又理具只是具於事造,事造只是造於理具,故雖
J36nB348_p0308a13║稱兩重,亦非六千,雖云兩重,即重重無盡也。
J36nB348_p0308a14║問,涅槃明常住佛性,說乳酪子樹二喻。使乳本有酪
J36nB348_p0308a15║性,乃至熟酥本有醍醐性者,何藉善巧鑽搖等緣。尼
J36nB348_p0308a16║拘陀樹子,本有五丈性者,何藉水土等緣。藉緣之法,
J36nB348_p0308a17║即是無常,安得名常。又謂乳有酪性,故鑽乳不鑽水。
J36nB348_p0308a18║子有樹性,故種子不種沙。此是當有,非現有,亦不名
J36nB348_p0308a19║常。又今見酪中雜水,則不出酥,樹子經火,則不生芽,
J36nB348_p0308a20║適為三無二有家作證。彼謂所知障重者,不能克證
J36nB348_p0308a21║大菩提故。 荅,常非死定之常,性乃不改為義。涅槃
J36nB348_p0308a22║既明常住佛性,恐迷者執性廢修,即成天然外道,故
J36nB348_p0308a23║明須藉緣了二因。以緣了二因雖屬於修,在因之時
J36nB348_p0308a24║同名性德。正因理發,雖全是性,在果之時同名修德。
J36nB348_p0308a25║然則無性之性,即是實性。緣生之法,當體無生。二鳥
J36nB348_p0308a26║雙遊,喻常無常,厥義若此。若當有不名常,必執凝然
J36nB348_p0308a27║不變死定為常,何異常見外道。又乳酪樹子,水火能
J36nB348_p0308a28║障,佛性不爾。闡提斷善,終必復生。二乘證空,亦終迴
J36nB348_p0308a29║大。故復有佛性雄猛,不可沮壞,猶如金剛之喻。而三
J36nB348_p0308a30║無二有,終為不了義說。豈可執片喻難全法哉。
J36nB348_p0308b01║問,天台明理具事造兩重三千,同於介爾心中具足,
J36nB348_p0308b02║此亦不然。夫理具渾然頓足,猶之可也。事造則一念
J36nB348_p0308b03║起時,必落一界。既落一界,餘九皆伏。縱一界還具十
J36nB348_p0308b04║界,亦只一界之十界,非十界之十界也。幽谿云,一界
J36nB348_p0308b05║現時,九界冥伏。既云冥伏,則事造三千,不居一念明
J36nB348_p0308b06║矣。今梵網玄義云,一界既現,九界齊彰。試觀調達,地
J36nB348_p0308b07║獄相現,則佛界滅,下品金蓮相現,則獄界滅。何得齊
J36nB348_p0308b08║彰邪。 荅,心無形質,無分劑,不可割裂。落一界之一
J36nB348_p0308b09║念,即全體之心,非心少分。既舉心之全體,成此一念,
J36nB348_p0308b10║亦必舉心之全用。歸此一念,亦必即此一念,頓具心
J36nB348_p0308b11║之全體大用。如孔子為乘田,即以聖人之全體而牧
J36nB348_p0308b12║牛羊,亦即舉出將入相之全用而歸諸牧牛羊人。亦
J36nB348_p0308b13║即於牧牛羊時,問以文事武備,無不能知。安得牧時
J36nB348_p0308b14║非孔子全體,無將相全能邪。冥伏或是隨具之義,儻
J36nB348_p0308b15║以現對冥,以起對伏,則事造信非一念頓具,那成圓
J36nB348_p0308b16║理。今既知一界還具十界,則界界互具,無盡重重,鏡
J36nB348_p0308b17║光珠影,更何分劑。謂之三千性相,亦略舉耳。即觀調
J36nB348_p0308b18║達墮獄,正在佛前。又舉身下陷,合掌南無。成無根信,
J36nB348_p0308b19║便得授記。而下品往生者,即地獄火,化為清風華佛。
J36nB348_p0308b20║可見獄界佛界,舉體相即,互遍互融,不可思議。此天
J36nB348_p0308b21║台性具之旨,觀心之要,所以真能傳佛心印,遠勝他
J36nB348_p0308b22║宗也。
J36nB348_p0308b23║   續一問荅
J36nB348_p0308b24║問,世之講者,謂初心仰信中道,不能頓觀,先用空假
J36nB348_p0308b25║為方便者。性中雖具三因,而不相即,修中雖用三觀,
J36nB348_p0308b26║而不同時,故名性橫修縱。又在因次第開發,在果一
J36nB348_p0308b27║時同具,故名因縱果橫。惟圓教行人,初心便解三德
J36nB348_p0308b28║祕藏,直以一心三觀,進破無明。初信任運斷見惑,見
J36nB348_p0308b29║真諦,七信任運斷思,八九十信任運斷內外塵沙,見
J36nB348_p0308b30║俗諦。初住分破一品無明見中諦。破惑全用三觀,故
J36nB348_p0308c01║非縱,惑斷不次而次,故非橫。今設一難,既全用三觀,
J36nB348_p0308c02║次第見於三諦,仍是智橫斷縱,亦為修橫證縱,因橫
J36nB348_p0308c03║果縱。設令極利根人,不住十信,竟超初住,乃至妙覺,
J36nB348_p0308c04║亦只智斷俱橫,何得非縱橫並別邪。 荅,別教諦觀
J36nB348_p0308c05║名縱橫並別者,以不達三觀只是一心,三諦只是一
J36nB348_p0308c06║境,一心法爾三觀,一境宛具三諦。如君與將相,只是
J36nB348_p0308c07║一國,雖只一國,宛具三人。而一君二臣,君臣之義不
J36nB348_p0308c08║明,並別之局必立。並則成橫,別則成縱,致使性修隔
J36nB348_p0308c09║別,因果不齊。圓人了一心之體,即不思議中。此心能
J36nB348_p0308c10║破凡聖情解,即名為空。此心能立聖凡道理,即名為
J36nB348_p0308c11║假。了一境之體,即第一義諦。此境本非遍計所執,即
J36nB348_p0308c12║名為真。此境本是依他所現,即名為俗。初心解此三
J36nB348_p0308c13║德祕藏,直以一心三觀,圓破三惑。而初心斷見惑時,
J36nB348_p0308c14║就破惑處名為空觀,見真諦處即名妙假。然未破時
J36nB348_p0308c15║全以真諦為見惑,既破後全以見惑為真諦。如水成
J36nB348_p0308c16║冰,冰還成水,冰之與水,同一溼性。見惑真諦,亦復如
J36nB348_p0308c17║是。體即法界,無可破立,是名中觀,故知非破非立,而
J36nB348_p0308c18║論破立,說名空假,正破正立,元無破立,說名為中。如
J36nB348_p0308c19║邊方擾亂,猛將出征,兆庶歸投,賢相撫慰,究而論之,
J36nB348_p0308c20║只是王士王民耳。所用只一觀而三觀,那得云橫。所
J36nB348_p0308c21║見即一諦而三諦,乃即俗即中之真,永異偏真,那得
J36nB348_p0308c22║云縱。十信見俗,初住見中,亦復如是。能破雖全用三
J36nB348_p0308c23║觀,而仍以一觀為主,故非並非橫。所見雖任運次第,
J36nB348_p0308c24║而一一諦無非三諦,故非別非縱。以例性中雖具三
J36nB348_p0308c25║因,然緣了無功,同名正因,故非縱橫並別。如家國無
J36nB348_p0308c26║事,非無將相,然將相不顯其能,但聞國主之名也。修
J36nB348_p0308c27║因之中,全賴緣了,然緣了威權正因所賜,故亦非縱
J36nB348_p0308c28║橫並別。如命將命相,皆由聖主,然聖主不居其功,咸
J36nB348_p0308c29║稱將相之力。至果位中,雖三德同時圓顯,然仍以法
J36nB348_p0308c30║身為主,亦非縱橫並別。以般若解脫,元法身之所本
J36nB348_p0309a01║有,非新得故。如三人同享太平,然將相元是舊臣,仍
J36nB348_p0309a02║奉舊主,無伐無施也。又將專武,君相非無武備,故三
J36nB348_p0309a03║觀皆破一切法。相專文,君將非無文略,故三觀皆立
J36nB348_p0309a04║一切法。主專統御,將相非無君德,故三觀皆統一切
J36nB348_p0309a05║法。儻三人各止一德,雖互相統順,仍為縱為別。儻三
J36nB348_p0309a06║人不相統順,雖各具全德,仍為橫為並,皆不可喻於
J36nB348_p0309a07║圓觀。儻唯一人獨具三德,而無將相,雖總無縱橫並
J36nB348_p0309a08║別,不成國法,尤不可喻於圓觀。儻三人各具德,又相
J36nB348_p0309a09║統順,而非其境界,妄欲破立撫御,亦不可喻於圓觀。
J36nB348_p0309a10║今所破所立所統,皆自心現量境界故,思之思之。又
J36nB348_p0309a11║此亦片喻,非全喻也。以堯舜治局九州,中諦統一切
J36nB348_p0309a12║法,豎窮橫遍,無少許性相能出中諦外故。又堯舜令
J36nB348_p0309a13║民安於至治,不能使人人盡為堯舜。中觀證一切法,
J36nB348_p0309a14║無一微塵一剎那不全攬中道全體,不全具中道大
J36nB348_p0309a15║用。各各豎窮橫遍,難思議也。儒云,聖人不知不能,堯
J36nB348_p0309a16║舜猶病。意顯此道,唯佛能盡。又云道不遠人,下學上
J36nB348_p0309a17║達。意顯標心不離此宗,是謂入門同而到家別,教道
J36nB348_p0309a18║別而教意同。吾言益不誣矣。
J36nB348_p0309a19║   性學開蒙荅問(即壇中第四問廣荅)
J36nB348_p0309a20║儒釋同異之致,性學重輕之關,憒憒久矣。欲釋此疑,
J36nB348_p0309a21║須先就儒典消文釋義,以超是非兩關。次就二公決
J36nB348_p0309a22║擇是非,以示平心公論。後對佛教細辨同異,以彰權
J36nB348_p0309a23║實本跡。 初就儒典消釋者,朱註以尊德性為存心,
J36nB348_p0309a24║道問學為致知。以致廣大,極高明,溫故,敦厚屬存心,
J36nB348_p0309a25║以盡精微,道中庸,知新,崇禮屬致知。如兩物相需,未
J36nB348_p0309a26║是一貫宗旨,所以偏重偏輕,致成大諍。今謂首倡大
J36nB348_p0309a27║道,既包下兩節,則洋洋優優同是道,故同稱大。不可
J36nB348_p0309a28║謂洋洋但大,不入無閒,優優但小,不極無外。尤不可
J36nB348_p0309a29║謂洋洋但是德性,不由問學,優優但是問學,不關德
J36nB348_p0309a30║性也。然此大道,全率於性,全凝於德,故名德性。猶釋
J36nB348_p0309b01║稱如來藏性,以藏性雖十界所同,惟如來能合之,故
J36nB348_p0309b02║以如來藏稱,不稱地獄藏性,人天藏性等也。然則德
J36nB348_p0309b03║性二字,已含性修因果旨趣,而廣大精微等,皆德性
J36nB348_p0309b04║所具之義趣,致之盡之,乃至崇之,皆道問學者之妙
J36nB348_p0309b05║修耳。尊此德性,方道其問學,道此問學,方尊其德性。
J36nB348_p0309b06║否則性近習遠,淪於汙下,猶所謂法身流轉五道,為
J36nB348_p0309b07║眾生矣。然德性廣大,謂其洋洋發育也,精微謂其優
J36nB348_p0309b08║優百千也,高明謂其位天育物也。中庸謂其不離子
J36nB348_p0309b09║臣弟友之閒也,故謂其稟自初生也。新,謂其經綸參
J36nB348_p0309b10║贊也。厚,謂父子君臣等皆天性所定也。禮,謂仰事俯
J36nB348_p0309b11║育等皆人事應爾也。世有廣大而不精微者,如海魚
J36nB348_p0309b12║身長若干由旬,蕩而失水,螻蟻得意。有即廣大而精
J36nB348_p0309b13║微者,如阿修羅王,變身與須彌齊,復能幻入蕅絲孔。
J36nB348_p0309b14║德性亦爾,雖洋洋峻極,而復舉體攝入一威儀,隨舉
J36nB348_p0309b15║一小威儀,全具德性,非德性少分也。世有精微而不
J36nB348_p0309b16║廣大者,如玩器等,微妙精巧,不堪致用。有即精微而
J36nB348_p0309b17║廣大者,如摩尼珠,圓明清淨,不過分寸,置之高幢,四
J36nB348_p0309b18║洲雨寶。德性亦爾,雖百千經曲,而隨拈其一,皆全具
J36nB348_p0309b19║位育功能,非少分功能也。世有高明而不中庸者,如
J36nB348_p0309b20║夏日赫盛,不可目視,有即高明而中庸者,如諸佛光
J36nB348_p0309b21║明勝百千日,而觸者清涼。德性亦爾,上達即在下學,
J36nB348_p0309b22║位天育物之極致,不離庸言庸行之家風。世有中庸
J36nB348_p0309b23║而不高明者,如鄉黨善人,可狎可欺。有即中庸而高
J36nB348_p0309b24║明者,如時中之聖,溫而厲。德性亦爾,下學全體上達,
J36nB348_p0309b25║灑埽應對之節,即具旋乾轉坤之用。世有故而不新
J36nB348_p0309b26║者,如衣敝不堪復御。有故而常新者,如上古瑤琴,一
J36nB348_p0309b27║番摩撫一番音。德性亦爾,出生一切道德文章經綸
J36nB348_p0309b28║事業,不可窮盡。世有新而不故者,如美食不可再列。
J36nB348_p0309b29║有新而嘗故者,如春至花開,樹未嘗改。德性亦爾,雖
J36nB348_p0309b30║出一切經綸事業道德文章,而體嘗如故。世有厚而
J36nB348_p0309c01║非禮者,如牛犢相隨,殷然天愛,而罔知儀節。有厚而
J36nB348_p0309c02║即禮者,如孝子事親,冬溫夏清,昏定晨省,出於至性
J36nB348_p0309c03║匪由勉強。德性亦爾,雖率其天真,自有禮節。世有禮
J36nB348_p0309c04║而非厚者,如六國事秦,勢不得已。有禮而即厚者,如
J36nB348_p0309c05║孔子拜下,盡禮非諂。德性亦爾,雖百千經曲,絕非強
J36nB348_p0309c06║設。又致廣大而不盡精微者,亦自有博學多聞,與則
J36nB348_p0309c07║半是,奪則全非,以既不精微,即於廣大不能致故。盡
J36nB348_p0309c08║精微而不致廣大者,亦自謂一門深入,與亦半是,奪
J36nB348_p0309c09║亦全非,以既不廣大,則於精微不能盡故。極高明而
J36nB348_p0309c10║不道中庸者,亦自謂豁達大度,然離中庸,而別擬高
J36nB348_p0309c11║明,便不名極。道中庸而不極高明者,亦自謂言行相
J36nB348_p0309c12║顧,然捨高明而安於卑陋,非君子之道。溫故而不知
J36nB348_p0309c13║新者,亦自謂守其德性,而德性豈如此之癡頑。知新
J36nB348_p0309c14║而不溫故者,亦自謂日有增長,然如溝澮可立待其
J36nB348_p0309c15║涸。敦厚而不崇禮者,亦自謂率其本真,未免同人道
J36nB348_p0309c16║於牛馬。崇禮而不敦厚者,亦自謂舉止有式,反為忠
J36nB348_p0309c17║信之薄而亂之首。故必了知廣大精微等無非德性,
J36nB348_p0309c18║皆須道問學以尊之,則全修在性,全性起修,既非二
J36nB348_p0309c19║致,那偏重輕。斯為超出是非兩關,全收二公之長,永
J36nB348_p0309c20║杜二公流獘者也。 次就二公決擇者。象山意謂,不
J36nB348_p0309c21║尊德性,則問學與不問學皆無用,但能尊其德性,即
J36nB348_p0309c22║真問學。猶吾佛所謂勝淨明心,不從人得,何藉劬勞,
J36nB348_p0309c23║肯綮修證。亦猶六祖本來無物,又即孔子吾道一以
J36nB348_p0309c24║貫之也。是將尊德性攝問學,非恃德性而廢問學,故
J36nB348_p0309c25║得為名賢也。紫陽意謂若不道問學,雖高談德性,如
J36nB348_p0309c26║所謂理佛,非關修證,必道問學,以成至德,方可凝其
J36nB348_p0309c27║率性之道。猶吾佛所謂菩提涅槃,尚在遙遠,要須歷
J36nB348_p0309c28║劫辛勤修證,亦猶神秀時時拂拭,又即孔子庸德之
J36nB348_p0309c29║行,庸言之謹,下學而上達也。是將問學尊德性,非徒
J36nB348_p0309c30║問學而置德性,亦得為名賢也。然則悟象山之所謂
J36nB348_p0310a01║德性,問學已道,悟紫陽之所謂問學,德性自尊,可謂
J36nB348_p0310a02║是則俱是。而象山似頓悟,較紫陽之漸修,當勝一籌。
J36nB348_p0310a03║然執象山之言而失旨,則思而不學,與今世狂禪同
J36nB348_p0310a04║陷險阬,孔子謂之曰殆。執紫陽之言而失旨,則學而
J36nB348_p0310a05║不思,與今世教律同無實證,孔子謂之曰罔,可謂非
J36nB348_p0310a06║則俱非。而無實證者,尚通六趣,陷險阬者,必墮三塗。
J36nB348_p0310a07║象山之流獘,亦較紫陽倍甚。若就二公之學,以救二
J36nB348_p0310a08║公之徒,亦有兩番,一逆救,以象山之藥,治紫陽之病,
J36nB348_p0310a09║以紫陽之藥,救象山之病。二順救,執象山之言者,為
J36nB348_p0310a10║申象山真旨,執紫陽之言者,為申紫陽真旨。終不若
J36nB348_p0310a11║向初義打透,則二病不生,二藥無用矣。 後對佛教
J36nB348_p0310a12║細辨者,先須知此五句,有名同義異者,有名義俱同
J36nB348_p0310a13║而歸宗異者,又須知對待絕待二種妙義,然後約跡
J36nB348_p0310a14║約權以揀收之,約實約本以融會之。庶得戲論永滅,
J36nB348_p0310a15║諍論亦消也。 言名同義異者,德性二字,及德性中
J36nB348_p0310a16║所具廣大精微等八義,同則同名德性,及廣大等。異
J36nB348_p0310a17║則儒以天命為性,修之上合於天者為德,老以自然
J36nB348_p0310a18║而然,強名曰道者為性,復歸無名無物者為德。一往
J36nB348_p0310a19║判之是天乘,亦未盡天中差別,恐不過四王忉利法
J36nB348_p0310a20║門,遠自人閒視之,稱為自然,及無名無物耳。推而上
J36nB348_p0310a21║之,夜摩等空居四天,亦以自然為性,以欲界未到諸
J36nB348_p0310a22║定及上品十善為德。魔天以命根互通為性,廣化七
J36nB348_p0310a23║珍多增寶媛為德。初禪天以出欲為性。離生喜樂為
J36nB348_p0310a24║德。二禪天以超出覺觀為性,定生喜樂為德。三禪天
J36nB348_p0310a25║以永無喜水為性,離喜妙樂為德。四禪天以不動為
J36nB348_p0310a26║性,捨念清淨為德。無想天以一念不生為性,滅心心
J36nB348_p0310a27║所為德。四空天以超出色籠為性,微細定心為德。我
J36nB348_p0310a28║佛法中藏教以真諦為性,擇滅無為為德。通教以諸
J36nB348_p0310a29║法無生為性,體空智果為德。別教以離過絕非中道
J36nB348_p0310a30║為性,所證法身般若解脫為德。圓教以不生不滅常
J36nB348_p0310b01║住真心,不縱不橫三德祕藏為性,一心三智妙合如
J36nB348_p0310b02║來藏理為德。既德性一名,厥義各別,故所具八義,隨
J36nB348_p0310b03║此皆異。儒但以洋洋發育為廣大,乃至仰事俯育為
J36nB348_p0310b04║禮,如前說耳。老則以生天生地為廣大,杳冥昏默為
J36nB348_p0310b05║精微,神鬼神帝為高明,專氣致柔為中庸,長於萬古
J36nB348_p0310b06║為故,生一生二生三生萬為新,還淳返樸為厚,守雌
J36nB348_p0310b07║守黑為禮。夜摩等天各以境界倍增者為廣大,受用
J36nB348_p0310b08║倍妙者為精微,不假日月為高明,十善攝散為中庸,
J36nB348_p0310b09║劫初先成為故,果報變化為新,隨順善性為厚,具善
J36nB348_p0310b10║三業為禮。魔天則以統攝欲界為廣大,超化無化為
J36nB348_p0310b11║精微,威力自在居欲界頂為高明,不離塵勞為中庸,
J36nB348_p0310b12║悟本命元為故,自在化現為新,愛網所攝為厚,眷屬
J36nB348_p0310b13║莊嚴為禮。四禪各以捨下苦麤障為廣大,得上淨妙
J36nB348_p0310b14║離為精微,安住勝處為高明,十禪支行為中庸,超歷
J36nB348_p0310b15║大小諸劫為故,喜樂捨受相應為新,同一定體為厚,
J36nB348_p0310b16║王臣民等差別為禮。無想天則以無諸想礙為廣大,
J36nB348_p0310b17║體同木石為精微,居四禪上為高明,滅心心所為中
J36nB348_p0310b18║庸,初半劫滅為故,後半劫生為新。順無動性為厚,次
J36nB348_p0310b19║第令其心慮灰凝為禮。四空天則以體同太虛為廣
J36nB348_p0310b20║大,微細心心所法為精微,遍超色縛為高明,不離心
J36nB348_p0310b21║想為中庸,報境無有成住壞空為故,受用禪味為新,
J36nB348_p0310b22║順無色性為厚,次第證入為禮。藏通二教,各有三乘,
J36nB348_p0310b23║雖體析巧拙不同,同以無為涅槃,離我我所,曠若虛
J36nB348_p0310b24║空為廣大,超諸斷常有無戲論妄想為精微,遠離三
J36nB348_p0310b25║界成一切智為高明,依戒而住依念處行道為中庸,
J36nB348_p0310b26║因緣法性無有作者為故,觀諦觀緣出生三乘道果
J36nB348_p0310b27║為新,二乘別以警悟無常速求出離為厚,攝身口意
J36nB348_p0310b28║解脫業繫為禮。大士別以自愍愍他願皆濟度為厚,
J36nB348_p0310b29║三聚淨戒上求下化為禮。別教則以無量四諦十界
J36nB348_p0310b30║因果為廣大,中道佛性緣了修證為精微,迥超九界
J36nB348_p0310c01║佛眼種智為高明,從因緣境歷修三觀為中庸,本覺
J36nB348_p0310c02║無始為故,功德智慧二種莊嚴為新,次第三慈為厚,
J36nB348_p0310c03║歷侍諸佛,遍度九界種種儀軌為禮。圓教則以介爾
J36nB348_p0310c04║有心三千具足,豎窮橫遍,無欠無餘為廣大,三千性
J36nB348_p0310c05║相互具互遍,一色一香無非中道為精微,一心三智
J36nB348_p0310c06║照窮法界為高明,無作四念一心三觀為中庸,即隨
J36nB348_p0310c07║緣而不變為故,所以一切諸法無非性具,即不變而
J36nB348_p0310c08║隨緣為新,所以權實因果施設無方,心佛眾生三無
J36nB348_p0310c09║差別為厚,所以上合無緣慈力,下合同體悲仰,而熾
J36nB348_p0310c10║然常行與拔,上侍諸佛下應群機為禮。所以性遮諸
J36nB348_p0310c11║業,一切皆成無盡戒體,皆名無上道戒。是謂名同而
J36nB348_p0310c12║義異也。 言名義俱同而歸宗異者,不論儒老,色無
J36nB348_p0310c13║色定,乃至藏通別圓,欲以至德凝道,必道問學以尊
J36nB348_p0310c14║之,欲真實學問,必尊德性以道之,欲證德性之廣大,
J36nB348_p0310c15║必盡精微以致之,欲證德性之精微,必致廣大以盡
J36nB348_p0310c16║之,欲證德性之高明,必道中庸以極之,欲證德性之
J36nB348_p0310c17║中庸,必極高明以道之,欲證德性之故,必知新以溫
J36nB348_p0310c18║之,欲證德性之新,必溫故以知之,欲證德性之厚,必
J36nB348_p0310c19║崇禮以敦之,欲證德性之禮,必敦厚以崇之,是名義
J36nB348_p0310c20║俱同。然如此問學,各尊其所謂德性,故儒成人閒之
J36nB348_p0310c21║聖,與天地參,老成天道之聖,為萬化母,乃至藏通成
J36nB348_p0310c22║三乘之聖,永超生死,別教成圓滿報身之聖,永超方
J36nB348_p0310c23║便,圓教成清淨法身之聖,方為真能盡性,是歸宗永
J36nB348_p0310c24║異。 言對絕二妙者,若以人望天,以欲界望色界,展
J36nB348_p0310c25║轉乃至以別望圓,則彼廣大之外更廣大,精微之內
J36nB348_p0310c26║更精微,高明之上更高明,中庸之中更中庸,故之前
J36nB348_p0310c27║更故,新之後更新,厚亦彌厚,禮亦彌周。若以圓視別,
J36nB348_p0310c28║以別視通,乃至以天視人,則彼廣大精微等,皆悉有
J36nB348_p0310c29║名無義。故以下望上,傳傳皆妙,以上視下,法法皆麤,
J36nB348_p0310c30║此對待明妙也。絕待明妙者,為實施權,開權顯實,若
J36nB348_p0311a01║別,若通,若藏,若天,若人,究竟同歸一乘。圓人受法,無
J36nB348_p0311a02║法不圓,則法法皆妙。既知此理,方許論揀論收,能融
J36nB348_p0311a03║能會耳。 後約跡約權揀收等者,揀之則全非,儒是
J36nB348_p0311a04║世法,佛出世故。又此云天命為性,易云太極生兩儀,
J36nB348_p0311a05║並屬非因計因,不知正因緣法,見論所攝。夫婦父子
J36nB348_p0311a06║等恩愛牽連,愛論所攝。老子天法道,道法自然,是無
J36nB348_p0311a07║因論,不知正因緣法,亦見論攝。收之,則儒於五乘法
J36nB348_p0311a08║門,屬人乘攝,所明五常,合於五戒。其餘諸法,半合十
J36nB348_p0311a09║善,尚未全同金輪王法也。老屬天乘,未盡天中之致,
J36nB348_p0311a10║已如前說。究而言之,總不及藏教之出生死,況通別
J36nB348_p0311a11║圓邪。然此直約跡約權耳,若約實約本融會者,此方
J36nB348_p0311a12║聖人,是菩薩化現,如來所使。大灌頂經云,佛先遣三
J36nB348_p0311a13║聖,往化支那,所立葬法,南洲中最。三聖法化若在,如
J36nB348_p0311a14║來正教亦賴以行。而列子具明孔子讚佛之語,老子
J36nB348_p0311a15║騎牛出關,欲訪大覺,既聞示寂,歎息而返。經史所載,
J36nB348_p0311a16║彰明若此,後人不達,紛紛起諍,豈理也哉。然三聖不
J36nB348_p0311a17║略說出世教法,蓋機緣未至,不得不然。且如五天機
J36nB348_p0311a18║熟,佛乃示生,而初倡華嚴,在會聾啞,不惟須說阿含
J36nB348_p0311a19║以為漸始,兼立人天戒善,以作先容。況此地機緣,遠
J36nB348_p0311a20║在千年之後,縱說出世法,誰能信之。故權智垂跡,不
J36nB348_p0311a21║得不示同凡外。然即此儒典,亦未嘗不洩妙機,後儒
J36nB348_p0311a22║自莫能察,及門亦所未窺。故孔子再歎顏回好學,今
J36nB348_p0311a23║也則亡,深顯曾子以下,皆知跡而不知本,知權而不
J36nB348_p0311a24║知實者也。何謂所洩妙機,如易經繫辭傳云,易有太
J36nB348_p0311a25║極,是生兩儀,兩儀生四象,四象生八卦。此語最可參
J36nB348_p0311a26║詳。夫既云易有太極,則太極乃易之所有,畢竟易是
J36nB348_p0311a27║何物有此太極。儻以畫辭為易,應云太極生天地,天
J36nB348_p0311a28║地生萬物,然後伏羲因之畫卦,文周因之繫辭,何反
J36nB348_p0311a29║云易有太極。易有太極,易理固在太極之先矣。設非
J36nB348_p0311a30║吾人本源佛性,更是何物。既本源佛性,尚在太極先,
J36nB348_p0311b01║豈得漫云天之所賦。然不明言即心自性,但言易者,
J36nB348_p0311b02║以凡夫久執四大為自身相,六塵緣影為自心相,斷
J36nB348_p0311b03║斷不能理會此事,故悉檀善巧,聊寄微辭。當知易即
J36nB348_p0311b04║真如之性,具有隨緣不變,不變隨緣之義,密說為易。
J36nB348_p0311b05║而此真如,但有性德,未有修德,故不守自性,不覺念
J36nB348_p0311b06║起而有無明。此無始住地無明,正是二種生死根本,
J36nB348_p0311b07║密說之為太極。因明立所,晦昧為空。相待成搖之風
J36nB348_p0311b08║輪,即所謂動而生陽。堅明立礙之金輪,即所謂靜而
J36nB348_p0311b09║生陰。風金相摩,火光出現,寶明生潤,水輪下含,即所
J36nB348_p0311b10║謂兩儀生四象也。火騰水降,交發立堅,為海為洲,為
J36nB348_p0311b11║山為木,即所謂四象生八卦,乃至生萬物也。名相稍
J36nB348_p0311b12║異,大體宛同,順之則生死始,逆之則輪迴息。故又云,
J36nB348_p0311b13║易逆數也。亦既微示人以出世要旨矣。老子道生天
J36nB348_p0311b14║地,意亦相同,但亦不明言即心自性,皆機緣未熟耳。
J36nB348_p0311b15║且易傳寂然不動,感而遂通一語,即寂照無二之體。
J36nB348_p0311b16║而乾坤其易之門一語,即流轉還滅逆順二修之關。
J36nB348_p0311b17║以性覺妙明,本覺明妙,非干修證,不屬迷悟。而迷則
J36nB348_p0311b18║照體成散,寂體成昏,逆涅槃城,順生死路,全由此動
J36nB348_p0311b19║靜兩門,是名逆修,亦名修惡。悟則借動以覺其昏,名
J36nB348_p0311b20║之為觀,借靜以攝其散,名之為止,逆生死流,順涅槃
J36nB348_p0311b21║海,亦由此動靜兩門,是名順修,亦名修善。然修分順
J36nB348_p0311b22║逆,性無增減,又雖善惡皆本於性,而道必昇沈。如斯
J36nB348_p0311b23║祕旨,豈異圓宗。菩薩現身,信非虛倡,習而不察,過在
J36nB348_p0311b24║後儒。又既知宣聖祕密微談,兼秉法華開顯妙旨,即
J36nB348_p0311b25║此中庸,便可作圓頓佛法解釋。天命之謂性者,天非
J36nB348_p0311b26║望而蒼蒼之天,亦非忉利夜摩等天,即涅槃經第一
J36nB348_p0311b27║義天也。命非命令之解,即第八識執持色身相續不
J36nB348_p0311b28║斷之妄情也。謂生滅與不生滅和合,而成阿賴邪識,
J36nB348_p0311b29║此識即有生之性,以全真起妄,天復稱命,以全妄是
J36nB348_p0311b30║真,命復稱天。全真起妄,即不變而隨緣,全妄是真,即
J36nB348_p0311c01║隨緣而不變也。率性之謂道者,此藏性中具染淨善
J36nB348_p0311c02║惡一切種子,若率染惡種子而起現行,即小人之道,
J36nB348_p0311c03║亦名逆修。若率淨善種子,而起現行,即君子之道,亦
J36nB348_p0311c04║名順修。道二,仁與不仁而已矣,正合此意,亦合台家
J36nB348_p0311c05║性具宗旨。修道之謂教者,小人之道,修除令盡,君子
J36nB348_p0311c06║之道,修習令滿,此則聖賢教法,惟欲人返逆修而歸
J36nB348_p0311c07║順修,即隨緣而悟不變也。三句合宗,頭正尾正,凡一
J36nB348_p0311c08║文一字,皆可消歸至理矣。以要言之,若得法華開顯
J36nB348_p0311c09║之旨,治世語言,資生產業,乃至戲笑怒罵,豔曲情詞,
J36nB348_p0311c10║尚順實相正法,況世閒理性之談邪。然此是智旭之
J36nB348_p0311c11║中庸,非子思之中庸也。如大慧杲禪師,以此三句作
J36nB348_p0311c12║法報化三身,亦只是宗杲之中庸耳。儻子思實知宗
J36nB348_p0311c13║杲、智旭之中庸者,孔子急當印之。胡顏淵死,一慟傷
J36nB348_p0311c14║心,自稱天喪。且追憶之,再歎今也則亡邪。昔孟子歷
J36nB348_p0311c15║敘見知聞知之道,結云,然而無有乎爾,則亦無有乎
J36nB348_p0311c16║爾。是孟子尚不肯以曾子子思為見知者,何況孔子。
J36nB348_p0311c17║彼一以貫之之傳,但的示尊德性之真實問學如此,
J36nB348_p0311c18║乃下手發足之方,非到家消息。又跡中權理之一,非
J36nB348_p0311c19║本中實理之一也。今約三聖立教本意,直謂同可,以
J36nB348_p0311c20║無非為實施權故也。約三教施設門庭,直謂異可,以
J36nB348_p0311c21║儒老但說權理,又局人天,佛說權說實,皆出世故也。
J36nB348_p0311c22║約權則工夫同而到家異,謂亦同亦異可也。約實則
J36nB348_p0311c23║本不壞跡,跡不掩本,謂非同非異可也。惺谷壽禪師
J36nB348_p0311c24║云,為門外人說同,否則以為異端,為入門人說別,否
J36nB348_p0311c25║則安於舊習,為升堂人說亦同亦別,以其見理未諦,
J36nB348_p0311c26║須與微細剖析,令知同中有異異中有同,為入室人
J36nB348_p0311c27║說非同非別,麤言細語,皆第一義,又何儒釋可論。斯
J36nB348_p0311c28║言得之,以其次第順於四悉檀故。然細論說法方便,
J36nB348_p0311c29║則四句之中,一一皆具四悉,又貴臨時善用,不得固
J36nB348_p0311c30║執斯言為死法也。
J36nB348_p0312a01║靈峰蕅益大師宗論卷第三之二
J36nB348_p0312b01║靈峰蕅益大師宗論卷第三之三
J36nB348_p0312b02║  荅問三
J36nB348_p0312b03║   荅大佛頂經二十二問(原問附)
J36nB348_p0312b04║ (問,阿難登伽,同藉咒力。何登伽先證三果,阿難後獲法身。)
J36nB348_p0312b05║荅,如來說法,賢愚利鈍,先後證悟,萬有不齊,此何足
J36nB348_p0312b06║疑。若論二人本地,皆大權發起。悟有先後,俱為物作
J36nB348_p0312b07║則。若就跡論,登伽欲熾,急者先治。阿難圓解未開,顯
J36nB348_p0312b08║說方悟。儻不消欲心,阿難何由得脫。儻阿難先證,大
J36nB348_p0312b09║教何由得啟。觀跡知本,亦非二致。
J36nB348_p0312b10║ (問,由心生故,種種法生。由法生故,種種心生。若法先,云何心生法生。若心先,云何法生心生。若心法
J36nB348_p0312b11║ 一,云何相由,若二,畢竟孰先孰後。)
J36nB348_p0312b12║荅,心法本非一異。非一故妄情得說相由,非異故終
J36nB348_p0312b13║無先後,如冰水同一溼性,若問溼與水冰,孰先孰後,
J36nB348_p0312b14║終不可得。然約迷妄,可於無先後中強說先後。性覺
J36nB348_p0312b15║必明,妄為明覺,心生法生也。引起塵勞煩惱等,法生
J36nB348_p0312b16║心生也。故曰,惑業苦三,更相由藉。至妄明不起,則性
J36nB348_p0312b17║覺亦不受心性之名。既可名心亦可名法,以是法性
J36nB348_p0312b18║法界,法住法位故也。當知心法俱是假名,實無二體。
J36nB348_p0312b19║無二而二,不變隨緣,二而不二,隨緣不變。故此二語,
J36nB348_p0312b20║雖一往約迷,實顯心外無法,法外無心之旨。蓋迷則
J36nB348_p0312b21║不惟妄心妄法似有二別,即全舉真心真法而成二
J36nB348_p0312b22║妄,如空成華,水成冰,麻成蛇。若悟則不惟真心真法
J36nB348_p0312b23║從來無二,即全舉妄心妄法而歸一真,如華本空,冰
J36nB348_p0312b24║即水,蛇即麻也。
J36nB348_p0312b25║ (問,阿難自說即能推者,我將為心,如何判其但認所推。)
J36nB348_p0312b26║荅,眾生迷己為物,認物為己,皆以所作能,若達能推
J36nB348_p0312b27║之性,演若悟頭不狂走矣。文句釋能推為心曰,阿難
J36nB348_p0312b28║雖以能推為心,實是所推影子,非真能推者。真能推
J36nB348_p0312b29║者,雖是第六意識見分,而此見分,便不在內外中閒,
J36nB348_p0312b30║本離過絕非。如眼不見眼,何可舉似。而曰即能推者,
J36nB348_p0312c01║我將為心邪。故如來訶云,汝執分別覺觀所了知性
J36nB348_p0312c02║必為心者,此心應離色香味觸別有全性,明指為所
J36nB348_p0312c03║了知性,非能了知性矣。圓覺妄認六塵緣影為自心
J36nB348_p0312c04║相,此經謂前塵虛妄相想,皆是物也。阿難云,離此覺
J36nB348_p0312c05║知,更無所有,豈非認緣氣為覺知。緣氣是所知影像,
J36nB348_p0312c06║非能知能覺之見分,以見分從來無相故也。見分無
J36nB348_p0312c07║相,誤為有相,便成蛇見。若了見分雖妄,實本無相,則
J36nB348_p0312c08║依他當下消歸圓成。天台所以專立第六識為所觀
J36nB348_p0312c09║境,譬鑽木出火,火即燒木,合于此經識陰本如來藏
J36nB348_p0312c10║性,識明知,覺明真識等語,不啻如空合空,水合水。此
J36nB348_p0312c11║直指人心,見性成佛,不動一步,久已到家,真無上圓
J36nB348_p0312c12║頓法印也。阿難未證初果,全墮凡外無心計心之過。
J36nB348_p0312c13║如來種種徵破,不過欲其覓心了不可得而已。
J36nB348_p0312c14║ (問,緣心現有其用,如何決不能推。經言汝等尚以緣心聽法,此則亦許緣心能聽。)
J36nB348_p0312c15║荅,一切法名色盡之。眼耳鼻舌身,色聲香味觸法,皆
J36nB348_p0312c16║色也,受想行識皆名也。名者,但有名字,無色相也。是
J36nB348_p0312c17║故八心王,五十一心所,其相分皆色也,其見分皆名
J36nB348_p0312c18║也。經云,妄有緣氣,於中積聚,假名為心,見分惟有名,
J36nB348_p0312c19║如何可稱為氣,可積聚於中邪。緣氣積聚,則一件物,
J36nB348_p0312c20║一件物則是相分。唯識云,相分理無能緣用故。阿難
J36nB348_p0312c21║認為能緣,亦如認目有見,浮塵目必不能見,緣影心
J36nB348_p0312c22║必不能知。故破云,尚以緣心聽法,正謂緣心是緣氣,
J36nB348_p0312c23║亦名風大,決無聽法功能。尚誤為能聽法邪,此從我
J36nB348_p0312c24║法音為緣,起於法音影子,非得我所指心性也。古人
J36nB348_p0312c25║云,卻是虛空能講。今例云,卻是虛空能聽,何如何如。
J36nB348_p0312c26║至此漏逗不少,知我罪我,未審何人。
J36nB348_p0312c27║ (問,阿難獲法身,而不解脫,富樓那得羅漢,而有疑悔。若止悟理,豈有理外之事。若但事障清淨,豈有
J36nB348_p0312c28║ 事外之理。設理障理遣,事障事除,互不相攝,何成圓宗。)
J36nB348_p0312c29║荅,阿難煩惱障重,滿慈所知障重。由事理不二而二,
J36nB348_p0312c30║仍分根本枝末也。如樹根枝葉,同屬大地四微,亦自
J36nB348_p0313a01║不分而分。阿難斫根,枝葉尚青,滿慈枯枝,根尚未拔。
J36nB348_p0313a02║至理障理遣二語,復通四教,不得直以煩惱為事障,
J36nB348_p0313a03║所知為理障。界內界外,各論事理二行故也。
J36nB348_p0313a04║ (問,三卷中阿難既獲法身,何更數求開示。四卷中疑惑銷除,心悟實相,而又如旅泊之人,得屋求門,
J36nB348_p0313a05║ 不幾法身在門外邪。)
J36nB348_p0313a06║荅,法身亡得失,絕內外,只緣迷悟有殊,曲分修證差
J36nB348_p0313a07║別。雖約修證,不礙性真。如虛空非丈尺,丈尺顯虛空。
J36nB348_p0313a08║三卷獲法身,約相似解行。四卷請入門,約分證智斷,
J36nB348_p0313a09║不相違也。古人云,道曠無涯,逢人不盡。大悟一十八,
J36nB348_p0313a10║小悟不計數。此阿難所以番番開悟,處處陳疑,終不
J36nB348_p0313a11║未足中生滿足想也。堪嗟末世,瞎鍊盲修,於靜境中,
J36nB348_p0313a12║稍得一兩番六塵乍息光景,便謂千了百當,自誤誤
J36nB348_p0313a13║他。并相似法身,尚未夢見,況親窺華屋門邪。佛法不
J36nB348_p0313a14║是者個道理,慎之慎之。
J36nB348_p0313a15║ (問,水土二物,性本真空,何必去泥土,取清水乎。)
J36nB348_p0313a16║荅,水土不出虛空,喻十界五陰不離藏性。今既以清
J36nB348_p0313a17║水喻九界中佛界五陰,以泥土喻佛界中九界五陰,
J36nB348_p0313a18║必棄九界濁,成佛界清。若泥土不必去,則自性眾生
J36nB348_p0313a19║不必度,自性煩惱不必斷。若清水不必取,則自性法
J36nB348_p0313a20║門不必學,自性佛道不必成。執性廢修,成大邪見。
J36nB348_p0313a21║ (問,既以可作法喻十八界生滅相,以虛空喻如來藏不生滅性矣,何又以水土相投,喻阿難等身中
J36nB348_p0313a22║ 五濁,以去泥純水,喻如來常樂我淨邪。文句雖以五濁合可作喻,以純水合虛空喻,然如來何不直
J36nB348_p0313a23║ 依如虛空之藏性為本修因,乃別令澄濁得清邪。)
J36nB348_p0313a24║荅,經云,如澄濁水,貯於靜器。器仍喻十八界七大,而
J36nB348_p0313a25║器中空,則喻十八界七大皆藏性也。十八界七大皆
J36nB348_p0313a26║得為所觀境,喻之以器。境中本具妙諦,喻器中空。能
J36nB348_p0313a27║觀境諦之智,喻所貯水也。蓋水喻見分,土喻相分。六
J36nB348_p0313a28║凡眾生見分,必取同居土相,二乘眾生見分,必取方
J36nB348_p0313a29║便土相,菩薩眾生見分,必取實報土相,故皆濁。唯佛
J36nB348_p0313a30║見分直緣真如,不復變帶三土妄相。如貯水器中之
J36nB348_p0313b01║空,至明相精純,則八識轉成四智,以根本智無相分
J36nB348_p0313b02║故,名去泥純水。以後得智能現相故,名一切變現。雖
J36nB348_p0313b03║有變現,仍是無漏,故云不為煩惱,皆合涅槃清淨妙
J36nB348_p0313b04║德也。是知以虛空喻不生滅性,證之成無為無漏功
J36nB348_p0313b05║德,即是法身,亦即大乘止觀淨分真實性也。以純清
J36nB348_p0313b06║水喻佛果四智菩提,證之成有為無漏功德,即是報
J36nB348_p0313b07║身,亦即大乘止觀淨分依他性。唯識謂其純無漏,亦
J36nB348_p0313b08║可攝歸圓成實性也。以一切變現,喻佛果利他功德,
J36nB348_p0313b09║所謂嬰兒行病行等,即是化身,亦即大乘止觀淨分
J36nB348_p0313b10║分別性也。如次配三涅槃,三菩提,三德祕藏,皆無不
J36nB348_p0313b11║可。佛語巧妙,佛意深遠,豈片言隻義能盡哉。
J36nB348_p0313b12║ (問,空喻涅槃,則了因所了,水喻菩提,仍生因所生,豈皆元清淨體邪。又空無邊際,水有涯畔,不幾涅
J36nB348_p0313b13║ 槃理遍,菩提智不遍邪。)
J36nB348_p0313b14║荅,清水元非生因所生,以濁水中本具清水性故。澄
J36nB348_p0313b15║濁得清,可喻轉識成智。但轉其名無實性,故不同相
J36nB348_p0313b16║宗權說也。空水邊畔,此觀相元妄耳。性水真空,性空
J36nB348_p0313b17║真水,清淨本然,等周法界。
J36nB348_p0313b18║ (問,阿難已獲似位法身,何聞不明自發,語仍疑見聽離塵,畢竟無體,以為斷滅邪。初徵心在迷,此已
J36nB348_p0313b19║ 悟性真,何更指前為例也。)
J36nB348_p0313b20║荅,阿難此時見惑已斷,知六根虛妄,無我我所,不執
J36nB348_p0313b21║緣影為心,但思惑及無明未斷,故欲棄妄求真,未能
J36nB348_p0313b22║了妄即真。夫二決定義,意在定境修觀。譬澄濁得清,
J36nB348_p0313b23║不棄濁水,別求清水。阿難執現前濁相,疑無清水性,
J36nB348_p0313b24║不知清水性,即在濁水中也。占察云,初心應先習唯
J36nB348_p0313b25║心識觀。南嶽止觀亦誡不得即觀圓成。良以圓成之
J36nB348_p0313b26║性,全在依他及分別中。離現前分別及依他境,別無
J36nB348_p0313b27║圓成實性可得。全水成波,波外更無別水故也。末世
J36nB348_p0313b28║禪流,昧定境修觀妙旨,離於事境,高談理性,所計理
J36nB348_p0313b29║性,還成分別。所謂未證無為,而辨圓覺,彼圓覺性即
J36nB348_p0313b30║同流轉,毫釐有差,天地懸隔。阿難深知此弊,方發此
J36nB348_p0313c01║疑也。
J36nB348_p0313c02║ (問,龍王河女空神,能聽聞觸覺,不依浮塵,勝義何住。若無勝義,不應是凡,又勝義根有證知處否。)
J36nB348_p0313c03║荅,勝義依浮塵,約迷妄言耳。龍以角聽,勝義依角,河
J36nB348_p0313c04║神鼻根,亦可例知。空神無業果麤色,有定果色,依之
J36nB348_p0313c05║覺觸。然此段文,正顯六根之性,不藉浮勝二根。在凡
J36nB348_p0313c06║在聖,其理無二,非謂無勝義即聖,有勝義即凡也。但
J36nB348_p0313c07║凡夫迷己為物,又認物為己,故見聞覺知,必賴浮勝
J36nB348_p0313c08║二根。聖人背塵合覺,即全塵是覺,故得寄根明發,六
J36nB348_p0313c09║根互用。謂聖無六根可也,謂聖方有六根可也。至於
J36nB348_p0313c10║凡夫勝義根,但可比知,若無六根,終不發識。如無燈
J36nB348_p0313c11║炷,焰則不生,焰但照他,不照燈炷。
J36nB348_p0313c12║ (問,如耳根,何者是六識七識八識。又從聞思修,此思在六識,如何用心。又如何辨此七之思八之思。)
J36nB348_p0313c13║荅,耳之浮塵勝義二根,俱第八識相分。聞精即第八
J36nB348_p0313c14║見分也,八七法爾相緣。依第七復發第六意識,與耳
J36nB348_p0313c15║根所發耳識同緣聲相,此八識相緣起也。思修思字,
J36nB348_p0313c16║正是諦觀聞性,即空即假即中,不隨聲色流轉。此名
J36nB348_p0313c17║雖同遍行五中之思,實與妙觀察智相應,又與別境
J36nB348_p0313c18║中慧並起,并與善中信等相扶,故名思慧。若尋常釋
J36nB348_p0313c19║思,則以令心造作為性,於善品等役心為業。與第六
J36nB348_p0313c20║相應者,同彼遍緣三量。與第七相應者,同彼但緣內
J36nB348_p0313c21║我。與第八相應者,同彼於不可知執受處了。此思相
J36nB348_p0313c22║差別也。
J36nB348_p0313c23║ (問,初心反聞性時,又被色香味觸法牽動,未審當境推破入真流邪,還歸本根入真流邪。)
J36nB348_p0313c24║荅,餘塵牽動,只是工夫不得力,見地不清楚耳。果於
J36nB348_p0313c25║耳門悟圓通常,以此圓通常觀,歷一一法,皆耳門三
J36nB348_p0313c26║昧。故曰,此是微塵佛,一路涅槃門。至於順治逆治,隨
J36nB348_p0313c27║樂隨宜,隨治隨理,不可執一。摩訶止觀立十境,初觀
J36nB348_p0313c28║陰心,餘界入并後九境,待發方觀。知此例者,修心之
J36nB348_p0313c29║要,不泣岐矣。
J36nB348_p0313c30║ (問,身心二俱捐捨,將何修入三摩地,寧復別有一身心邪。)
J36nB348_p0314a01║荅,執我之心,乃生死根,由此我執,方愛其身。而有身
J36nB348_p0314a02║即是我,離身有我,我大身小,身大我小之四別。若謂
J36nB348_p0314a03║身即是我,萬無肯捨之事。縱妄計捨則斷滅,更無後
J36nB348_p0314a04║苦,仍未達此妄計之心,即是苦本。若謂離身有我,見
J36nB348_p0314a05║身多苦,捨令無苦,此正由我見捨身,非能捨此我見
J36nB348_p0314a06║心也。惟將此四種我見,一齊放捨,則幻身亦決可捨。
J36nB348_p0314a07║二俱捐捨,則二俱妙用,便可入三摩地。故知只此身
J36nB348_p0314a08║心放得下,流賊便為良民,放不下,良民便為流賊耳。
J36nB348_p0314a09║ (問,初下手時待不得力而後持咒助邪,或持咒與所觀境並進邪。兼二亦名一門深入否。)
J36nB348_p0314a10║荅,眾生根性,萬別千差。或顯悟,或密證,或須助,或不
J36nB348_p0314a11║須助,事非一等,皆是一門深入。若無障緣,直修境觀。
J36nB348_p0314a12║若恐障侵,兼持密印。顯密正助,並須與妙觀相應,方
J36nB348_p0314a13║合一門深入之旨。
J36nB348_p0314a14║ (問,遠論動源,過在無始。近論只是當念,離當念有無始否。若有,何得一念了卻。若無,何得有今一念。)
J36nB348_p0314a15║荅,離當念,別無無始可論。現前一念,即豎窮橫遍之
J36nB348_p0314a16║全體。根身器界善惡種子,離現前一念,竟無少許實
J36nB348_p0314a17║法可得。故曰,十世古今,始終不離於當念。
J36nB348_p0314a18║ (問,既獲法身,復請至何漸次得修行目,詣何方所名入地中,豈法身有差別漸次邪。)
J36nB348_p0314a19║荅,法身無差別,差別不離法身,修行無漸次,漸次依
J36nB348_p0314a20║於修行。如虛空無遠近,遠近不離虛空,奮飛無漸次,
J36nB348_p0314a21║漸次依於奮飛。阿難悟心,即悟無差別性,猶如太虛。
J36nB348_p0314a22║所請修行,即是圓行,猶如奮飛。由奮飛遠近,得論漸
J36nB348_p0314a23║次差別。若只許無漸次無差別義,則是以性廢修,昧
J36nB348_p0314a24║即而常六之旨。且既無差別,亦無無差別可得,無漸
J36nB348_p0314a25║次,亦無非漸次可得,如無遠近,亦無虛空。六義既昧,
J36nB348_p0314a26║即亦不成。須達全性起修,全修在性,則從始至終,皆
J36nB348_p0314a27║以佛知佛見而為修行。圓家之漸,即漸是圓,非漸圓
J36nB348_p0314a28║可比也。
J36nB348_p0314a29║ (問,固身常住,長不傾逝,且色陰既空,受想行陰都滅。從何起此長想,指何色為身邪。)
J36nB348_p0314a30║荅,五陰互相攝屬,色陰未破,五陰皆色也。色破受現,
J36nB348_p0314b01║五皆受也。受破想存,五皆想也。想破行顯,五皆行也。
J36nB348_p0314b02║今行破識露,則五皆識也。是故生滅雖滅,而於寂滅
J36nB348_p0314b03║精妙未圓之中,法爾仍具五陰。只此色受想行,罔非
J36nB348_p0314b04║寂滅未圓境界,豈行人至此,竟無色身,亦無苦樂覺
J36nB348_p0314b05║觀舉止動靜等邪。良由第六識相應心行,於定境修
J36nB348_p0314b06║觀時,如次觀於識陰境界,見識陰之精圓,而生長想。
J36nB348_p0314b07║此想即從觀行起,此色即識陰所執受也。
J36nB348_p0314b08║ (問,第六外道,圓虛無心,以永滅依為所歸依。註云,令不恆行心心所滅也。功力至此,應侔聖流,而成
J36nB348_p0314b09║ 斷滅,過在何所。既斷滅,又何果可成,種可得邪。)
J36nB348_p0314b10║荅,無想定中,雖滅不恆行心心所法,秖由計明中虛,
J36nB348_p0314b11║以為方便,則見惑全在。所以下地思惑雖伏,仍堅執
J36nB348_p0314b12║無想天之生死妄想,誤為真實,決定不入聖流。過在
J36nB348_p0314b13║不曾真實先開圓解。所以觀行位中,見此寂滅境界,
J36nB348_p0314b14║不知全是顛倒微細精想,而生勝解也。雖云斷滅,非
J36nB348_p0314b15║真斷滅,仍是十二類生所攝。所謂枯槁亂想,無想羯
J36nB348_p0314b16║南,故名為種,亦名為果也。
J36nB348_p0314b17║ (問,首楞嚴大定,從觀行入,即以觀行為定邪,為有次第有出入邪,畢竟至究竟,方可稱大定邪。)
J36nB348_p0314b18║荅,欲知大定體相,須明性修妙旨。眾生本具大佛頂
J36nB348_p0314b19║性,即大定之體。如云陰入處界,乃至七大皆如來藏,
J36nB348_p0314b20║妙真如性,則皆大定體性也。眾生在迷,但有理即大
J36nB348_p0314b21║定,悟此理是名字大定,依佛知佛見而為修行,是觀
J36nB348_p0314b22║行大定。觀行功深,相似理發,六根清淨,如鑽火得煙,
J36nB348_p0314b23║是相似大定。於頭頭法法中,分證三德祕藏之理,是
J36nB348_p0314b24║分證大定。乃至徹證,無欠無餘,是究竟大定。始終理
J36nB348_p0314b25║一,名之為性,六位轉變,功在於修。修不在性外,悟性
J36nB348_p0314b26║方成修。如弈者得勝,不離棋局,知局方可取勝也。
J36nB348_p0314b27║ (問,從破七處,至顯藏性,體用彰,真俗顯,天地同根,萬物一體,無生死可得,無涅槃可證矣。又選耳根
J36nB348_p0314b28║ 為方便,耳根即聞見覺知,熾然成異,乃光影門頭,於常住真心,自相逾越,何從修證入三摩提邪。)
J36nB348_p0314b29║荅,不悟妙性,無以成修。不事真修,無以顯性。經初破
J36nB348_p0314b30║緣影非心,顯見性非物,會四科以歸性,明七大之遍
J36nB348_p0314c01║圓,喻以狂走而頭不失,貧乞而珠自存,皆直指人心,
J36nB348_p0314c02║見性成佛,顯圓融諦理,以開妙悟者也。次即依妙悟
J36nB348_p0314c03║以起真修,借此方最利之耳根,薦取本圓本通本常
J36nB348_p0314c04║之性體,故得名為以不生不滅為本修因,然後圓成
J36nB348_p0314c05║果地修證。此真金剛寶劍,何惑不破,何理不彰。若不
J36nB348_p0314c06║知耳根之性,即如來藏妙真如性,漫云同一體,無生
J36nB348_p0314c07║死,無涅槃,全墮光影門頭相似語句,其不知此經宗
J36nB348_p0314c08║趣甚矣。試取擊鐘驗常處一番問辯,沈思細玩,自知
J36nB348_p0314c09║所問之非也。
J36nB348_p0314c10║ (問,多聞無功,不逮修習,憶持十方如來十二部經清淨妙理,如恆河沙,秖益戲論,積劫聞熏,不能免
J36nB348_p0314c11║ 難。歷劫憶持如來祕密妙嚴,不如一日修無漏業。阿難尚如此訶,今人設持此經,亦何益邪。)
J36nB348_p0314c12║荅,阿難病不反聞,非病多聞。經訶一向徒聞,非教無
J36nB348_p0314c13║聞。正以今人愚鈍,依教修行,猶恐失足,癡禪暗證,墮
J36nB348_p0314c14║落何疑,所以曲隨根性,且令持此深經。利者得以隨
J36nB348_p0314c15║文入證,鈍者亦可永為道種,庶免無聞比丘之禍也。
J36nB348_p0314c16║   教觀要旨荅問十三則(原問附)
J36nB348_p0314c17║ (問,三界唯心,萬法唯識,二義同邪異邪。)
J36nB348_p0314c18║荅,心識通有真妄,局則心約真,識約妄。唯心是性宗
J36nB348_p0314c19║義,依此立真如實觀。唯識是相宗義,依此立唯心識
J36nB348_p0314c20║觀。料簡二觀,須尋占察行法,方知同而異,異而同矣。
J36nB348_p0314c21║ (問,遍計依他須破,圓成還須破否。圓成不須破,遍計依他亦不須破否。破與不破,乞師細剖。)
J36nB348_p0314c22║荅,三性元非定三,亦非定一。言遍計依他入圓成實
J36nB348_p0314c23║者,只達遍計本空,依他如幻,即是圓成實性,非別有
J36nB348_p0314c24║也。若存圓成實見,還是遍計,亦須破盡。若知三性即
J36nB348_p0314c25║三無性,則遍計依他本無可破。無可破,所以具明淨
J36nB348_p0314c26║分三性,須破盡,所以復明三無性也。更以喻明。達繩
J36nB348_p0314c27║即麻,則依他非實,遍計安有。謂繩是蛇,則麻性不改,
J36nB348_p0314c28║恐怖妄生。迷時全麻是蛇,蛇繩麻皆迷情。悟時全蛇
J36nB348_p0314c29║是麻,麻繩蛇皆悟境。儻謂麻即繩,麻非繩,麻亦繩亦
J36nB348_p0314c30║非繩,麻非繩非非繩,又謂繩即蛇,繩非蛇,繩亦蛇亦
J36nB348_p0315a01║非蛇,繩非蛇非非蛇,乃至展轉互作四句,皆成遍計。
J36nB348_p0315a02║若不起性計,深知不變隨緣隨緣不變之理,以四悉
J36nB348_p0315a03║檀因緣,巧說種種四句,則三性三無性二義並成。故
J36nB348_p0315a04║知非破非立,而論破立,破立同時,破立不二。
J36nB348_p0315a05║ (問,三因圓具,方稱圓修。請示現前一念,何為正緣了,及一一位中因相差別,令不生上慢退屈也。)
J36nB348_p0315a06║荅,性具三因,止現前惑業苦三而已。惑即了因種子,
J36nB348_p0315a07║業即緣因種子,苦即正因佛性也。若就行人點三因
J36nB348_p0315a08║者,能觀觀即了因佛性,所觀境即緣因佛性。若能若
J36nB348_p0315a09║所,若心若法,唯一實諦,即正因佛性。了知此三,依此
J36nB348_p0315a10║修習,是名字位相。此觀力深,圓伏五住,是觀行位相。
J36nB348_p0315a11║六根清淨,是相似位相。八相成道,三身圓顯,是分證
J36nB348_p0315a12║位相。盡無明源,窮覺海邊底,是究竟位相。知一念圓
J36nB348_p0315a13║具三因,安生退屈。知道力非可浪階,安生上慢。思之
J36nB348_p0315a14║修之。
J36nB348_p0315a15║ (問,正觀心時,豎窮橫遍,微塵剎土,一念圓具,如是觀察,契具字法門否。設起異見,以四運四性推之。
J36nB348_p0315a16║ 設不起異見,止如上念念現前邪,或有他法邪。)
J36nB348_p0315a17║荅,秖是虛解,未實現前,還將二種觀道,善巧進修,別
J36nB348_p0315a18║無他術。的於一塵中見法界性相始終,方成妙觀。
J36nB348_p0315a19║ (問,正觀心時,眼見色如鏡照像,耳聞聲如空中風,乃至意識覓能緣者了無蹤跡。正恁麼時,如何又
J36nB348_p0315a20║ 有時如無事人,有時如知事人,有時如有事人,有時如疑事人,盤結在心,如何併除。)
J36nB348_p0315a21║荅,見色如鏡像,聞聲若空風,能緣無蹤跡,皆色陰未
J36nB348_p0315a22║破境界。須推此覓能緣者,阿誰能覓。不暫時忘卻四
J36nB348_p0315a23║運工夫,即了義正修。如無事時,四運推破,不可坐在
J36nB348_p0315a24║無事甲裡,如知事有事疑事時,推此知者有者疑者,
J36nB348_p0315a25║如此則盤結自除。不必畏其盤結,立意併除也。
J36nB348_p0315a26║ (問,推揀時,心不可得,何有三觀。境不可得,何有三諦。心境總不可得,何有能所。如是契了義否。)
J36nB348_p0315a27║荅,心境不可得,為竟斷滅邪。若竟斷滅,只今誰問此
J36nB348_p0315a28║法。若不斷滅,心不可得,真是一心三觀。境不可得,真
J36nB348_p0315a29║是一境三諦。若總不可得,能所融絕,真是心境不二。
J36nB348_p0315a30║虎谿尊者頌云,境為妙假觀為空,境觀雙忘即是中。
J36nB348_p0315b01║忘照何曾有先後,一心圓絕了無蹤。唯忘故照,唯照
J36nB348_p0315b02║故忘。果然一名不落,則萬別千差名義俱彰矣。
J36nB348_p0315b03║ (問,根身器界,達之唯一心建立。此心有邪,無邪,亦有無邪,非有無邪。若在當人密悟,就悟處有淺深
J36nB348_p0315b04║ 邪,正否邪。)
J36nB348_p0315b05║荅,根身器界,無論達與不達,從來只是唯心。非心建
J36nB348_p0315b06║立法,非法從心立。若有能建所建,不名唯心,以心外
J36nB348_p0315b07║無法,故名唯心。唯心則唯色唯香等義,一切俱成。此
J36nB348_p0315b08║妙心法,離四句,絕百非,唯以妙悟領之,悉檀說之,的
J36nB348_p0315b09║的可於四門入道。但不落四句,而圓照四句,即為正
J36nB348_p0315b10║為深。儻離四句,又墮第五不可說句中,即為邪為淺。
J36nB348_p0315b11║ (問,集要釋一體三寶云,現在一念,本具三諦。在迷不覺,是為法寶,能覺三諦之智,是為佛寶,諦智和
J36nB348_p0315b12║ 合,是為僧寶。夫眾生念念趣境,不了自心,觸處相違,無能覺智及和合義,豈唯具法寶邪。)
J36nB348_p0315b13║荅,眾生趣境,果有心外之境可趣邪,果離覺體外有
J36nB348_p0315b14║能趣之妄念邪。即彼能趣妄覺,所趣妄法,果可分別
J36nB348_p0315b15║令各在一處邪。若念念趣外,終無外法可趣,亦無離
J36nB348_p0315b16║覺體之念,亦無二處可分,則理即三寶煥然。
J36nB348_p0315b17║ (問,介爾之心,本無邊畔去來,亦非斷滅。今念念閒策善不敢違,思惡不敢匿,每向三尊前,求哀悔過。
J36nB348_p0315b18║ 如是用心,契正修否。)
J36nB348_p0315b19║荅,能策能思之心,與所策所思之善惡,有邊畔去來
J36nB348_p0315b20║可得否。若達善惡之性,即是實性,無形像邊畔動靜
J36nB348_p0315b21║去來始終生滅,則必修善日增,修惡日損。而增損了
J36nB348_p0315b22║不可得,即是正修行路。若見有善可增,有惡可損,成
J36nB348_p0315b23║於偏小。若不見有,任其善惡,成於魔外。審之。
J36nB348_p0315b24║ (問,持經時,如何即字字句句,當體不思議境。)
J36nB348_p0315b25║荅,字句法性,本不可思議,更問如何成思議矣。若平
J36nB348_p0315b26║日觀心得力,正持經念佛,不與觀心違,此真如實觀
J36nB348_p0315b27║之門。未達者,須用唯心識觀,四運四性推此字句之
J36nB348_p0315b28║性。若知其當體即空,舉體即假,亦復即中,則思議心
J36nB348_p0315b29║息矣。
J36nB348_p0315b30║ (問,煩惱即菩提,生死即涅槃,為約迷約悟,約性約修。)
J36nB348_p0315c01║荅,法爾理性,不關迷悟。悟知其即,非悟方即。迷不知
J36nB348_p0315c02║即,未嘗不即。惟有此即是之性,方可起即是之修。所
J36nB348_p0315c03║起之修,究竟即性,無性外少法可得。
J36nB348_p0315c04║ (問,一念不生全體現,一念不生即如如佛。為復惟圓頓邪,亦有偏有漸有邪正邪。)
J36nB348_p0315c05║荅,以名定義,萬無一得。以義定名,萬無一失。圓頓之
J36nB348_p0315c06║談,隨類各解。外人計緣影為心,如石壓草,制令不生,
J36nB348_p0315c07║謂是即如如佛,其實成無想外道。稟藏教人,知根塵
J36nB348_p0315c08║為緣,則有念生。遠離根塵,念性永寂,得入涅槃,名如
J36nB348_p0315c09║如佛,其實止成小果。稟通教人,了知念無自性,求其
J36nB348_p0315c10║生相了不可得,名如如佛,其實止是乾慧。稟別教人,
J36nB348_p0315c11║謂生者是妄識,真如凝然不生,名如如佛,亦名素法
J36nB348_p0315c12║身,還須智行嚴之。惟有稟圓教人,了知現前一念,即
J36nB348_p0315c13║是法界,不變隨緣,無生說生,隨緣不變,生即不生,是
J36nB348_p0315c14║故全體顯現,名如如佛,即與三世諸佛體用平等。前
J36nB348_p0315c15║三教為偏,惟圓教為圓。後三教俱有頓義,惟藏教屬
J36nB348_p0315c16║漸,四教皆正,外道為邪。嗟嗟,世之乘言滯句者,輒云
J36nB348_p0315c17║一念不生即如如佛,曾簡點及此邪。圓頓宗旨,有名
J36nB348_p0315c18║無義久矣。
J36nB348_p0315c19║ (問,中論一偈,以配四教,為定別配邪。亦隨類各解邪。幸剖實義,以驗教眼。)
J36nB348_p0315c20║荅,偈攝權實事理,罄無不周。天台依立四教,前不具
J36nB348_p0315c21║後,後必具前,載在廣文,昭若日月矣。若隨類各解,復
J36nB348_p0315c22║各四別。如因緣所生法,有人聞之,便謂諸法仗因託
J36nB348_p0315c23║緣,展轉生起,別無梵天微塵等以為因緣,亦非無因
J36nB348_p0315c24║無緣而有諸法。又人知因無實因,緣無實緣,生無實
J36nB348_p0315c25║生,法無實法,如空華夢物,說名因緣所生。又人知無
J36nB348_p0315c26║明為因,境界為緣,出生十界因果差別。又人知一心
J36nB348_p0315c27║具足三千性相為因,隨於迷悟具成十界染淨為緣,
J36nB348_p0315c28║次即空句。有人聞之,便謂諸法無我,我所故空。又人
J36nB348_p0315c29║謂法體自空,非滅故空。又人謂法無實性,體不可得
J36nB348_p0315c30║故空。又人謂法法非空非假非中,三諦俱破故空。次
J36nB348_p0316a01║假名句。有人聞之,便謂俗諦是有,故稱假名。又人謂
J36nB348_p0316a02║諸法如幻,故稱假名。又人謂法法出生十界因果差
J36nB348_p0316a03║別,故稱假名。又人謂法法即空即假即中,三諦俱立,
J36nB348_p0316a04║故稱假名。次中道句。有人聞之,便謂離斷離常故名
J36nB348_p0316a05║中道。又人謂真俗不二故中。又人謂非空非假故中。
J36nB348_p0316a06║又人謂法法無非實相實性假空皆中,不見有法異
J36nB348_p0316a07║於法界故中。然初一人無我我所之空,生死非即涅
J36nB348_p0316a08║槃,空義不成。俗諦是有之假,法法不相融攝,假義不
J36nB348_p0316a09║成。離斷離常之中,不證法身應本,中義不成,覈實秖
J36nB348_p0316a10║成因緣所生法一句耳。第二人諸法如幻之假,不知
J36nB348_p0316a11║幻復作幻,假義不成,真俗不二之中,不知中體不空,
J36nB348_p0316a12║中義不成,覈實秖成因緣,即空句耳。第三人非空非
J36nB348_p0316a13║假之中,不知中道具一切法,遍一切法,不知法法無
J36nB348_p0316a14║非中道,覈實秖成因緣即空即假句耳。惟第四人了
J36nB348_p0316a15║知因即法界,攝一切法,更無一法出過於因緣即法
J36nB348_p0316a16║界,乃至能生所生,罔非法界。空亦法界,假亦法界,中
J36nB348_p0316a17║亦法界。通則具收四句,別則即中一句便足。此智者
J36nB348_p0316a18║大師所以棄通取別,直依四句而明四教也。復次因
J36nB348_p0316a19║緣所生法,即生滅四諦。我說即是空,即無生四諦。亦
J36nB348_p0316a20║名為假名,即無量四諦。亦名中道義,即無作四諦。復
J36nB348_p0316a21║次知正因緣境者,生滅無生無量無作皆因緣也,知
J36nB348_p0316a22║即空者,皆即空也,知即假者,皆假名也,知中道者,皆
J36nB348_p0316a23║中道也。復次知生滅四諦者,因緣空假中皆生滅也,
J36nB348_p0316a24║知無生四諦者,皆無生也,知無量四諦者,皆無量也。
J36nB348_p0316a25║知無作四諦者,皆無作也。
J36nB348_p0316a26║   荅徐仲弢問
J36nB348_p0316a27║中論四句偈,深談諦理,不涉觀照工夫。諦理明白,觀
J36nB348_p0316a28║照在其中矣。先分為二,初句舉事境,下三句顯三諦,
J36nB348_p0316a29║舉事境,不論色心假實,皆仗因託緣而生。偏指十界
J36nB348_p0316a30║十如,百界千如,三千性相,一一皆名因緣所生法。若
J36nB348_p0316b01║謂心為塵因,塵為心緣,窒礙甚矣。此句走卻線索,下
J36nB348_p0316b02║文如何著落。況空假中,直就所生法,圓具圓現,不得
J36nB348_p0316b03║次第解,尤不得牽帶觀門。教眼精妙,決非麤心浮氣
J36nB348_p0316b04║可領。姑俟居士行門成就,轉身拶入耳。略說,但云因
J36nB348_p0316b05║緣所生種種事境,無不當下即空假中便了。若細談,
J36nB348_p0316b06║雖九旬未罄其旨。今即空句,半是半非,假中全然遠
J36nB348_p0316b07║隔,可輒厝心動筆邪。
J36nB348_p0316b08║   荅何二華問
J36nB348_p0316b09║欲明大般涅槃,須知小乘無餘涅槃之義。小義未了,
J36nB348_p0316b10║何由議大。今明無餘涅槃,一祕相而談,二開顯而說。
J36nB348_p0316b11║祕相者,佛與耆婆至一荒郊,連舉枯骨,問其在生善
J36nB348_p0316b12║惡,男女壽夭,乃至死歸何處,毫無錯荅。佛遙向他山
J36nB348_p0316b13║取一骨,耆婆再三彈聽,茫然不知。佛云,此羅漢骨,已
J36nB348_p0316b14║忘我相,已斷後有,非三世所攝,三界所繫,汝不能知
J36nB348_p0316b15║也。由此觀之,無餘涅槃,已不可思議,況大涅槃哉。莫
J36nB348_p0316b16║見此說便作斷滅之解。外道問,羅漢死後有無。佛言,
J36nB348_p0316b17║皆是戲論。又問畢竟如何。佛言,積薪投以芥火,燒蔓
J36nB348_p0316b18║不絕,展轉投薪,展轉遠熾。設使薪盡,火則隨滅,此火
J36nB348_p0316b19║為有去處,無去處,為斷滅,非斷滅。外道言,火無去處,
J36nB348_p0316b20║亦非斷滅,此處火滅,非一切火性皆滅。佛言,羅漢亦
J36nB348_p0316b21║如是,惑業薪盡,果報火滅,何可言有去不去,斷與不
J36nB348_p0316b22║斷。此祕相而談也。開顯者,二乘但斷界內分段生死,
J36nB348_p0316b23║猶未永斷界外變易生死,雖凡聖同居土無受生處,
J36nB348_p0316b24║猶受方便有餘土法性之身,雖非斷常,仍似有來去
J36nB348_p0316b25║也。如來五住究盡,二死永亡,知一切法無非即心自
J36nB348_p0316b26║性,不離當處,寂湛圓常。約正報名清淨法身,約依報
J36nB348_p0316b27║名常寂光土,約智德名無上菩提,約斷德名大般涅
J36nB348_p0316b28║槃。身土不二,智斷難思,以要言之,無一微塵不是如
J36nB348_p0316b29║來不思議法界全體大用。故云佛身充滿於法界,普
J36nB348_p0316b30║現一切群生前。牆壁瓦礫,清淨法身,一色一香,無非
J36nB348_p0316c01║中道。當知眾生生死輪迴境界,盡是如來大般涅槃
J36nB348_p0316c02║境界。醉人所見轉屋,即醒人所見不轉之屋,無二屋
J36nB348_p0316c03║也。佛成無上覺,親證諸法本來常寂滅相,不出不入,
J36nB348_p0316c04║不滅不生,為性淨涅槃。二死因果永斷,名圓淨涅槃。
J36nB348_p0316c05║為眾生故,示生示滅,為方便淨涅槃。經謂佛涅槃,即
J36nB348_p0316c06║方便淨之相,非彌陀無量劫後,方證大涅槃也。
J36nB348_p0316c07║   荅比丘戒五問(原問附)
J36nB348_p0316c08║ (問,毘尼之學,人天可保,福盡將如之何。孰若宗教先開眼目,以道共戒為急務,貴見地,不貴行履,詎
J36nB348_p0316c09║ 不然乎。)
J36nB348_p0316c10║荅,毘尼之學,出世正因,戒波羅密,佛地方滿,豈僅人
J36nB348_p0316c11║天福邪。宗教開眼,言雖相似,但離戒別談宗教,便墮
J36nB348_p0316c12║惡見。溈山云,毘尼法席,尚未叨陪,了義上乘,豈能甄
J36nB348_p0316c13║別。荊溪云,用前四戒為境,以六觀之,事理相即,當知
J36nB348_p0316c14║篇聚,一不可虧。世人蔑事,欲尚深理,驗知此觀孤虛
J36nB348_p0316c15║無本,既虧觀境,觀亦無從。宗教誠訓照然,胡弗思也。
J36nB348_p0316c16║無上戒而判屬人天,捨律儀而空談道共,正見已破,
J36nB348_p0316c17║行履必荒,惡趣三塗,敢保有分,人天不可得矣。
J36nB348_p0316c18║ (問,末世鈍根,只宜要略。四分律藏,世尚畏繁,何不宗四分戒本,略加旁註釋疑。)
J36nB348_p0316c19║荅,固守癡頑,終無釋疑之日。必須博學反約,乃克有
J36nB348_p0316c20║濟。戒本旁釋,開遮持犯安能洞然。樂佛法者,既難以
J36nB348_p0316c21║通,習懈怠者,仍未必學,進退失措,有何利益。
J36nB348_p0316c22║ (問,念佛一門,廣大簡易。一心念佛,自然止惡防非。律相浩繁,已非簡易,果極聲聞,又非廣大,不若專
J36nB348_p0316c23║ 弘淨土之妙也。)
J36nB348_p0316c24║荅,持戒念佛,本是一門,淨戒為因,淨土為果。若以持
J36nB348_p0316c25║名為徑,學律為紆,既違顧命誠言,寧成念佛三昧。多
J36nB348_p0316c26║纏障垢,淨土豈生。夫如海無涯,豈不廣大,保任解脫,
J36nB348_p0316c27║豈不簡易。故一心念佛者,必思止惡防非,而專精律
J36nB348_p0316c28║學。專精律學者,方能決定往生。而一心念佛,現在紹
J36nB348_p0316c29║隆僧寶,臨終上品上生,法門之妙,孰過於此。只一大
J36nB348_p0316c30║事,何得乖張,取笑識者。
J36nB348_p0317a01║ (問,罪因譏嫌,制有隨方,此方不譏,何乖聖訓。又時丁末運,外緣不豐,內因微薄,必欲纖毫無犯,而演
J36nB348_p0317a02║ 教弘宗,則佛法不能廣布。完小節而失大益,豈菩薩本心。)
J36nB348_p0317a03║荅,如來一切知見,普為大千眾生而制戒律。六群等
J36nB348_p0317a04║亦大權示現,曲體末世情態而示犯緣,正由人情懈
J36nB348_p0317a05║怠,不肯輕重等護,致成末運。今欲弘宗演教,必以持
J36nB348_p0317a06║戒為本。內因淳厚,外緣自豐,白毫相中一分光明,決
J36nB348_p0317a07║非誑語。若以戒為小節,便成謗法,談宗說教,皆是儱
J36nB348_p0317a08║侗瞞盰,設獲外緣,總名魔業,何益正法哉。
J36nB348_p0317a09║ (問,西乾列祖,三學精通。此閒地僻時遙,人罕閒見,唯唐宋來數輩宗匠,蹤跡彰著。然當其水邊林下,
J36nB348_p0317a10║ 則以三條篾一把鋤,為清淨自活。逮其匡徒領眾,則以一日不作,一日不食,為真實芳規。至於揚化
J36nB348_p0317a11║ 接人,則以一棒一喝為拈提向上,俱與律學不相應。好心出家之流,由行腳入山,至登座披衣,所倣
J36nB348_p0317a12║ 傚者,無非此等。今還許從上諸祖是真比丘否。若非何紹祖位。若是何不遵律。又今紹祖位者,例輕
J36nB348_p0317a13║ 律學,從上諸祖,亦輕視否。又今紹祖位者,不遵戒而為人授戒,從上諸祖,亦為人授戒否。)
J36nB348_p0317a14║荅,祖有三類,一者嚴淨毘尼,弘範三界,如遠公,智者,
J36nB348_p0317a15║左谿,永嘉,荊溪,大梅,永明,高峰,中峰,楚石等是也。古
J36nB348_p0317a16║今如此知識,亦甚眾多,所應景仰倣傚。二者丁茲末
J36nB348_p0317a17║世,勢不獲已,遵佛遺命,捨微細戒,住靜則刀耕火種,
J36nB348_p0317a18║領眾則墾土開田,然非時食等諸戒,仍自遵行,故晚
J36nB348_p0317a19║用藥石,不用粥飯,德山托缽,亦因視影。而此等知識
J36nB348_p0317a20║便不肯為人授戒。所以唐宋以來有禪講律寺,初出
J36nB348_p0317a21║家多學律,律有得則以律名家,無得則習講參禪。但
J36nB348_p0317a22║捨微細戒,不捨重戒及性戒也。復有徑投禪教者,此
J36nB348_p0317a23║即乘急戒緩,然亦護根本五戒,斷無毀重之理,而決
J36nB348_p0317a24║不敢自稱比丘,輕視律學,但愧未能,以為慚德。至出
J36nB348_p0317a25║世接人,或重登戒品,性遮皆淨,如六祖等。或單提向
J36nB348_p0317a26║上,獨接一機,如壽昌等。人問壽昌,佛制比丘,不得掘
J36nB348_p0317a27║地損傷草木,今何耕種芸穫。荅云,我輩秖悟佛心,堪
J36nB348_p0317a28║傳祖意,指示當機,令識心性耳。正法格之,僅稱剃髮
J36nB348_p0317a29║居士,何敢當比丘名。問,設有如法比丘,師何以視之。
J36nB348_p0317a30║荅,當敬如佛,待以師禮,非不為也,實未能也。又紫柏
J36nB348_p0317b01║大師,生平一粥一飯無雜食,脅不著席,四十餘年,猶
J36nB348_p0317b02║以未能持微細戒,終不敢為人授沙彌及比丘法,必
J36nB348_p0317b03║不得已,則授五戒法耳。嗟乎,從上諸祖,敬視律學如
J36nB348_p0317b04║此,豈敢輕之。若輕律者,定屬邪見,非宗匠也。三者大
J36nB348_p0317b05║用現前,觀機利益,破他疑執,不拘恆規。如文殊菩薩
J36nB348_p0317b06║執劍逼佛,三處度夏,重勝比丘。與女同坐,令證無生,
J36nB348_p0317b07║乃至寒拾之訶律主,歸南之斬貓蛇。譬良醫砒霜治
J36nB348_p0317b08║病,大將奇計除賊,而不可為典要。又凡訶佛罵祖,痛
J36nB348_p0317b09║棒毒喝,皆不得已而用。所謂兵者,不祥之器,非布帛
J36nB348_p0317b10║菽粟也。用得當,跡似違律,實真持律,以得律意故。如
J36nB348_p0317b11║經謂末利夫人飲酒救殺,佛讚其真持齋戒,菩薩見
J36nB348_p0317b12║機得殺盜等,於菩薩戒無所違犯,生多功德也。若失
J36nB348_p0317b13║其宜,將作門庭施設,如優孟之學叔敖。宗既非宗,律
J36nB348_p0317b14║又非律,謗大般若,疑誤後學,三塗劇報,何由得免。設
J36nB348_p0317b15║亦誘引愚流,作種種福,福力所持,不即墮落,終為外
J36nB348_p0317b16║魔眷屬,非佛弟子。末世多此妖邪,誑惑世閒,魔所攝
J36nB348_p0317b17║助,多得供養,聚眾百千人,眷屬兒孫遍天下,毀戒毀
J36nB348_p0317b18║教,破壞如來真正法輪。愚小無知,羨彼名聲,而爭倣
J36nB348_p0317b19║傚,令好心出家者,皆墮其黨,求升反墜,哀哉痛心。然
J36nB348_p0317b20║由仍以三寶為所緣境,罪報畢時,還藉佛法僧戒之
J36nB348_p0317b21║力,而得度脫。魔王語佛,吾於汝末法中,令眷屬食汝
J36nB348_p0317b22║飯,著汝衣,破壞汝法。佛言,汝但自壞,法不壞也。今欲
J36nB348_p0317b23║不墮三塗,竟登聖果,請必從持戒始。若挂名受戒,又
J36nB348_p0317b24║輕視戒法,既不精戒法,又為人授戒,既為人授戒,又
J36nB348_p0317b25║不教學戒,且言戒是小乘,不須習學,則決墮三塗,為
J36nB348_p0317b26║魔眷屬,自受其苦,無人能代。終亦必皆成佛,我不敢
J36nB348_p0317b27║輕之矣。
J36nB348_p0317b28║   荅唐宜之問書義(有引)
J36nB348_p0317b29║ 智及之,即大學格物致知,中庸擇乎中庸得一善
J36nB348_p0317b30║ 也。仁守之,即大學誠意正心,中庸拳拳服膺而弗
J36nB348_p0317c01║ 失之也。莊蒞之,即大學脩身,中庸誠身也。動之以
J36nB348_p0317c02║ 禮,即大學齊家治國平天下,中庸順親信友獲上
J36nB348_p0317c03║ 也。聖人說法,應病與藥。若為智未及者,則云知德
J36nB348_p0317c04║ 者鮮矣。以思無益不如學也,思而不學則殆,此孟
J36nB348_p0317c05║ 子重始條理意也。今責智及之者以仁守之功,正
J36nB348_p0317c06║ 孟子兼重終條理意(中而不至,亦非善射,況不至便不中。巧力俱不可輕,但先
J36nB348_p0317c07║ 論巧,後論力耳)。乾知大始,坤作成物。有坤無乾固不可,有
J36nB348_p0317c08║ 乾無坤又豈可哉。非初步無以為究竟之始,非到
J36nB348_p0317c09║ 家無以結初步之局,此儒門智仁合一之學,與佛
J36nB348_p0317c10║ 門解行互徹之旨相類也。儒不更贅,請言佛氏之
J36nB348_p0317c11║ 學,須分四教,以辨內外小大偏圓。細思之,勿忽。
J36nB348_p0317c12║藏教 知三界苦空無常無我不淨,名智及之。念念
J36nB348_p0317c13║與四念處觀相應,不起見思煩惱,名仁能守之。身口
J36nB348_p0317c14║意業,恆與三千八萬律儀相應,名莊以蒞之。得不忘
J36nB348_p0317c15║念,一切時中,應機設教,名動之以禮。 鬱頭藍弗入
J36nB348_p0317c16║有頂定,亦似仁守。威儀庠序寂靜,似莊蒞。以自所謂
J36nB348_p0317c17║定門,攝化多人服從其道,似動之以禮。由智未及於
J36nB348_p0317c18║出世法故,所以守不名仁,蒞不名莊,動不名禮。(鬱頭亦是
J36nB348_p0317c19║智及了非非想處,仁能守非非想處者,但非出世閒之智耳。)
J36nB348_p0317c20║ 須陀洹捨戒還俗,是智及之,仁不能守之。舍利弗
J36nB348_p0317c21║ 瞋習,畢陵伽慢習,難陀貪習,憍梵缽提齝習等,是
J36nB348_p0317c22║ 仁能守之,不莊以蒞之。迦葉目連等神通,作意方
J36nB348_p0317c23║ 有,是動之不以禮。
J36nB348_p0317c24║通教 知三界夢幻空華水月,名智及之。念念與即
J36nB348_p0317c25║空觀相應,名仁能守之。莊以二句,並與藏教同。 藏
J36nB348_p0317c26║教極果,雖到動之以禮境界,不達諸法本空,不名智
J36nB348_p0317c27║及之。智既未及,不名仁守等也。
J36nB348_p0317c28║ 見地薄地亦有捨戒還俗者,是不能守。已辦地不
J36nB348_p0317c29║ 侵習,是不莊蒞。支佛地習氣未盡,是動之不以禮。
J36nB348_p0317c30║別教 知生死是有邊,涅槃是無邊,真如法性非有
J36nB348_p0318a01║非無。依真如乃成生死之有,涅槃之無,名智及之。先
J36nB348_p0318a02║以空觀斷見思惑,出生死有邊,名仁能守之。次假觀
J36nB348_p0318a03║破塵沙惑,出涅槃無邊,名莊以蒞之。後中觀破無明
J36nB348_p0318a04║惑,證中道體,從體起用,名動之以禮。 通教極果,雖
J36nB348_p0318a05║到動之以禮境界,不達中道法性,不名智及之。智既
J36nB348_p0318a06║未及,不名仁守等也。
J36nB348_p0318a07║ 十信有退,是仁不能守之。十住自利,是不莊以蒞
J36nB348_p0318a08║ 之。十行未修中道,十向未證中道,是動之不以禮。
J36nB348_p0318a09║圓教 知一切法皆是佛法。法界實相,性相常住。一
J36nB348_p0318a10║色一香,無非中道。生死即涅槃,煩惱即菩提。遍能破
J36nB348_p0318a11║除一切世出世法,遍能建立一切世出世法,遍能統
J36nB348_p0318a12║攝融貫一切世出世法,名智及之。念念與此圓妙止
J36nB348_p0318a13║觀相應,圓伏五住煩惱,名仁能守之。六根清淨,名莊
J36nB348_p0318a14║以蒞之。入無功用妙道,名動之以禮。又圓教智仁莊
J36nB348_p0318a15║禮,一一圓融,一一互攝,非一非四,而一而四,名字位
J36nB348_p0318a16║中,則有名字智仁莊禮,乃至究竟位中,則有究竟智
J36nB348_p0318a17║仁莊禮。今以名字智仁莊禮,總名智及之,觀行智仁
J36nB348_p0318a18║莊禮,總名仁能守之,相似智仁莊禮,總名莊以蒞之。
J36nB348_p0318a19║分證究竟智仁莊禮,總名動之以禮。圓融不礙行布,
J36nB348_p0318a20║行布不礙圓融,以無為法而有差別,此之謂也。 別
J36nB348_p0318a21║教十向,雖得相似動之以禮境界,未達中道圓融不
J36nB348_p0318a22║思議性,不名智及之。智既未及,不名仁守等也。
J36nB348_p0318a23║ 名字開圓解,未伏煩惱,是仁不能守之。觀行伏五
J36nB348_p0318a24║ 住,未淨六根,是不莊以蒞之。相似淨六根,未入無
J36nB348_p0318a25║ 功用道,是動之不以禮。溈山大師謂此宗難得其
J36nB348_p0318a26║ 妙,切須仔細用心,乃深歎圓教智及之之難也。可
J36nB348_p0318a27║ 中頓悟正因,便是出塵階漸,生生若能不退,佛階
J36nB348_p0318a28║ 決定可期。此於圓教智及之者,責仁守全功也。
J36nB348_p0318a29║   荅成唯識論十五問(原問附)
J36nB348_p0318a30║ (問,末那與慧相應,故因中隨第六識轉而為智。藏識不與慧俱,至果方圓,前五既有慧俱,又與善俱,
J36nB348_p0318b01║ 復是轉識所攝。何故不隨第六因中轉,亦至果方圓邪。)
J36nB348_p0318b02║荅,末那之慧即是我見。我見無自體,直以慧為體也。
J36nB348_p0318b03║第六識入二觀,第七識二執不得現行,故得轉為平
J36nB348_p0318b04║等性智。然第六出法空觀,第七仍起法執,第六出生
J36nB348_p0318b05║空觀,第七仍起我執矣。但第七是第六不共親依,故
J36nB348_p0318b06║六轉七不得不轉。若前五識雖有慧俱,既無我見相
J36nB348_p0318b07║應,則慧甚劣。雖與善俱,由第六善或境界善,暫得相
J36nB348_p0318b08║應,無斷惑證理之能。以凡斷惑須在定心,定心中多
J36nB348_p0318b09║無前五識故,直至果位。第八識中有漏種盡,轉與大
J36nB348_p0318b10║圓鏡智相應,名無垢識。從此淨識所變五根相分,純
J36nB348_p0318b11║無漏故,依之發識,亦成無漏。名成所作智相應心品,
J36nB348_p0318b12║僅屬果上化他之用,非能自利,不同第七識也。
J36nB348_p0318b13║ (問,有我見故,餘見不生,無一心中有二慧故。云何既有我見,又得與慧相應。)
J36nB348_p0318b14║荅,心所有假實,如別境中慧,則有自體。十煩惱中五
J36nB348_p0318b15║見無體,惟以染慧為體。今第七相應之慧未轉,舉體
J36nB348_p0318b16║為我見法見,已轉舉體為平等性智,故云約義別也。
J36nB348_p0318b17║豈一心中有二慧邪。
J36nB348_p0318b18║ (問,末那俱之我見,以慧為體,由義別故,仍以慧俱。忘念以念為體,何不亦由義別故,與念相應邪。)
J36nB348_p0318b19║荅,末那有慧故,有我見,與我見俱,即與慧俱也。忘念
J36nB348_p0318b20║以念為體者,不遍染心,以癡為體者,乃遍染心。秖於
J36nB348_p0318b21║第七識我癡上,明其無正念,故斥為忘念,無正知,故
J36nB348_p0318b22║斥為不正知。皆無自體,約過失邊義,立此二耳。
J36nB348_p0318b23║ (問,謂此識緣自所依者,如有後識,即緣前意。儻難云,前五識所依五根,亦增上緣,何獨不許作所緣
J36nB348_p0318b24║ 邪。識相緣之義,乞垂細剖。)
J36nB348_p0318b25║荅,第七識唯內門轉,故得所依為所緣。前五識唯外
J36nB348_p0318b26║轉,不得所依為所緣,不應為例。
J36nB348_p0318b27║ (問,意識依意,具三分別,設依色者,便同五識。第八亦依意不依色根,何但有自性分別,無隨念計度。)
J36nB348_p0318b28║荅,前六皆轉識攝,而一依心法,五依色法,故有差別。
J36nB348_p0318b29║第八非轉識攝,但是所熏,唯無記性一類恆轉。儻亦
J36nB348_p0318b30║具三分別,則有轉易,而受熏持種皆不得成矣。
J36nB348_p0318c01║ (問,唯識五觀,與占察二觀,是同是別。)
J36nB348_p0318c02║荅,遣虛存實,捨濫留純,攝末歸本,隱劣顯勝,皆從唯
J36nB348_p0318c03║心識觀開出。若遣相證性,義仍兩屬。如云俗有真空,
J36nB348_p0318c04║仍是唯心識觀。若遣相執,達相即性,乃真如實觀。
J36nB348_p0318c05║ (問,思能令心造作。第八識相應之思,令造何等。)
J36nB348_p0318c06║荅,爪生髮長,筋轉脈搖,髮白面皺,氣消容悴,及日月
J36nB348_p0318c07║稽天,江河競注,滄桑易,春夏更,皆第八所造。
J36nB348_p0318c08║ (問,瞋唯不善,則初二果任運所起瞋心,名不善否,與無慚無愧相應否,能發業潤生否。)
J36nB348_p0318c09║荅,學人失念起瞋,亦名不善,此念亦名無慚無愧。然
J36nB348_p0318c10║已斷見惑,故不發業,善心易起,惡心易滅,不潤生也。
J36nB348_p0318c11║ (問,自在位,唯樂喜捨,以諸佛斷憂苦事故。彼金鎗馬麥等報,得名苦否。憂念眾生,得名憂否。又如頭
J36nB348_p0318c12║ 臨白刃,如斬春風,得名無憂苦否。)
J36nB348_p0318c13║荅,唯識名義,憂喜苦樂等,各有分劑,唯佛方能實無
J36nB348_p0318c14║憂苦。金鎗馬麥,大權示現,原非實事,故非苦憂。念眾
J36nB348_p0318c15║生亦不同凡夫迫戚,故非憂也。臨刃斬風,雖無憂苦,
J36nB348_p0318c16║仍與佛果未同。以佛果不受害故,至稱性極談。菩薩
J36nB348_p0318c17║分證憂苦,諸佛究竟憂苦,是在忘名字相者,方能信
J36nB348_p0318c18║之。
J36nB348_p0318c19║   荅準提持法三問(原問附)
J36nB348_p0318c20║ (問,一切能詮之文,必有所詮之體。顯密二詮,其體同邪,異邪。又佛何以顯說,復密說邪。)
J36nB348_p0318c21║荅,千經萬論,若顯若密,皆直指人心,見性成佛。除此
J36nB348_p0318c22║心外,更無所詮,猶云六經我心註腳也。顯密說者,有
J36nB348_p0318c23║因顯說得四益,有因密說得四益。佛智鑑機,能隨施
J36nB348_p0318c24║化,良醫因病,藥不爽宜也。
J36nB348_p0318c25║ (問,稱體起願,名發菩提,上求下化,不相捨離。今持法中所明發菩提心,皆儒宗世教,與佛法同否。)
J36nB348_p0318c26║荅,上古儒宗,皆佛菩薩示現,為師為導,接引迷流。所
J36nB348_p0318c27║立世教,無非佛法。後儒拘虛,不能引伸觸長,遂有門
J36nB348_p0318c28║庭之隔。剋實思之,聖人先得我心同然,寧非三無差
J36nB348_p0318c29║別之旨。樂堯舜之道,若己推而納諸溝中,寧非上求
J36nB348_p0318c30║下化之懷,但犬牛人性皆同,告子自不敢承當耳。孟
J36nB348_p0319a01║子又謂人禽幾希,豈非習雖遠性仍近之證邪。
J36nB348_p0319a02║ (問,顯密圓通,不持齋戒,不忌[月*軍]酒,往往獲應。何必別述此法,反令畏難。)
J36nB348_p0319a03║荅,大凡持咒,各有攸宗。五部既別,三類亦殊。圓通一
J36nB348_p0319a04║書,附會夾雜,非金剛正印也。依持靈應,由人篤信力
J36nB348_p0319a05║行所感。設以此而如法奉持,靈應豈止功名男女已
J36nB348_p0319a06║哉。況近時持者多而獲應者少,不惟信弗篤行弗力,
J36nB348_p0319a07║亦由法未善故也。然今依經所立結壇,持八關齋等
J36nB348_p0319a08║法,不過為久積方便,剋期取效者設耳,非謂平日持
J36nB348_p0319a09║咒,皆須如此也。
J36nB348_p0319a10║   法華堂第三第四二問并荅(餘見頌中)
J36nB348_p0319a11║問,三身與三自性,是同是別。 荅,三自性與三身,亦同
J36nB348_p0319a12║亦別。同者,由悟圓成實性,證會法身,淨依他,成報智
J36nB348_p0319a13║身,悟遍計本空,成普應身。別者,三身約果德,約悟顯,
J36nB348_p0319a14║三性約境界,通迷悟也。
J36nB348_p0319a15║問,一切法皆可作四句。且如三性,各四句,如何作。 荅,
J36nB348_p0319a16║遍計所執性四句者,情有故常,理無故無常,情有即
J36nB348_p0319a17║是理無,故亦常亦無常,理無即是情有,故非常非無
J36nB348_p0319a18║常。依他起性四句者,緣生故常,無性故無常,緣生即
J36nB348_p0319a19║無性,故亦常亦無常,無性即緣生,故非常非無常。圓
J36nB348_p0319a20║成實性四句者,理有故常,情無故無常,理有即是情
J36nB348_p0319a21║無,故亦常亦無常,情無即是理有,故非常非無常。亦
J36nB348_p0319a22║可約不變隨緣,隨緣不變而作四句。又單約依他起
J36nB348_p0319a23║性辨三性,以明四句者,依他性中有圓成實性故常。
J36nB348_p0319a24║如繩有麻,依他性中無遍計所執性故無常,如繩無
J36nB348_p0319a25║蛇,雙照故亦常亦無常,雙遮故非常非無常。當知惑
J36nB348_p0319a26║業苦三,皆是依他起性,於依他起,並具四句。依他苦
J36nB348_p0319a27║四句,即性具法身四句,依他惑四句,即性具報身四
J36nB348_p0319a28║句,依他業四句,即性具應身四句。又佛三身即淨分
J36nB348_p0319a29║三自性,各四句也。
J36nB348_p0319a30║靈峰蕅益大師宗論卷第三之三(終)
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