ndap
關於本計畫
數位化流程圖
未來計畫
版權聲明
CBETA
法鼓佛教學院
數位典藏科技計畫
首  頁 已建經目 國圖善本目錄 相關知識 佛教藏經目錄
【經文資訊】正史佛教資料類編 第一冊 No. 1《正史佛教資料類編》
H01n0001_p0233a01║
H01n0001_p0233a02║
H01n0001_p0233a03║
H01n0001_p0233a04║  四議論
H01n0001_p0233a05║
H01n0001_p0233a06║   漢桓帝設華蓋以祠浮圖
H01n0001_p0233a07║  前史稱桓帝好音樂,善琴笙。飾芳林而考濯龍之宮,設華蓋以祠浮
H01n0001_p0233a08║圖、老子,斯將所謂「聽於神」乎!及誅梁冀,奮威怒,天下猶企其休息。
H01n0001_p0233a09║而五邪嗣虐,流衍四方。自非忠賢力爭,屢折奸鋒,雖原依斟流彘,亦不可
H01n0001_p0233a10║得已。
H01n0001_p0233a11║    (《後漢書》卷七《孝桓帝紀》總論320)
H01n0001_p0233a12║
H01n0001_p0233a13║   宮中立黃老、浮屠之祠
H01n0001_p0233a14║  (臣)又聞宮中立黃老、浮屠之祠。(1)此道清虛,貴尚無為,好生惡殺,
H01n0001_p0233a15║省欲去奢。今陛下嗜欲不去,殺罰過理,既乖其道,豈獲其祚哉!或言老
H01n0001_p0233a16║子入夷狄為浮屠。(2)浮屠不三宿桑下,不欲久生恩愛,精之至也。(3)天神遺
H01n0001_p0233a17║以好女,浮屠曰:「此但革囊盛血。」遂不眄之。(4)其守一如此,乃能成道。
H01n0001_p0233a18║今陛下淫女艷婦,極天下之麗,甘肥飲美,單天下之味,柰何欲如黃老乎?
H01n0001_p0233a19║  (1)浮屠即是佛陀,但聲轉耳,並謂佛也,解見楚王英傳也。
H01n0001_p0233a20║  (2)或聞言當時言也。老子西人夷狄,始為浮屠之化。
H01n0001_p0233a21║  (3)言浮屠之人寄桑下者,不經三宿便即移去,示無愛戀之心也。
H01n0001_p0233a22║  (4)《四十二章經》:「天神獻玉女於佛,佛曰:『此是革囊盛眾穢耳。』」
H01n0001_p0233a23║    (《後漢書》卷三十下《襄楷傳》1082)
H01n0001_p0233a24║
H01n0001_p0233a25║   佛道神化、興自身毒
H01n0001_p0233a26║  西域風土之載,前古未聞也。漢世張騫懷致遠之略,(1)班超奮封侯之
H01n0001_p0233a27║志,(2)終能立功西遐,羈服外域。自兵威之所肅服,財賂之所懷誘,莫不獻
H01n0001_p0233a28║方奇,納愛質,露頂肘行,東向而朝天子。故設戊己之官,分任其事;建都
H01n0001_p0233a29║護之帥,總領其權。先馴則賞籯金而賜龜綬,(3)後服則繫頭顙而釁北闕。
H01n0001_p0233a30║立屯田於膏腴之野,列郵置於要害之路。馳命走驛,不絕於時月;商胡販
H01n0001_p0234a01║客,日款於塞下。其後甘英乃抵條支而歷安息,臨西海以望大秦,拒玉門、
H01n0001_p0234a02║陽關者四萬餘里,靡不周盡焉。若其境俗性智之優薄,產載物類之區品,
H01n0001_p0234a03║川河領障之基源,氣節涼暑之通隔,梯山棧谷繩行沙度之道,身熱首痛風
H01n0001_p0234a04║災鬼難之域,(4)莫不備寫情形,審求根實。至於佛道神化,興自身毒,而二
H01n0001_p0234a05║漢方志莫有稱焉。張騫但著地多暑濕,乘象而戰,班勇雖列其奉浮圖,不
H01n0001_p0234a06║殺伐,而精文善法導達之功靡所傳述。余聞之後說也,其國則殷乎中土,
H01n0001_p0234a07║玉燭和氣,(5)靈聖之所(降)集,賢懿之所挺生,(6)神跡詭怪,則理絕人區,(7)
H01n0001_p0234a08║感驗明顯,則事出天外。(8)而騫、超無聞者,豈其道閉往運,數開叔葉乎?
H01n0001_p0234a09║不然,何誣異之甚也!漢自楚英始盛齋戒之祀,桓帝又修華蓋之飾。將微
H01n0001_p0234a10║義未譯,而但神明之邪?詳其清心釋累之訓,空有兼遣之宗,道書之流
H01n0001_p0234a11║也。(9)且好仁惡殺,蠲敝崇善,所以賢達君子多愛其法焉。然好大不經,奇
H01n0001_p0234a12║譎無已,(10)雖鄒衍談天之辯,莊周蝸角之論,尚未足以概其萬一。又精靈
H01n0001_p0234a13║起滅,因報相尋,若曉而昧者,故通人多惑焉。蓋導俗無方,適物異會,取
H01n0001_p0234a14║諸同歸,措夫疑說,則大道通矣。
H01n0001_p0234a15║  (1)《前書》張騫,漢中人,為博望侯。武帝時,上言大夏及安息、大宛之屬,大國
H01n0001_p0234a16║奇物,誠得而以義屬之,則地廣萬里。帝從之。
H01n0001_p0234a17║  (2)超少時家貧,投筆歎曰:「丈夫當如傅介子、張騫,立功西域,以取封侯,安能久
H01n0001_p0234a18║事筆硯乎!」語見《超傳》。
H01n0001_p0234a19║  (3)龜謂印文也。《漢舊儀》曰:「銀印皆龜紐,其文刻曰『某官之章』。」
H01n0001_p0234a20║  (4)《前書》杜欽曰:「罽賓本漢所立,殺漢使者,今悔過來順,使者送至懸度,歷大
H01n0001_p0234a21║頭痛、小頭痛之山,赤土身熱之阪,臨崢嶸不測之深,行者騎步相持,繩索相引。」釋法
H01n0001_p0234a22║顯《游天竺記》云:「西度流沙,屢有熱風惡鬼,過之必死。蔥領冬夏有雪。有毒龍,
H01n0001_p0234a23║若犯之,則風雨晦冥,飛砂揚礫。(過)〔遇〕此難者,萬無一全也。」
H01n0001_p0234a24║  (5)《天竺國記》云:「中天竺人殷樂無戶籍,耕王地者輸地利。又其土和適,無冬
H01n0001_p0234a25║夏之異,草木常茂,種田無時節。」《爾雅》曰:「四時和謂之玉燭。」
H01n0001_p0234a26║  (6)《本行經》曰:「釋迦菩薩在兜率陀天,為諸天無量無邊諸眾說法。又觀我今
H01n0001_p0234a27║何處成道,利益眾生。乃觀見宜於南閻浮提生有大利益。」又云「誰中與我為父母
H01n0001_p0234a28║者。觀見宜於天竺剎利種迦毗羅城白淨王摩邪夫人,可為父母。」又云「四生之中,
H01n0001_p0234a29║何生利益。觀見同眾生、胎生、我若化生,諸外道等即誹謗我是幻術也。爾時菩薩觀
H01n0001_p0234a30║已,示同諸天五衰相現。命諸同侶,波斯匿王等諸王中生,皆作國王,與我為檀越。
H01n0001_p0234a31║命阿難及諸人等,同生為弟子。命舍利弗等,外道中生我,成道時當受我化,回邪入
H01n0001_p0235a01║正。又有無量眾生,同隨菩薩於天竺受生,多所利益」也。
H01n0001_p0235a02║  (7)《維摩經》曰:「以四大海水入一毛孔,不撓魚鱉等,而彼大海本相如故。又舍
H01n0001_p0235a03║利弗住不思議菩薩,斷取三千大千國界,加陶家輪著右掌中,擲過恆河沙國界之外,
H01n0001_p0235a04║其中眾生不覺不知,又復還本處,都不使人有往來相。」
H01n0001_p0235a05║  (8)《涅槃經》曰:「阿闍王命醉象蹋佛,佛以慈善根力,舒其五指,遂為五師子見,
H01n0001_p0235a06║爾時醉象惶懼而退。又五百群賊劫奪人庶,波斯匿王收捉,剜其兩目,棄入坑中。爾
H01n0001_p0235a07║時群賊苦痛不已,同時發聲念南無佛。陀達靡佛以慈善根力,雪山吹藥,令入賊眼,
H01n0001_p0235a08║皆悉平復如本。」
H01n0001_p0235a09║  (9)清心謂忘思慮也。釋累謂去貪慾也。不執著為空。執著為有。兼遣謂不空
H01n0001_p0235a10║不有,虛實兩忘也。維摩詰云:「我及涅槃,此二皆空。」《老子》云:「常無,欲觀其妙;
H01n0001_p0235a11║常有,欲觀其徼。」故曰道書之流也。
H01n0001_p0235a12║  (10)《維摩經》曰:「爾時毗邪離有長者子名曰寶積。與五百長者子,俱持七寶蓋
H01n0001_p0235a13║來詣佛所,頭面禮足,各以其蓋共供養佛。佛威神力令諸寶蓋合成一蓋,遍覆三千大
H01n0001_p0235a14║千國界諸須彌山,乃至日月星宿,並十方諸佛說法,皆現於寶蓋中。」又維摩詰三萬二
H01n0001_p0235a15║千師子坐,高八萬四千由旬,高廣嚴淨,來入維摩方丈室,包容無所妨礙。又四大海
H01n0001_p0235a16║水入毛孔,須彌山入芥子等也。
H01n0001_p0235a17║    (《後漢書》卷八十八《西域傳》後論2931)
H01n0001_p0235a18║
H01n0001_p0235a19║   先帝手畫佛像
H01n0001_p0235a20║  彭城王紘上言,樂賢堂有先帝手畫佛像,經歷寇難,而此堂猶存,宜敕
H01n0001_p0235a21║作頌。帝下其議。(蔡)謨曰:「佛者,夷狄之俗,非經典之制。先帝量同
H01n0001_p0235a22║天地,多才多藝,聊因臨時而畫此象,至於雅好佛道,所未承聞也。盜賊奔
H01n0001_p0235a23║突,王都隳敗,而此堂塊然獨存,斯誠神靈保祚之征,然未是大晉盛德之形
H01n0001_p0235a24║容,歌頌之所先也。人臣睹物興義,私作賦頌可也。今欲發王命,敕史官,
H01n0001_p0235a25║上稱先帝好佛之志,下為夷狄作一象之頌,於義有疑焉。」於是遂寢。
H01n0001_p0235a26║    (《晉書》卷七十七《蔡謨傳》2035)
H01n0001_p0235a27║
H01n0001_p0235a28║   佛神去之,胡必亡矣
H01n0001_p0235a29║  (呂光)又進攻龜茲城,夜夢金象飛越城外。(呂)光曰:「此謂佛神去
H01n0001_p0235a30║之,胡必亡矣。」
H01n0001_p0235a31║    (《晉書》卷一百二十二《呂光載記》3055)
H01n0001_p0235a32║
H01n0001_p0236a01║   呂纂與羅會弈棋
H01n0001_p0236a02║  道士句摩羅耆婆言於纂曰:「潛龍屢出,豕犬見妖,將有下人謀上之
H01n0001_p0236a03║禍,宜增修德政,以答天戒。」纂納之。耆婆,即羅什之別名也……初,纂
H01n0001_p0236a04║嘗與鳩摩羅什棋,殺羅什子,曰:「斫胡奴頭。」羅什曰:「不斫胡奴頭,胡奴
H01n0001_p0236a05║斫人頭。」超小字胡奴,竟以殺纂。纂在位三年,以元興元年死。
H01n0001_p0236a06║    (《晉書》卷一百二十二《呂纂載記》3067)
H01n0001_p0236a07║
H01n0001_p0236a08║   釋氏流教,其來有源
H01n0001_p0236a09║  自釋氏流教,其來有源,淵檢精測,固非深矣。舒引容潤,既亦廣矣。
H01n0001_p0236a10║然習慧者日替其修,束誡者月繁其過,遂至糜散錦帛,侈飾車從。復假精
H01n0001_p0236a11║醫術,托雜卜數,延姝滿室,置酒浹堂,寄夫托妻者不無,殺子乞兒者繼有。
H01n0001_p0236a12║而猶倚靈假像,背親傲君,欺費疾老,震損宮邑,是乃外刑之所不容戮,內
H01n0001_p0236a13║教之所不悔罪,而橫天地之間,莫之糾察。人不得然,豈其鬼歟。今宜申
H01n0001_p0236a14║嚴佛律,裨重國令,其疵惡顯著者,悉皆罷遣,餘則隨其藝行,各為之條,使
H01n0001_p0236a15║禪義經誦,人能其一,食不過蔬,衣不出布。若應更度者,則令先習義行,
H01n0001_p0236a16║本其神心,必能草腐人天,竦精以往者,雖侯王家子,亦不宜拘。
H01n0001_p0236a17║    (《宋書》卷八十二《周朗傳》2100)
H01n0001_p0236a18║
H01n0001_p0236a19║   寺眾既立,自宣悉供僧眾
H01n0001_p0236a20║  (蕭慧開)丁父艱,居喪有孝性,家素事佛,凡為父起四寺,南岸南岡
H01n0001_p0236a21║下,名曰禪岡寺,曲阿舊鄉宅,名曰禪鄉寺,京口墓亭,名曰禪亭寺,所封封
H01n0001_p0236a22║陽縣,名曰禪封寺。謂國僚曰:「封秩蓋鮮,而兄弟甚多,若使全關一人,
H01n0001_p0236a23║則在我所讓。若使人人等分,又事可悲恥。寺眾既立,自宜悉供僧眾。」
H01n0001_p0236a24║由此國秩不復下均。
H01n0001_p0236a25║    (《宋書》卷八十七《蕭慧開傳》2200)
H01n0001_p0236a26║
H01n0001_p0236a27║   國王月愛遣使奉表
H01n0001_p0236a28║  天竺迦毗黎國,元嘉五年,國王月愛遣使奉表曰:
H01n0001_p0236a29║  伏聞彼國,據江傍海,山川周固,眾妙悉備,莊嚴清淨,猶如化城,宮殿
H01n0001_p0236a30║莊嚴,街巷平坦,人民充滿,歡娛安樂。聖王出遊,四海隨從,聖明仁愛,不
H01n0001_p0237a01║害眾生,萬邦歸仰,國富如海。國中眾生,奉順正法,大王仁聖,化之以道,
H01n0001_p0237a02║慈施群生,無所遺惜。帝修淨戒,軌道不及,無上法船,濟諸沈溺,群僚百
H01n0001_p0237a03║官,受樂無怨,諸天擁護,萬神侍衛,天魔降伏,莫不歸化。王身端嚴,如日
H01n0001_p0237a04║初出,仁澤普潤,猶如大雲,聖賢承業,如日月天,於彼真丹,最為殊勝。
H01n0001_p0237a05║  臣之所住,名迦毗河,東附於海,其城四邊,悉紫紺石,首羅天護,令國
H01n0001_p0237a06║安隱。國王相承,未嘗斷絕,國中人民,率皆修善,諸國來集,共遵道法,諸
H01n0001_p0237a07║寺舍中,皆七寶形像,眾妙供具,如先王法。臣自修檢,不犯道禁,臣名月
H01n0001_p0237a08║愛,棄世王種。
H01n0001_p0237a09║  惟願大王聖體和善,群臣百官,悉自安隱。今以此國群臣吏民,山川
H01n0001_p0237a10║珍寶,一切歸屬,五體歸誠大王足下。山海遐隔,無由朝覲,宗仰之至,遣
H01n0001_p0237a11║使下承。使主父名天魔悉達,使主名尼陀達,此人由來良善忠信,是故今
H01n0001_p0237a12║遣奉使表誠。大王若有所須,珍奇異物,悉當奉送,此之境土,便是王國,
H01n0001_p0237a13║王之法令,治國善道,悉當承用。願二國信使往來不絕,此反使還,願賜一
H01n0001_p0237a14║使,具宣聖命,備敕所宜。款至之誠,望不空反,所白如是,願加哀憫。
H01n0001_p0237a15║  奉獻金剛指環、摩勒金環諸寶物、赤白鸚鵡各一頭。太宗泰始二年,
H01n0001_p0237a16║又遣使貢獻,以其使主竺扶大、竺阿彌並為建威將軍。
H01n0001_p0237a17║  元嘉十八年,蘇摩黎國王那鄰那羅跋摩遣使獻方物。世祖孝建二年,
H01n0001_p0237a18║斤陀利國王釋婆羅那鄰陀遣長史竺留陀及多獻金銀寶器。後廢帝元徽元
H01n0001_p0237a19║年,婆黎國遣使貢獻。凡此諸國,皆事佛道。
H01n0001_p0237a20║  佛道自後漢明帝,法始東流,自此以來,其教稍廣,自帝王至於民庶,
H01n0001_p0237a21║莫不歸心,經誥充積,訓義深遠,別為一家之學焉。元嘉十二年,丹陽尹蕭
H01n0001_p0237a22║摹之奏曰:「佛化被於中國,已歷四代,形像塔寺,所在千數,進可以繫心,
H01n0001_p0237a23║退足以招勸。而自頃以來,情敬浮末,不以精誠為至,更以奢競為重。舊
H01n0001_p0237a24║宇頹弛,曾莫之修,而各務造新,以相姱尚。甲第顯宅,於茲殆盡,材竹銅
H01n0001_p0237a25║彩,糜損無極,無關神祇,有累人事。建中越制,宜加裁檢,不為之防,流遁
H01n0001_p0237a26║未息。請自今以後,有欲鑄銅像者,悉詣台自聞;興造塔寺精舍,皆先詣在
H01n0001_p0237a27║所二千石通辭,郡依事列言本州;須許報,然後就功。其有輒造寺舍者,皆
H01n0001_p0237a28║依不承用詔書律,銅宅林苑,悉沒入官。」詔可。又沙汰沙門,罷道者數百
H01n0001_p0237a29║人。
H01n0001_p0237a30║  世祖大明二年,有曇標道人與羌人高闍謀反,上因是下詔曰:「佛法
H01n0001_p0238a01║訛替,沙門混雜,未足扶濟鴻教,而專成逋藪。如奸心頻發,凶關屢聞,敗
H01n0001_p0238a02║亂風俗,人神交怨。可付所在,精加沙汰,後有違犯,嚴加誅坐。」於是設
H01n0001_p0238a03║諸條禁,自非戒行精苦,並使還俗。而諸寺尼出入宮掖,交關妃后,此制竟
H01n0001_p0238a04║不能行。
H01n0001_p0238a05║  先是晉世庾冰始創議,俗使沙門敬王者,後桓玄復述其義,並不果行。
H01n0001_p0238a06║大明六年,世祖使有司奏曰:「臣聞邃宇崇居,非期宏峻,拳跪槃伏,非止
H01n0001_p0238a07║敬恭,將以施張四維,締制八宇。故雖儒法枝派,名墨條分,至於崇親嚴
H01n0001_p0238a08║上,厥繇靡爽。唯浮圖為教,逖自龍堆,反經提傳,訓遐事遠,練生瑩識,恆
H01n0001_p0238a09║俗稱難,宗旨緬謝,微言淪隔,拘文蔽道,在末彌扇。遂乃陵越典度,偃倨
H01n0001_p0238a10║尊戚,失隨方之眇跡,迷制化之淵義。夫佛法以謙儉自牧,忠虔為道,不輕
H01n0001_p0238a11║比丘,遭人斯拜,目連桑門,遇長則禮,寧有屈膝四輩,而簡禮二親,稽顙耆
H01n0001_p0238a12║臘,而直體萬乘者哉。故咸康創議,元興載述,而事屈偏黨,道挫餘分。今
H01n0001_p0238a13║鴻源遙洗,群流仰鏡,九仙盡寶,百神聳職,而畿輦之內,舍弗臣之氓,陛席
H01n0001_p0238a14║之間,延抗禮之客,懼非所以澄一風範,詳示景則者也。臣等參議,以為沙
H01n0001_p0238a15║門接見,比當盡虔禮敬之容,依其本俗,則朝徽有序,乘方兼遂矣。」詔可,
H01n0001_p0238a16║前廢帝初,復舊。
H01n0001_p0238a17║  世祖寵姬殷貴妃薨,為之立寺,貴妃子子鸞封新安王,故以新安為寺
H01n0001_p0238a18║號。前廢帝殺子鸞,乃毀廢新安寺,驅斥僧徒,尋又毀中興、天寶諸寺。太
H01n0001_p0238a19║宗定亂,下令曰:「先帝建中興及新安諸寺,所以長世垂范,弘宣盛化。頃
H01n0001_p0238a20║遇昏虐,法像殘毀,師徒奔進,甚以矜懷。妙訓淵謨,有扶名教。可招集舊
H01n0001_p0238a21║僧,普各還本,並使材官,隨宜修復。」
H01n0001_p0238a22║  宋世名僧有道生。道生,彭城人也。父為廣戚令。生出家為沙門法
H01n0001_p0238a23║大弟子。幼而聰悟,年十五,便能講經,及長有異解,立頓悟義,時人推服
H01n0001_p0238a24║之。元嘉十一年,卒於廬山。沙門慧琳為之誄。
H01n0001_p0238a25║  慧琳者,秦郡秦縣人,姓劉氏。少出家,住冶城寺,有才章,兼外內之
H01n0001_p0238a26║學,為廣陵王義真所知。嘗著《均善論》,其詞曰:
H01n0001_p0238a27║  有白學先生,以為中國聖人,經綸百世,其德弘矣,智周萬變,天人之
H01n0001_p0238a28║理盡矣,道無隱旨,教罔遺筌,聰睿迪哲,何負於殊論哉。有黑學道士陋
H01n0001_p0238a29║之,謂不照幽冥之途,弗及來生之化,雖尚虛心,未能虛事,不逮西域之深
H01n0001_p0238a30║也。於是白學訪其所以不逮云爾。
H01n0001_p0239a01║  白曰:「釋氏所論之空,與老氏所言之空,無同異乎?」黑曰:「異。釋
H01n0001_p0239a02║氏即物為空,空物為一。老氏有無兩行,空有為異。安得同乎。」白曰:
H01n0001_p0239a03║「釋氏空物,物信空邪?」黑曰:「然。空又空,不翅於空矣。」白曰:「三儀靈
H01n0001_p0239a04║長於宇宙,萬品盈生於天地,孰是空哉。」黑曰:「空其自性之有,不害因假
H01n0001_p0239a05║之體也。今構群材以成大廈,罔專寢之實,積一豪以致合抱,無檀木之體,
H01n0001_p0239a06║有生莫俄頃之留,泰山蔑累息之固,興滅無常,因緣無主,所空在於性理,
H01n0001_p0239a07║所難據於事用,吾以為誤矣。」白曰:「所言實相,空者其如是乎?」黑曰:
H01n0001_p0239a08║「然。」白曰:「浮變之理,交於目前,視聽者之所同了邪?解之以登道場,
H01n0001_p0239a09║重之以輕異學,誠未見其淵深。」黑曰:「斯理若近,求之實遠。夫情之所
H01n0001_p0239a10║重者虛,事之可重者實。今虛其真實,離其浮偽,愛慾之惑,不得不去。愛
H01n0001_p0239a11║去而道場不登者,吾不知所以相曉也。」白曰:「今析豪空樹,無□垂蔭之
H01n0001_p0239a12║茂,離材虛室,不損輪奐之美,明無常增其愒蔭之情,陳若偏篤其競辰之
H01n0001_p0239a13║慮。貝錦以繁采發輝,和羹以鹽梅致旨,齊侯追爽鳩之樂,燕王無延年之
H01n0001_p0239a14║術,恐和合之辯,危脆之教,正足戀其嗜好之欲,無以傾其愛競之惑也。」
H01n0001_p0239a15║黑曰:「斯固理絕於諸華,墳素莫之及也。」白曰:「山高累卑之辭,川樹積
H01n0001_p0239a16║小之詠,舟壑火傳之談,堅白唐肆之論,蓋盈於中國矣,非理之奧,故不舉
H01n0001_p0239a17║以為教本耳。子固以遺情遺累,虛心為道,而據事剖析者,更由指掌之間
H01n0001_p0239a18║乎。」黑曰:「周、孔為教,正及一世,不見來生無窮之緣,積善不過子孫之
H01n0001_p0239a19║慶,累惡不過餘殃之罰,報效止於榮祿,誅責極於窮賤,視聽之外,冥然不
H01n0001_p0239a20║知,良可悲矣。釋迦關無窮之業,拔重關之險,陶方寸之慮,宇宙不足盈其
H01n0001_p0239a21║明,設一慈之救,群生不足勝其化,敘地獄則民懼其罪,敷天堂則物歡其
H01n0001_p0239a22║福,指泥洹以長歸,乘法身以遐覽,神變無不周,靈澤靡不覃,先覺翻翔於
H01n0001_p0239a23║上世,後悟騰翥而不紹,坎井之局,何以識大方之家乎。」白曰:「固能大其
H01n0001_p0239a24║言矣,今效神光無徑寸之明,驗靈變罔纖介之異,勤誠者不睹善救之貌,篤
H01n0001_p0239a25║學者弗剋陵虛之實,徒稱無量之壽,孰見期頤之叟,咨嗟金剛之固,安覿不
H01n0001_p0239a26║朽之質。苟於事不符,宜尋立言之指,遺其所寄之說也,且要天堂以就善,
H01n0001_p0239a27║曷若服義而蹈道,懼地獄以敕身,孰與從理以端心。禮拜以求免罪,不由
H01n0001_p0239a28║祗肅之意,施一以徼百倍,弗乘無吝之情。美泥洹之樂,生耽逸之慮,贊法
H01n0001_p0239a29║身之妙,肇好奇之心,近欲未弭,遠利又興,雖言菩薩無慾,群生固以有欲
H01n0001_p0239a30║矣。甫救交敝之氓,永開利競之谷,澄神反道,其可得乎。」黑曰:「不然,
H01n0001_p0240a01║若不示以來生之欲,何以權其當生之滯。物情不能頓至,故積漸以誘之。
H01n0001_p0240a02║奪此俄頃,要彼無窮,若弗勤春稼,秋穡何期。端坐井底,而息意庶慮者,
H01n0001_p0240a03║長淪於九泉之下矣。」白曰:「異哉!何所務之乖也。道在無慾,而以有欲
H01n0001_p0240a04║要之,北行求郢,西征索越,方長迷於幽都,永謬滯於昧谷。遼遼閩、楚,其
H01n0001_p0240a05║可見乎。所謂積漸者,日損之謂也。當先遺其所輕,然後忘其所重,使利
H01n0001_p0240a06║慾日去,淳白自生耳。豈得以少要多,以粗易妙,俯仰之間,非利不動,利
H01n0001_p0240a07║之所蕩,其有極哉。乃丹青眩媚綵之目,土木誇好壯之心,興糜費之道,單
H01n0001_p0240a08║九服之財,樹無用之事,割群生之急,致營造之計,成私樹之權,務勸化之
H01n0001_p0240a09║業,結師黨之勢,苦節以要厲精之譽,護法以展陵競之情,悲矣。夫道其安
H01n0001_p0240a10║寄乎。是以周、孔敦俗,弗關視聽之外,老、莊陶風,謹守性分而已。」黑
H01n0001_p0240a11║曰:「三游本於仁義,盜跖資於五善,聖跡之敝,豈有內外。且黃、老之家,
H01n0001_p0240a12║符章之偽,水祝之誣,不可勝論。子安於彼,駭於此,玩於濁水,違於清淵
H01n0001_p0240a13║耳。」白曰:「有跡不能不敝,有術不能無偽,此乃聖人所以桎梏也。今所
H01n0001_p0240a14║惜在作法於貪,遂以成俗,不正其敝,反以為高耳。至若淫妄之徒,世自近
H01n0001_p0240a15║鄙,源流蔑然,固不足論。」黑曰:「釋氏之教,專救夷俗,便無取於諸華
H01n0001_p0240a16║邪?」白曰:「曷為其然。為則開端,宜懷屬緒,愛物去殺,尚施周人,息心
H01n0001_p0240a17║遺榮華之願,大士布兼濟之念,仁義玄一者,何以尚之。惜乎幽旨不亮,末
H01n0001_p0240a18║流為累耳。」黑曰:「子之論善殆同矣,便事盡於生乎?」白曰:「幽冥之理,
H01n0001_p0240a19║固不極於人事矣。周、孔疑而不辯,釋迦辯而不實,將宜廢其顯晦之跡,存
H01n0001_p0240a20║其所要之旨。請嘗言之。夫道之以仁義者,服理以從化,帥之以勸戒者,
H01n0001_p0240a21║循利而遷善。故甘辭興於有欲,而滅於悟理,淡說行於天解,而息於貪偽。
H01n0001_p0240a22║是以示來生者,蔽虧於道、釋不得已,杜幽闇者,冥符於姬、孔閉其兌。由
H01n0001_p0240a23║斯論之,言之者未必遠,知之者未必得,不知者未必失,但知六度與五教並
H01n0001_p0240a24║行,信順與慈悲齊立耳。殊塗而同歸者,不得守其發輪之轍也。」
H01n0001_p0240a25║  論行於世。舊僧謂其貶黜釋氏,欲加擯斥。太祖見論賞之,元嘉中,
H01n0001_p0240a26║遂參權要,朝廷大事,皆與議焉。賓客輻湊,門車常有數十兩,四方贈賂相
H01n0001_p0240a27║係,勢傾一時。注《孝經》及《莊子逍遙篇》、文論,傳於世。
H01n0001_p0240a28║  又有慧嚴、慧議道人,並住東安寺,學行精整,為道俗所推。時鬥場寺
H01n0001_p0240a29║多禪僧,京師為之語曰:「鬥場禪師窟,東安談義林。」
H01n0001_p0240a30║  世祖大明四年,於中興寺設齋。有一異僧,眾莫之識,問其名,答言名
H01n0001_p0241a01║明慧,從天安寺來,忽然不見。天下無此寺名,乃改中興曰天安寺。大明
H01n0001_p0241a02║中,外國沙門摩訶衍苦節有精理,於京都多出新經,《勝鬘經》尤見重內
H01n0001_p0241a03║學。
H01n0001_p0241a04║    (《宋書》卷九十七《夷蠻傳》2384)
H01n0001_p0241a05║
H01n0001_p0241a06║   佛法言有福生帝王家
H01n0001_p0241a07║  帝謂豫章王妃庾氏曰:「阿婆,佛法言有福生帝王家,今見作天王,便
H01n0001_p0241a08║是大罪,左右主帥,動見拘執,不如市邊屠酤富兒百倍。」
H01n0001_p0241a09║    (《南史》卷五《齊本紀上》135)
H01n0001_p0241a10║
H01n0001_p0241a11║   顧歡著《夷夏論》論佛、老
H01n0001_p0241a12║  (顧)歡晚節服食,不與人通。每旦出戶,山鳥集其掌取食。事黃老
H01n0001_p0241a13║道,解陰陽書,為數術多效驗。初元嘉末,出都寄住東府,忽題柱云:「三
H01n0001_p0241a14║十年二月二十一日。」因東歸。後太初弒逆,果是此年月。自知將終,賦
H01n0001_p0241a15║詩言志云:「精氣因天行,遊魂隨物化。」剋死日,卒於剡山,身體柔軟,時
H01n0001_p0241a16║年六十四。還葬舊墓,木連理出墓側,縣令江山圖表狀。世祖詔歡諸子,
H01n0001_p0241a17║撰歡文議三十卷佛道二家,立教既異,學者相互非毀。歡著《夷夏論》曰:
H01n0001_p0241a18║  夫辨是與非,宜據聖典。尋二教之源,故兩標經句。道經云:「老子
H01n0001_p0241a19║入關之天竺維衛國,國王夫人名曰淨妙,老子因其晝寢,乘日入精淨妙口
H01n0001_p0241a20║中,後年四月八日夜半時,剖左腋而生,墜地即行七步,於是佛道興焉。」
H01n0001_p0241a21║此出《玄妙內篇》。佛經云:「釋迦成佛,有塵劫之數。」出《法花》、《無量
H01n0001_p0241a22║壽》。或「為國師道士,儒林之宗」。出《瑞應本起》。
H01n0001_p0241a23║  歡論之曰:五帝、三皇,莫不有師。國師道士,無過老、莊,儒林之宗,
H01n0001_p0241a24║孰出周、孔。若孔、老非佛,誰則當之。然二經所說,如合符契。道則佛
H01n0001_p0241a25║也,佛則道也。其聖則符,其跡則反。或和光以明近;或曜靈以示遠。道
H01n0001_p0241a26║濟天下,故無方而不入;智周萬物,故無物而不為。其入不同,其為必異。
H01n0001_p0241a27║各成其性,不易其事。是以端委搢紳,諸華之容,翦髮曠衣,群夷之服。擎
H01n0001_p0241a28║跽磬折,侯甸之恭;狐蹲狗踞,荒流之肅。棺殯槨葬,中夏之制;火焚水沈,
H01n0001_p0241a29║西戎之俗。全形守體,繼善之教;毀貌易性,絕惡之學。豈伊同人,爰及異
H01n0001_p0241a30║物。鳥王獸長,往往是佛,無窮世界,聖人代興。或昭五典,或布三乘。在
H01n0001_p0242a01║鳥而鳥鳴,在獸而獸吼。教華而華言,化夷而夷語耳。雖舟車均於致遠,
H01n0001_p0242a02║而有川陸之節,佛道齊乎達化,而有夷夏之別,若謂其致既均,其法可換
H01n0001_p0242a03║者,而車可涉川,舟可行陸乎?今以中夏之性,效西戎之法,既不全同,又
H01n0001_p0242a04║不全異。下育妻孥,上廢宗祀。嗜欲之物,皆以禮伸;孝敬之典,獨以法
H01n0001_p0242a05║屈。悖禮犯順,曾莫之覺。弱喪忘歸,熟識其舊?且理之可貴者,道也;事
H01n0001_p0242a06║之可賤者,俗也。拾華效夷,義將安取?若以道邪?道固符合矣。若以俗
H01n0001_p0242a07║邪?俗則大乖矣。
H01n0001_p0242a08║  屢見刻舷沙門,守株道士,交諍小大,互相彈射。或域道以為兩,或混
H01n0001_p0242a09║俗以為一。是牽異以為同,破同以為異。則乖爭之由,淆亂之本也。尋聖
H01n0001_p0242a10║道雖同,而法有左右。始乎無端,終乎無末。泥洹仙化,各是一術。佛號
H01n0001_p0242a11║正真,道稱正一。一歸無死,真會無生。在名則反,在實則合。但無生之
H01n0001_p0242a12║教賒,無死之化切。切法可以進謙弱,賒法可以退誇強。佛教文而博,道
H01n0001_p0242a13║教質而精。精非粗人所信,博非精人所能。佛言華而引,道言實而抑。抑
H01n0001_p0242a14║則明者獨進,引則昧者竟前。佛經繁而顯,道經簡而幽。幽則妙門難見,
H01n0001_p0242a15║顯則正路易遵。此二法之辨也。
H01n0001_p0242a16║  聖匠無心,方圓有體。器既殊用,教亦異施。佛是破惡之方,道是興
H01n0001_p0242a17║善之術。興善則自然為高,破惡則勇猛為貴。佛跡光大,宜以化物;道跡
H01n0001_p0242a18║密微,利用為己。優劣之分,大略在茲。
H01n0001_p0242a19║  夫蹲夷之儀,婁羅之辯,各出彼俗,自相聆解。猶蟲嚾鳥聒,何足術
H01n0001_p0242a20║效。歡雖同二法,而意黨道教。宋司徒袁粲托為道人通公駮之,其略曰:
H01n0001_p0242a21║  白日停光,恆星隱照,誕降之應,事在老先,似非入關,方炳斯瑞。
H01n0001_p0242a22║  又老、莊、周、孔,有可存者,依日末光,憑釋遺法,盜牛竊善,反以成
H01n0001_p0242a23║蠹,檢究源流,終異吾黨之為道耳。
H01n0001_p0242a24║  西域之記,佛經之說,俗以膝行為禮,不慕蹲坐為恭,道以三繞為虔,
H01n0001_p0242a25║不尚踞傲為肅。豈專戎土,爰亦茲方。襄童謁帝,膝行而進;趙王見周,三
H01n0001_p0242a26║環而止。今佛法在華,乘者常安;戒善行交,蹈者恆通。文王造周,大伯創
H01n0001_p0242a27║吳,革化戎夷,不因舊俗。豈若舟車,理無代用。佛法垂化,或因或革。清
H01n0001_p0242a28║信之士,容衣不改;息心之人,服貌必變。變本從道,不遵彼俗,教風自殊,
H01n0001_p0242a29║無患其亂。
H01n0001_p0242a30║  孔、老、釋迦,其人或同,觀方設教,其道必異。孔、老治世為本,釋氏
H01n0001_p0243a01║出世為宗。發軫既殊,其歸亦異。符合之唱,自由臆說。
H01n0001_p0243a02║  又仙化以變形為上,泥洹以陶神為先。變形者白首還緇,而未能無
H01n0001_p0243a03║死;陶神者使塵惑日損,湛然常存。泥洹之道,無死之(作)〔地〕,乖詭若
H01n0001_p0243a04║此,何謂其同?
H01n0001_p0243a05║  歡答曰:
H01n0001_p0243a06║  案道經之作,著自西周,佛經之來,始乎東漢,年逾八百,代懸數十。
H01n0001_p0243a07║若謂黃老雖久,而濫在釋前,是呂尚盜陳恆之齊,劉季竊王莽之漢也。
H01n0001_p0243a08║  經云,戎氣強獷,乃復略人頰車邪?又夷俗長跽,法與華異,翹左跂
H01n0001_p0243a09║右,全是蹲踞。故周公禁之於前,仲尼戒之於後。又舟以濟川,車以征陸,
H01n0001_p0243a10║佛起於戎,豈非戎俗素惡邪?道出於華,豈非華風本善邪?今華風既變,
H01n0001_p0243a11║惡同戎狄,佛來破之,良有以矣。佛道實貴,故戒業可遵;戎俗實賤,故言
H01n0001_p0243a12║貌可棄。今諸華士女,民族弗革,而露首(編)〔偏〕踞,濫用夷禮,云於翦
H01n0001_p0243a13║落之徒,全是胡人,國有舊風,法不可變。
H01n0001_p0243a14║  又若觀風流教,其道必異,佛非東華之道,道非西戎之法,魚鳥異淵,
H01n0001_p0243a15║永不相關,安得老、釋二教,交行八表。今佛既東流,道亦西邁,故知世有
H01n0001_p0243a16║精粗,教有文質。然則道教執本以領末,佛教救末以存本。請問所異,歸
H01n0001_p0243a17║在何許?若以翦落為異,則胥靡翦落矣。若以立像為異,則俗巫立像矣。
H01n0001_p0243a18║此非所歸,歸在常住。常住之象,常道孰異?
H01n0001_p0243a19║  神仙有死,權便之說。神仙是大化之總稱,非窮妙之至名。至名無
H01n0001_p0243a20║名,其有名者二十七品,仙變成真,真變成神,或謂之聖,各有九品,品極則
H01n0001_p0243a21║入空寂,無為無名。若服食茹芝,延壽萬億,壽盡則死,藥極則枯,此修考
H01n0001_p0243a22║之士,非神仙之流也。
H01n0001_p0243a23║  明僧紹《正二教論》以為「佛明其宗,老全其生。守生者蔽,明宗者
H01n0001_p0243a24║通。今道家稱長生不死,名補天曹,大乖老、莊立言本理」。文惠太子、竟
H01n0001_p0243a25║陵王子良並好釋法。吳興孟景翼為道士,太子召入玄圃園。眾僧大會,子
H01n0001_p0243a26║良使景翼禮佛,景翼不肯,子良送《十地經》與之。景翼造《正一論》。大
H01n0001_p0243a27║略曰:「寶積云『佛以一音廣說法』。老子云『聖人抱一以為天下式』。
H01n0001_p0243a28║『一』之為妙,空玄絕於有(景)〔境〕,神化贍於無窮,為萬物而無為,處一
H01n0001_p0243a29║數而無數,莫之能名,強號為一。在佛曰『實相』,在道曰『玄牝』。道之大
H01n0001_p0243a30║象,即佛之法身。以不守之守守法身,以不執之執執大象。便物有八萬四
H01n0001_p0244a01║千行,說有八萬四千法。法乃至於無數,行亦達於無央。等級隨緣,須導
H01n0001_p0244a02║歸一。歸一曰回向,向正即無邪。邪觀既遣,億善日新。三五四六,隨用
H01n0001_p0244a03║而施。獨立不改,絕學無憂。曠劫諸聖,共遵斯『一』。老、釋未始於嘗
H01n0001_p0244a04║分,迷者分之而未合。億善遍修,修遍成聖,雖十號千稱,終不能盡。終不
H01n0001_p0244a05║能盡,豈可思議。」司徒從事中郎張融作《門律》云:「道之與佛,逗極無二。
H01n0001_p0244a06║吾見道士與道人戰儒墨,道人與道士獄是非。昔有鴻飛天首,積遠難亮。
H01n0001_p0244a07║越人以為鳧,楚人以為乙,人自楚越,鴻常一耳。」以示太子僕周顒。顒難
H01n0001_p0244a08║之曰:「虛無法性,其寂雖同,位寂之方,其旨則別。論所謂『逗極無二』
H01n0001_p0244a09║者,為逗極於虛無,當無二於法性耶?足下所宗之本一物為鴻乙耳。驅馳
H01n0001_p0244a10║佛道,無免二末。未知高鑒,緣何識本,輕而宗之,其有旨乎?」往覆文多
H01n0001_p0244a11║不載。
H01n0001_p0244a12║  歡口不辯,善於著筆。著《三名論》,甚工,鍾會《四本》之流也。又注
H01n0001_p0244a13║王弼《易》二《繫》,學者傳之。
H01n0001_p0244a14║    (《南齊書》卷五十四《高逸.顧歡傳》930)
H01n0001_p0244a15║
H01n0001_p0244a16║   顧歡著《夷夏論》論佛、老
H01n0001_p0244a17║  初,(顧)歡以佛道二家教異,學者互相非毀,乃著《夷夏論》曰:
H01n0001_p0244a18║  夫辯是與非,宜據聖典。道經云:「老子入關之天竺維衛國,國王夫
H01n0001_p0244a19║人名曰淨妙,老子因其晝寢,乘日精入淨妙口中,後年四月八日夜半時,剖
H01n0001_p0244a20║右腋而生。墜地即行七步,於是佛道興焉。」此出《玄妙》內篇。佛經云
H01n0001_p0244a21║「釋迦成佛,有塵劫之數」,出《法華》、《無量壽》。或「為國師道士,儒林之
H01n0001_p0244a22║宗」,出《瑞應本起》。
H01n0001_p0244a23║  歡論之曰:五帝三皇,不聞有佛;國師道士,無過老、莊;儒林之宗,孰
H01n0001_p0244a24║出周、孔。若孔、老非聖,誰則當之?然二經所說,如合符契。道則佛也,
H01n0001_p0244a25║佛則道也,其聖則符,其跡則反。或和光以明近,或曜靈以示遠。道濟天
H01n0001_p0244a26║下,故無方而不入,智周萬物,故無物而不為。其入不同,其為必異,各成
H01n0001_p0244a27║其性,不易其事。是以端委搢紳,諸華之容;剪髮曠衣,群夷之服。擎跽罄
H01n0001_p0244a28║折,侯甸之恭;狐蹲狗踞,荒流之肅。棺殯槨葬,中夏之風;火焚水沉,西戎
H01n0001_p0244a29║之俗。全形守禮,繼善之教;毀貌易性,絕惡之學。豈伊同人,爰及異物,
H01n0001_p0244a30║鳥王獸長,往往是佛。無窮世界,聖人代興,或昭五典,或布三乘。在鳥而
H01n0001_p0245a01║鳥鳴,在獸而獸吼,教華而華言,化夷而夷語耳。雖舟車均於致遠,而有川
H01n0001_p0245a02║陸之節,佛道齊乎達化,而有夷夏之別。若謂其致既均,其法可換者,而車
H01n0001_p0245a03║可涉川,舟可行陸乎?今以中夏之性,效西戎之法,既不全同,又不全異。
H01n0001_p0245a04║下棄妻孥,上絕宗祀。嗜欲之物,皆以禮伸,孝敬之典,獨以法屈。悖禮犯
H01n0001_p0245a05║順,曾莫之覺,弱喪忘歸,孰識其舊。且理之可貴者道也,事之可賤者俗
H01n0001_p0245a06║也,捨華效夷,義將安取?若以道邪?道固符合矣。若以俗邪?俗則大乖
H01n0001_p0245a07║矣。屢見刻舷沙門,守株道士,交諍小大,互相彈射。或域道以為兩,或混
H01n0001_p0245a08║俗以為一,是牽異以為同,破同以為異,則乖爭之由,淆亂之本也。
H01n0001_p0245a09║  尋聖道雖同,而法有左右,始乎無端,終乎無末,泥洹仙化,各是一術。
H01n0001_p0245a10║佛號正真,道稱正一,一歸無死,真會無生。在名則反,在實則合。但無生
H01n0001_p0245a11║之教賒,無死之化切,切法可以進謙弱,賒法可以退誇強。佛教文而博,道
H01n0001_p0245a12║教質而精,精非粗人所信,博非精人所能。佛言華而引,道言實而抑,抑則
H01n0001_p0245a13║明者獨進,引則昧者競前。佛經繁而顯,道經簡而幽,幽則妙門難見,顯則
H01n0001_p0245a14║正路易遵。此二法之辨也。
H01n0001_p0245a15║  聖匠無心,方圓有體,器既殊用,教亦易施。佛是破惡之方,道是興善
H01n0001_p0245a16║之術,興善則自然為高,破惡則勇猛為貴。佛跡光大,宜以化物。道跡密
H01n0001_p0245a17║微,利用為己。優劣之分,大略在茲。
H01n0001_p0245a18║  夫蹲夷之儀,婁羅之辯,各出彼俗,自相聆解。猶蟲躍鳥聒,何足述
H01n0001_p0245a19║效。
H01n0001_p0245a20║  歡雖同二法,而意黨道教。宋司徒袁粲托為道人通公駁之。其略曰:
H01n0001_p0245a21║  白日停光,恆星隱照,誕降之應,事在老先,似非入關,方昭斯瑞。又
H01n0001_p0245a22║西域之記,佛經之說,俗之膝行為禮,不慕蹲坐為恭。道以三遶為虔,不尚
H01n0001_p0245a23║踞傲為肅。豈專戎土,爰亦茲方。襄童謁帝,膝行而進,趙王見周,三環而
H01n0001_p0245a24║止。今佛法垂化,或因或革。清信之士,容衣不改,息心之人,服貌必變。
H01n0001_p0245a25║變本從道,不遵彼俗,俗鳳自殊,無患其亂。
H01n0001_p0245a26║  孔、老、釋迦,其人或同,觀方設教,其道必異。孔、老教俗為本,釋氏
H01n0001_p0245a27║出世為宗,發軫既殊,其歸亦異。又仙化以變形為上,泥洹以陶神為先。
H01n0001_p0245a28║變形者白首還緇,而未能無死;陶神者使塵惑日損,湛然常存。泥洹之道,
H01n0001_p0245a29║無死之地,乖詭若此,何謂其同?歡答曰:
H01n0001_p0245a30║  案道經之作,著自西周,佛經之來,始乎東漢。年逾八百,代懸數十。
H01n0001_p0246a01║若謂黃、老雖久而濫在釋前,是呂尚盜陳恆之齊,劉季竊王莽之漢也。又
H01n0001_p0246a02║夷俗長跽,法與華異,翹左跋右,全是蹲踞。故周公禁之於前,仲尼誡之於
H01n0001_p0246a03║後。又佛起於戎,豈非戎俗素惡邪?道出於華,豈非華風本善邪?今華風
H01n0001_p0246a04║既變,惡同戎狄,佛來破之,良有以矣。佛道實貴,故戒業可遵;戎俗實賤,
H01n0001_p0246a05║故言貌可棄。今諸華士女,氏族弗革,而露首偏踞,濫用夷禮。
H01n0001_p0246a06║  又若觀鳳流教,其道必異。佛非東華之道,道非西夷之法,魚鳥異川,
H01n0001_p0246a07║永不相關。安得老、釋二教,交行八表。今佛既東流,道亦西邁,故知俗有
H01n0001_p0246a08║精粗,教有文質。然則道教執本以領末,佛教救末以存本。請問所歸,異
H01n0001_p0246a09║在何許?若以翦落為異,則胥靡翦落矣;若以立像為異,則俗巫立像矣。
H01n0001_p0246a10║此非所歸,歸在常住,常住之象,常道孰異。
H01n0001_p0246a11║  神仙有死,權便之說。神仙是大化之總稱,非窮妙之至名。至名無
H01n0001_p0246a12║名,其有名者二十七品。仙變成真,真變成神,或謂之聖,各有九品。品極
H01n0001_p0246a13║則入空寂,無為無名。若服食茹芝,延壽萬億,壽盡則死,藥極則枯,此修
H01n0001_p0246a14║考之士,非神仙之流也。
H01n0001_p0246a15║  明僧紹《正二教論》,以為「佛明其宗,老全其生。守生者蔽,明宗者
H01n0001_p0246a16║通。今道家稱長生不死,名補天曹,大乖老、莊立言本理」。文惠太子、竟
H01n0001_p0246a17║陵王子良並好釋法,吳興孟景翼為道士,太子召入玄圃,眾僧大會。子良
H01n0001_p0246a18║使景翼禮佛,景翼不肯。子良送《十地經》與之,景翼造《正一論》,大略
H01n0001_p0246a19║曰:「《寶積》云:『佛以一音廣說法』。《老子》云:『聖抱一以為天下式』。
H01n0001_p0246a20║一之為妙,空玄絕於有境,神化贍於無窮。為萬物而無為,處一數而無數。
H01n0001_p0246a21║莫之能名,強號為一。在佛曰『實相』,在道曰『玄牝』。道之大象,即佛之
H01n0001_p0246a22║法身。以不守之守守法身,以不執之執執大象。但物有八萬四千行,說有
H01n0001_p0246a23║入萬四千法。法乃至於無數,行亦達於無央,等級隨緣,須導歸一。歸一
H01n0001_p0246a24║曰回向,向正即無邪。邪觀既遣,億善日新。三五四六,隨用而施,獨立不
H01n0001_p0246a25║改,絕學無憂。曠劫諸聖,共遵斯一。老、釋未始於嘗分,迷者分之而未
H01n0001_p0246a26║合。億善遍修,修遍成聖,雖十號千稱,終不能盡。終不能盡,豈可思
H01n0001_p0246a27║議。」司徒從事中郎張融作《門律》云:「道之與佛,逗極無二。吾見道士與
H01n0001_p0246a28║道人戰儒墨,道人與道士辨是非。昔有鴻飛天首,積遠難亮,越人以為鳧,
H01n0001_p0246a29║楚人以為乙。人自楚、越,鴻常一耳。」以示太子僕周顒。顒歎之曰:「虛
H01n0001_p0246a30║無法性,其寂雖同,位寂之方,其旨則別。論所謂『逗極無二』者,為逗極
H01n0001_p0247a01║於虛無,當無二於法性邪。足下所宗之本一物為鴻乙耳,驅馳佛道,無免
H01n0001_p0247a02║二末,未知高鑒,緣何識本?輕而宗之,其有旨乎。」往覆文多不載。
H01n0001_p0247a03║  歡口不辯,善於著論。又注王弼《易》二《繫》,學者傳之。知將終,賦
H01n0001_p0247a04║詩言志曰:「五塗無恆宅,三清有常舍。精氣因天行,遊魂隨物化。鵬[昆*鳥]
H01n0001_p0247a05║適大海,蜩鳩之桑柘。達生任去留,善死均日夜。委命安所乘,何方不可
H01n0001_p0247a06║駕。翹心企前覺,融然從此謝。」自剋死日,自擇葬時,卒於剡山,時年六
H01n0001_p0247a07║十四。身體香軟,道家謂之屍解仙化焉。還葬舊墓,木連理生墓側。縣令
H01n0001_p0247a08║江山圖表狀,武帝詔歡諸子撰歡文議三十卷。
H01n0001_p0247a09║    (《南史》卷七十五《隱逸上.顧歡傳》1875)
H01n0001_p0247a10║
H01n0001_p0247a11║   顧歡優老而劣釋
H01n0001_p0247a12║  史臣曰:顧歡論夷夏,優老而劣釋。佛法者,理寂乎萬古,跡兆乎中
H01n0001_p0247a13║世,淵源浩博,無始無邊,宇宙之所不知,數量之所不盡,盛乎哉!真大士
H01n0001_p0247a14║之立言也。探機扣寂,有感必應,以大苞小,無細不容。若乃儒家之教,仁
H01n0001_p0247a15║義禮樂,仁愛義宜,禮從樂和而已;今則慈悲為本,常樂為宗,施捨惟機,低
H01n0001_p0247a16║舉成敬。儒家之教,憲章祖述,引古證之,於學易悟;今樹以前因,報以後
H01n0001_p0247a17║果,業行交酬,連璅相襲。陰陽之教,占氣步景,授民以時,知其利害;今則
H01n0001_p0247a18║耳眼洞達,心智他通,身為奎井,豈俟甘石。法家之教,出自刑理,禁奸止
H01n0001_p0247a19║邪,明用賞罰;今則十惡所墜,五及無間,刀樹劍山,焦湯猛火,造受自貽,
H01n0001_p0247a20║罔或差貳。墨家之教,遵上儉薄,磨踵滅頂,且猶非吝;今則膚同斷瓠,目
H01n0001_p0247a21║如井星,授子捐妻,在鷹庇鴿。從橫之教,所貴權謀,天日連環,歸乎適變;
H01n0001_p0247a22║今則一音萬解,無待戶說,四辯三會,咸得吾師。雜家之教,兼有儒墨;今
H01n0001_p0247a23║則五時所宣,於何不盡。晨家之教,播植耕耘,善相五事,以藝九榖;今則
H01n0001_p0247a24║郁單梗稻,已異閻浮,生天果報,自然飲食。道家之教,執一虛無,得性亡
H01n0001_p0247a25║情,凝神勿擾;今則波若無照,萬法皆空,豈有道之可名,寧餘一之可得。
H01n0001_p0247a26║道俗對校,真假將讎,釋理奧藏,無往而不有也。能善用之,即真是俗。九
H01n0001_p0247a27║流之設,用藉世教,刑名道墨,乖心異言,儒者不學,無傷為儒;佛理玄曠,
H01n0001_p0247a28║實智妙有,一物不知,不成圓聖。若夫神道應現之力,感會變化之奇,不可
H01n0001_p0247a29║思議,難用言象。而諸張米道,符水先驗,相傳師法,祖自伯陽。世情去
H01n0001_p0247a30║就,有此二學,僧尼道士,矛盾相非。非唯重道,兼亦殉利。詳尋兩教,理
H01n0001_p0248a01║歸一極。但跡有左右,故教成先後。廣略為言,自生優劣。道本虛無,非
H01n0001_p0248a02║由學至,絕聖棄智,已成有為。有為之無,終非道本。若使本末同無,曾何
H01n0001_p0248a03║等級。佛則不然,具縛為種,轉暗成明,梯愚入聖。途雖遠而可踐,業雖曠
H01n0001_p0248a04║而有期。勸慕之道,物我無隔。而局情淺智,鮮能勝受。世途揆度,因果
H01n0001_p0248a05║二門。雞鳴為善,未必餘慶;膾肉東陵,曾無厄禍。身才高妙,鬱滯而靡
H01n0001_p0248a06║達;器思庸鹵,富厚以終生。忠反見遺;詭乃獲用。觀此而論,近無罪福,
H01n0001_p0248a07║而業有不定,著自經文,三報開宗,斯疑頓曉。史臣服膺釋氏,深信冥緣,
H01n0001_p0248a08║謂斯道之莫貴也。
H01n0001_p0248a09║  贊曰:含貞抱樸,履道敦學。惟茲潛隱,棄鱗養角。
H01n0001_p0248a10║    (《南齊書》卷五十四《高逸傳》946)
H01n0001_p0248a11║
H01n0001_p0248a12║   天竺道人釋那伽仙上表
H01n0001_p0248a13║  永明二年,闍耶跋摩遣天竺道人釋那伽仙上表稱扶南國王臣僑陳如
H01n0001_p0248a14║闍耶跋摩叩頭啟曰:「天化撫育,感動靈祇,四氣調適。伏願聖主尊體起
H01n0001_p0248a15║居康御,皇太子萬福,六宮清休,諸王妃主內外朝臣普同和睦,鄰境士庶萬
H01n0001_p0248a16║國歸心,五榖豐熟,災害不生,土清民泰,一切安穩。臣及人民,國土豐樂,
H01n0001_p0248a17║四氣調和,道俗濟濟,並蒙陛下光化所被,咸荷安泰。」又曰:「臣前遣使繼
H01n0001_p0248a18║雜物行廣州貨易,天竺道人釋那伽仙於廣州因附臣舶欲來扶南,海中風漂
H01n0001_p0248a19║到林邑,國王奪臣貨易,並那伽仙私財。具陳其從中國來此,仰序陛下聖
H01n0001_p0248a20║德仁治,詳議風化,佛法興顯,眾僧殷集,法事日盛,王威嚴整,朝望國軌,
H01n0001_p0248a21║慈憫蒼生,八方六合,莫不歸仗。如聽其所說,則化鄰諸天,非可為喻。臣
H01n0001_p0248a22║聞之,下情踴悅,若暫奉見尊足,仰慕慈恩,澤流小國,天垂所感,率土之
H01n0001_p0248a23║民,並得皆蒙恩佑。是以臣今遣此道人釋那伽仙為使,上表問訊奉貢,微
H01n0001_p0248a24║獻呈臣等赤心,並別陳下情。但所獻輕陋,愧懼唯深。伏願天慈曲照,鑒
H01n0001_p0248a25║其丹款,賜不垂責。……謹附那伽仙並其伴口具啟聞。伏願憫所啟。並
H01n0001_p0248a26║獻金鏤龍王坐像一軀,白檀像一軀,牙塔二軀,古貝二雙,琉璃蘇[金*立]二口,
H01n0001_p0248a27║玳瑁檳榔柈一枚。」
H01n0001_p0248a28║  那伽仙詣京師,言其國俗事摩醯首羅天神,神常降於摩耽山。土氣恆
H01n0001_p0248a29║暖,草木不落。其上書曰:「吉祥利世間,感攝於群生。所以其然者,天感
H01n0001_p0248a30║化緣明。仙山名摩耽,吉樹敷嘉榮。摩醯首羅天,依此降尊靈。國王悉蒙
H01n0001_p0249a01║佑,人民皆安寧。由斯恩被故,是以臣歸情。菩薩行忍慈,本跡起凡基。
H01n0001_p0249a02║一發菩提心,二乘非所期。歷生積功業,六度行大悲。勇猛超劫數,財命
H01n0001_p0249a03║捨無遺。生死不為厭,六道化有緣。具修於十地,遺果度人天。功業既已
H01n0001_p0249a04║定,行滿登正覺。萬善智圓備,惠日照塵俗,眾生感緣應,隨機授法藥。佛
H01n0001_p0249a05║化遍十方,無不蒙濟擢。皇帝聖弘道。興降於三寶。垂心覽萬機,威恩振
H01n0001_p0249a06║八表。國土及城邑,仁風化清皎。亦如釋提洹,眾天中最超。陛下臨萬
H01n0001_p0249a07║民,四海共歸心。聖慈流無疆,被臣小國深。」詔報曰:「具摩醯降靈,流施
H01n0001_p0249a08║彼土,雖殊俗異化,遙深欣贊。知鳩酬羅於彼背叛,竊據林邑,聚凶肆掠,
H01n0001_p0249a09║殊宜剪討。彼雖介遐(休)〔陬〕舊修蕃貢,自宋季多難,海譯致壅,皇化惟
H01n0001_p0249a10║新,習迷未革。朕方以文德來遠人,未欲便興干戈。王既款列忠到,遠請
H01n0001_p0249a11║軍威,今詔交部隨宜應接,伐叛柔服,寔惟國典,勉立殊效,以副所期。那
H01n0001_p0249a12║伽仙屢銜邊譯,頗悉中土闊狹,今其具宣。」上報以絳紫地黃碧綠紋綾各
H01n0001_p0249a13║五匹。
H01n0001_p0249a14║    (《南齊書》卷五十八《東南夷傳》1015)
H01n0001_p0249a15║
H01n0001_p0249a16║   徐勉嘗為書誡其子
H01n0001_p0249a17║  (徐勉)嘗為書誡其子崧曰:……慧日、十住(皆徐勉子)等,既應營
H01n0001_p0249a18║婚,又須住止,吾清明門宅,無相容處。所以爾者,亦復有以;前割西邊施
H01n0001_p0249a19║宣武寺,既失西廂,不復方幅,意亦謂此逆旅舍耳,何事須華?常恨時人謂
H01n0001_p0249a20║是我宅……且釋氏之教,以財物謂之外命;儒典亦稱「何以聚人曰財」。
H01n0001_p0249a21║況汝曹常情,安得忘此……以孔釋二教殊途同歸,撰《會林》五下卷。
H01n0001_p0249a22║    (《梁書》卷二十五《徐勉傳》384)
H01n0001_p0249a23║
H01n0001_p0249a24║   王褒著《幼訓》以誡諸子
H01n0001_p0249a25║  (王)褒著《幼訓》,以誡諸子。其一章云:……儒家則尊卑等差,吉凶
H01n0001_p0249a26║降殺。君南面而臣北面,天地之義也。鼎俎奇而籩豆偶,陰陽之義也。道
H01n0001_p0249a27║家則墮支體,黜聰明,棄義絕仁,離形去智。釋氏之義,見苦斷習,證滅循
H01n0001_p0249a28║道,明因辨果,偶凡成聖,斯雖為教等差,而義歸汲引。吾始乎幼學,及於
H01n0001_p0249a29║知命,既崇周、孔之教,兼循老、釋之談,江左以來,斯業不墜,汝能修之,吾
H01n0001_p0249a30║之志也。
H01n0001_p0249a31║    (《梁書》卷四十一《王規傳》583)
H01n0001_p0249a32║
H01n0001_p0250a01║   范縝與蕭子良論因果
H01n0001_p0250a02║  初,縝在齊世,嘗侍竟陵王(蕭)子良。子良精信釋教,而縝盛稱無
H01n0001_p0250a03║佛。子良問曰:「君不信因果,世間何得有富貴,何得有賤貧?」縝答曰:
H01n0001_p0250a04║「人之生譬如一樹花,同發一枝,俱開一蒂,隨風而墜,自有拂簾幌墜於茵
H01n0001_p0250a05║席之上,自有關籬牆落於糞溷之側。墜茵席者,殿下是也;落溷糞者,下官
H01n0001_p0250a06║是也。貴賤雖復殊途,因果竟在何處?」子良不能屈,深怪之。縝退論其
H01n0001_p0250a07║理,著《神滅論》曰:
H01n0001_p0250a08║  或問予云:「神滅,何以知其滅也?」答曰:「神即形也,形即神也,是以
H01n0001_p0250a09║形存則神存,形謝則神滅也。」
H01n0001_p0250a10║  問曰:「形者無知之稱,神者有知之名,知與無知,即事有異,神之與
H01n0001_p0250a11║形,理不容一,形神相即,非所聞也。」答曰:「形者神之質,神者形之用。
H01n0001_p0250a12║是則形稱其質,神言其用,形之與神,不得相異也。」
H01n0001_p0250a13║  問曰:「神故非用,不得為異,其義安在?」答曰:「名殊而體一也。」
H01n0001_p0250a14║  問曰:「名既已殊,體何得一?」答曰:「神之於質,猶利之於刀,形之於
H01n0001_p0250a15║用,猶刀之於利,利之名非刀也,刀之名非利也。然而捨利無刀,捨刀無
H01n0001_p0250a16║利。未聞刀沒而利存,豈容形亡而神在。」
H01n0001_p0250a17║  問曰:「刀之與利,或如來說,形之與神,其義不然。何以言之?木之
H01n0001_p0250a18║質無知也,人之質有知也,人既如木之質,而有異木之知,豈非木有其一,
H01n0001_p0250a19║人有其二邪?」答曰:「異哉言乎!人若有如木之質以為形,又有異木之知
H01n0001_p0250a20║以為神,則可如來論也。今人之質,質有知也,木之質,質無知也,人之質
H01n0001_p0250a21║非木質也,木之質非人質也,安有如木之質而復有異木之知哉!」
H01n0001_p0250a22║  問曰:「人之質所以異木質者,以其有知耳。人而無知,與木何異?」
H01n0001_p0250a23║答曰:「人無無知之質,猶木無有知之形。」
H01n0001_p0250a24║  問曰:「死者之形骸,豈非無知之質邪?」答曰:「是無人質。」
H01n0001_p0250a25║  問曰:「若然者,人果有如木之質,而有異木之知矣。」答曰:「死者如
H01n0001_p0250a26║木,而無異木之知;生者有異木之知,而無如木之質也。」
H01n0001_p0250a27║  問曰:「死者之骨骼,非生者之形骸邪?」答曰:「生形之非死形,死形
H01n0001_p0250a28║之非生形,區已革矣,安有生人之形骸,而有死人之骨骼哉?」
H01n0001_p0250a29║  問曰:「若生者之形骸非死者之骨骼,非死者之骨骼,則應不由生者
H01n0001_p0250a30║之形骸,不由生者之形骸,則此骨骼從何而至此邪?」答曰:「是生者之形
H01n0001_p0251a01║骸,變為死者之骨骼也。」
H01n0001_p0251a02║  問曰:「生者之形骸雖變為死者之骨骼,豈不從生而有死,則知死體
H01n0001_p0251a03║猶生體也。」答曰:「如因榮木變為枯木,枯木之質,寧是榮木之體!」
H01n0001_p0251a04║  問曰:「榮體變為枯體,枯體即是榮體;絲體變為縷體,縷體即是絲
H01n0001_p0251a05║體,有何別焉?」答曰:「若枯即是榮,榮即是枯,應榮時凋零,枯時結實也。
H01n0001_p0251a06║又榮木不應變為枯木,以榮即枯,無所復變也。榮枯是一,何不先枯後榮?
H01n0001_p0251a07║要先榮後枯,何也?絲縷之義,亦同此破。」
H01n0001_p0251a08║  問曰:「生形之謝,便應豁然都盡,何故方受死形,綿歷未已邪?」答
H01n0001_p0251a09║曰:「生滅之體,要有其次故也。夫欻而生者必欻而滅,漸而生者必漸而
H01n0001_p0251a10║滅。欻而生者,飄驟是也;漸而生者,動植是也。有欻有漸,物之理也。」
H01n0001_p0251a11║  問曰:「形即是神者,手等亦是邪?」答曰:「皆是神之分也。」
H01n0001_p0251a12║  問曰:「若皆是神之分,神既能慮,手等亦應能慮也?」答曰:「手等亦
H01n0001_p0251a13║應能有痛癢之知,而無是非之慮。」
H01n0001_p0251a14║  問曰:「慮,為一為異?」答曰:「知即是慮,淺則為知,深則為慮。」
H01n0001_p0251a15║  問曰:「若爾,應有二乎?」答曰:「人體惟一,神何得二。」
H01n0001_p0251a16║  問曰:「若不得二,安有痛癢之知,復有是非之慮?」答曰:「如手足雖
H01n0001_p0251a17║異,總為一人,是非痛癢雖復有異,亦總為一神矣。」
H01n0001_p0251a18║  問曰:「是非之慮,不關手足,當關何處?」答曰:「是非之意,心器所
H01n0001_p0251a19║主。」
H01n0001_p0251a20║  問曰:「心器是五藏之心,非邪?」答曰:「是也。」
H01n0001_p0251a21║  問曰:「五藏有何殊別,而心獨有是非之慮乎?」答曰:「七竅亦復何
H01n0001_p0251a22║殊,而司用不均。」
H01n0001_p0251a23║  問曰:「慮思無方,何以知是心器所主?」答曰:「五藏各有所司,無有
H01n0001_p0251a24║能慮者,是以心為慮本。」
H01n0001_p0251a25║  問曰:「何不寄在眼等分中?」答曰:「若慮可寄於眼分,眼何故不寄於
H01n0001_p0251a26║耳分邪?」
H01n0001_p0251a27║  問曰:「慮體無本,故可寄之於眼分;眼自有本,不假寄於佗分也。」答
H01n0001_p0251a28║曰:「眼何故有本而慮無本;苟無本於我形,而可遍寄於異地,亦可張甲之
H01n0001_p0251a29║情,寄王乙之軀,李丙之性,托趙丁之體。然乎哉?不然也。」
H01n0001_p0251a30║  問曰:「聖人形猶凡人之形,而有凡聖之殊,故知形神異矣。」答曰:
H01n0001_p0252a01║「不然。金之精者能昭,穢者不能昭,有能昭之精金,寧有不昭之穢質。
H01n0001_p0252a02║又豈有聖人之神而寄凡人之器,亦無凡人之神而托聖人之體。是以八采、
H01n0001_p0252a03║重瞳,勳、華之容,龍顏、馬口,軒、皞之狀,形表之異也。比干之心,七竅
H01n0001_p0252a04║列角,伯約之膽,其大若拳,此心器之殊也。是知聖人定分,每絕常區,非惟
H01n0001_p0252a05║道革群生,乃亦形超萬有。凡聖均體,所未敢安。」
H01n0001_p0252a06║  問曰:「子云聖人之形必異於凡者,敢問陽貨類仲尼,項籍似大舜,
H01n0001_p0252a07║舜、項、孔、陽,智革形同,其故何邪?」答曰:「玟似玉而非玉,雞類鳳而非
H01n0001_p0252a08║鳳,物誠有之,人故宜爾。項、陽貌似而非實似,心器不均,雖貌無益。」
H01n0001_p0252a09║  問曰:「凡聖之殊,形器不一,可也;員極,理無有二,而丘、旦殊姿,
H01n0001_p0252a10║湯、文異狀,神不侔色,於此益明矣。」答曰:「聖同於心器,形不必同也,猶
H01n0001_p0252a11║馬殊毛而齊逸,玉異色而均美。是以晉棘、荊和,等價連城,驊騮、騄驪,俱
H01n0001_p0252a12║致千里。」
H01n0001_p0252a13║  問曰:「形神不二,既聞之矣,形謝神滅,理固宜然,敢問經云『為之宗
H01n0001_p0252a14║廟,以鬼餉之』,何謂也?」答曰:「聖人之教然也,所以弭孝子之心,而歷偷
H01n0001_p0252a15║薄之意,神而明之,此之謂矣。」
H01n0001_p0252a16║  問曰:「伯有被甲,彭生豕見,墳素著其事,寧是設教而已邪?」答曰:
H01n0001_p0252a17║「妖怪茫茫,或存或亡,強死者眾,不皆為鬼,彭生、伯有,何獨能然,乍為
H01n0001_p0252a18║人豕,未必齊、鄭之公子也。」
H01n0001_p0252a19║  問曰:「《易》稱『故知鬼神之情狀,與天地相似而不違。』又曰:『載鬼
H01n0001_p0252a20║一車。』其義云何?」答曰:「有禽焉,有獸焉,飛走之別也;有人焉,有鬼焉,
H01n0001_p0252a21║幽明之別也。人滅而為鬼,鬼滅而為人,則未之知也。」
H01n0001_p0252a22║  問曰:「知此神滅,有何利用邪?」答曰:「浮屠害政,桑門蠹俗,風驚霧
H01n0001_p0252a23║起,馳蕩不休,吾哀其弊,思拯其溺。夫竭財以赴僧,破產以趨佛,而不恤
H01n0001_p0252a24║親戚,不憐窮匱者何?良由厚我之情深,濟物之意淺。是以圭撮涉於貧
H01n0001_p0252a25║友,吝情動於顏色;千鍾委於富僧,歡意暢於容發。豈不以僧有多餘之期,
H01n0001_p0252a26║友無遺秉之報,務施闕於周急,歸德必於在己。又惑以茫昧之言,懼以阿
H01n0001_p0252a27║鼻之苦,誘以虛誕之辭,欣以兜率之樂。故捨逢掖,襲橫衣,廢俎豆,列瓶
H01n0001_p0252a28║缽,家家棄其親愛,人人絕其嗣續。致使兵挫於行間,吏空於官府,粟罄於
H01n0001_p0252a29║惰游,貨殫於泥木。所以奸宄弗勝,頌聲尚擁,惟此之故,其流莫已,其病
H01n0001_p0252a30║無限。若陶甄稟於自然,森羅均於獨化,忽焉自有,怳爾而無,來也不御,
H01n0001_p0253a01║去也不追,乘夫天理,各安其性。小人甘其壟畝,君子保其恬素,耕而食,
H01n0001_p0253a02║食不可窮也,蠶而衣,衣不可盡也,下有餘以奉其上,上無為以待其下,可
H01n0001_p0253a03║以全生,可以匡國,可以霸君,用此道也。」
H01n0001_p0253a04║  此論出,朝野諠譁。子良集僧難之而不能屈。
H01n0001_p0253a05║    (《梁書》卷四十八《列傳第四十二.儒林》665)
H01n0001_p0253a06║
H01n0001_p0253a07║   范縝與蕭子良論因果
H01n0001_p0253a08║  時竟陵王子良盛招賓客,縝亦預焉。嘗侍子良,子良精信釋教,而
H01n0001_p0253a09║(范)縝盛稱無佛。子良問:「君不信因果,何得富貴貧賤?」縝答曰:「人生
H01n0001_p0253a10║如樹花同發,隨風而墮,自有拂簾幌墜於茵席之上,自有關籬牆落於糞溷
H01n0001_p0253a11║之中。墜茵席者,殿下是也;落糞溷者,下官是也。貴賤雖復殊途,因果竟
H01n0001_p0253a12║在何處。」子良不能屈,然深怪之。退論其理,著《神滅論》。以為:「神即
H01n0001_p0253a13║形也,形即神也,形存則神存,形謝則神滅。形者神之質,神者形之用。是
H01n0001_p0253a14║則形稱其質,神言其用,形之與神,不得相異。神之於質,猶利之於刀,形
H01n0001_p0253a15║之於用,猶刀之於利。利之名非刀也,刀之名非利也,然而捨利無刀,捨刀
H01n0001_p0253a16║無利。未聞刀沒而利存,豈容形亡而神在。」此論出,朝野諠譁。子良集
H01n0001_p0253a17║僧難之而不能屈。太原王琰乃著論譏縝曰:「嗚呼范子!曾不知其先祖
H01n0001_p0253a18║神靈所在。」欲杜縝後對。縝又對曰:「嗚呼王子!知其祖先神靈所在,而
H01n0001_p0253a19║不能殺身以從之。」其險詣皆此類也。子良使王融謂之曰:「神滅既自非
H01n0001_p0253a20║理,而卿堅執之,恐傷名教。以卿之大美,何患不至中書郎,而故乖剌為
H01n0001_p0253a21║此,可便毀棄之。」縝大笑曰:「使范縝賣論取官,已至令僕矣,何但中書郎
H01n0001_p0253a22║邪。」
H01n0001_p0253a23║    (《南史》卷五十七《范雲傳附范縝傳》1421)
H01n0001_p0253a24║
H01n0001_p0253a25║   劉歊著《革終論》
H01n0001_p0253a26║  劉歊字士光,訏族兄也……歊幼有識慧,四歲喪父,與群兒同處,獨不
H01n0001_p0253a27║戲弄。六歲誦《論語》、《毛詩》,意所不解,便能問難。十一,讀《莊子逍遙
H01n0001_p0253a28║篇》,曰:「此可解耳。」客因問之,隨問而答,皆有情理,家人每異之。及
H01n0001_p0253a29║長,博學有文才,不娶不仕,與族弟訏並隱居求志,遨遊林澤,以山水書籍
H01n0001_p0253a30║相娛而已。常欲避人世,以母老不忍違離,每隨兄霽、杳從宦。少時好施,
H01n0001_p0254a01║務周人之急,人或遺之,亦不距也。久而歎曰:「受人者必報,不則有愧於
H01n0001_p0254a02║人。吾固無以報人,豈可常有愧乎?」
H01n0001_p0254a03║  天監十七年,無何而著《革終論》。其辭曰:
H01n0001_p0254a04║  死生之事,聖人罕言之矣。孔子曰:「精氣為物,遊魂為變,知鬼神之
H01n0001_p0254a05║情狀,與天地相似而不違。」其言約,其旨妙,其事隱,其意深,未可以臆
H01n0001_p0254a06║斷,難得而精核,聊肆狂瞽,請試言之。
H01n0001_p0254a07║  夫形慮合而為生,魂質離而稱死,合則起動,離則休寂。當其動也,人
H01n0001_p0254a08║皆知其神;及其寂也,物莫測其所趣。皆知則不言而義顯,莫測則逾辯而
H01n0001_p0254a09║理微。是以勳、華曠而莫陳,姬、孔抑而不說,前達往賢,互生異見。季札
H01n0001_p0254a10║云:「骨肉歸於土,魂氣無不之。」莊周云:「生為徭役,死為休息。」尋此二
H01n0001_p0254a11║說,如或相反。何者?氣無不之,神有也;死為休息,神無也。原憲云:
H01n0001_p0254a12║「夏後氏用明器,示民無知也。殷人用祭器,示民有知也。周人兼用之,
H01n0001_p0254a13║示民疑也。」考之記籍,驗之前志,有無之辯,不可歷言。若稽諸內教,判
H01n0001_p0254a14║乎釋部,則諸子之言可尋,三代之禮無越。何者?神為生本,形為生具,死
H01n0001_p0254a15║者神離此具,而即非彼具也。雖死者不可復反,而精靈遞變,未嘗滅絕。
H01n0001_p0254a16║當其離此之日,識用廓然,故夏後明器,示其弗反。即彼之時,魂靈知滅,
H01n0001_p0254a17║故殷人祭器,顯其猶存。不反則合乎莊周,猶存則同乎季札,各得一隅,無
H01n0001_p0254a18║傷厥義。設其實也,則亦無,故周人有兼用之禮,尼父發遊魂之唱,不其然
H01n0001_p0254a19║乎。若廢偏攜之論,探中途之旨,則不仁不智之譏,於是乎可息。
H01n0001_p0254a20║  夫形也者,無知之質也;神也者,有知之性也。有知不獨存,依無知以
H01n0001_p0254a21║自立,故形之於神,逆旅之館耳。及其死也,神去此而適彼也。神已去此,
H01n0001_p0254a22║館何用存?速朽得理也。神已適彼,祭何所祭?祭則失理。面姬、孔之教
H01n0001_p0254a23║不然者,其有以乎!蓋禮樂之興,出於澆薄,俎豆綴兆,生於俗弊。施靈
H01n0001_p0254a24║筵,陳棺槨,設饋奠,建丘隴,蓋欲令孝子有追思之地耳,夫何補於已遷之
H01n0001_p0254a25║神乎?故上古衣之以薪,棄之中野,可謂尊盧、赫胥、皇雄、炎帝蹈於失理
H01n0001_p0254a26║哉?是以子羽沈川,漢伯方壙,文楚黃壤,土安麻索。此四子者,得理也,
H01n0001_p0254a27║忘教也。若從四子而游,則平生之志得矣。
H01n0001_p0254a28║  然積習生常,難卒改革,一朝肆志,儻不見從。今欲翦截煩厚,務存儉
H01n0001_p0254a29║易,進不裸屍,退異常俗,不傷存者之念,有合至人之道。孔子云:「斂首
H01n0001_p0254a30║足形,還葬而無槨。」斯亦貧者之禮也,余何陋焉。且張奐止用幅巾,王肅
H01n0001_p0255a01║唯盥手足,范冉殮畢便葬,奚珍無設筵几,文度故舟為槨,子廉牛車載柩,
H01n0001_p0255a02║叔起誡絕墳隴,康成使無卜吉。此數公者,尚或如之;況於吾人,而尚華
H01n0001_p0255a03║泰!今欲仿佛景行,以為軌則,儻合中庸之道,庶免徒費之譏。氣絕不須
H01n0001_p0255a04║復魄,盥洗而斂。以一千錢市治棺、單故裙衫、衣巾枕履。此外送往之具,
H01n0001_p0255a05║棺中常物,及餘閣之祭,一不得有所施。世多信李、彭之言,可謂惑矣。余
H01n0001_p0255a06║以孔、釋為師,差無此惑。斂訖,載以露車,歸於舊山,隨得一地,地足為
H01n0001_p0255a07║坎,坎足容棺,不須磚甓,不勞封樹,勿設祭饗,勿置几筵,無用茅君之虛
H01n0001_p0255a08║座,伯夷之杅水。其蒸嘗繼嗣,言象所絕,事止余身,無傷世教。家人長
H01n0001_p0255a09║幼,內外姻戚,凡厥友朋,爰及寓所,咸願成余之志,幸勿奪之。
H01n0001_p0255a10║  明年疾卒,時年三十二。
H01n0001_p0255a11║  歊幼時嘗獨坐空室,有一老公至門,謂歊曰:「心力勇猛,能精死生;
H01n0001_p0255a12║但不得久滯一方耳。」因彈指而去。歊既長,精心學佛,有道人釋寶誌者,
H01n0001_p0255a13║時人莫測也,遇歊於興皇寺,驚起曰:「隱居學道,清淨登佛。」如此三說。
H01n0001_p0255a14║歊未死之春,有人為其庭中栽柿,歊謂兄子弇曰:「吾不見此實,爾其勿
H01n0001_p0255a15║言。」至秋而亡,人以為知命。親故誄其行跡,謚曰貞節處士。
H01n0001_p0255a16║    (《梁書》卷五十一《處士.劉歊傳》747)
H01n0001_p0255a17║
H01n0001_p0255a18║   劉歊著《革終論》
H01n0001_p0255a19║  (劉歊)天監十七年,忽著《革終論》。以為:
H01n0001_p0255a20║  形者無知之質,神者有知之性。有知不獨存,依無知以自立,故形之
H01n0001_p0255a21║於神,逆旅之館耳。及其死也,神去此館,速朽得理。是以子羽沈川,漢伯
H01n0001_p0255a22║方壙,文楚黃壤,士安麻索:此四子者得理也。若從四子而游,則平生之志
H01n0001_p0255a23║得矣。然積習生常,難卒改革,一朝肆志,儻不見從。今欲翦截煩厚,務存
H01n0001_p0255a24║儉易,進不裸屍,退異常俗,不傷存者之念,有合至人之道。且張奐止用幅
H01n0001_p0255a25║巾,王肅唯盥手足,范冉斂畢便葬,爰珍無設筵几,文度故舟為棺,子廉牛
H01n0001_p0255a26║車載柩,叔起誡絕墳隴,康成使無卜吉。此數公者,尚或如之,況為吾人,
H01n0001_p0255a27║而尚華泰。今欲仿佛景行,以為軌則。氣絕不須復魂,盥漱而斂。以一千
H01n0001_p0255a28║錢市成棺,單故裙衫,衣巾枕履。此外送往之具,棺中常物,一不得有所
H01n0001_p0255a29║施。世多信李、彭之言,可謂惑矣。余以孔、釋為師,差無此惑。斂訖,載
H01n0001_p0255a30║以露車,歸於舊山,隨得一地,地足為坎,坎足容棺。不須磚甓,不勞封樹,
H01n0001_p0256a01║勿設祭饗,勿置几筵。其蒸嘗繼嗣,言象所絕,事止余身,無傷世教……始
H01n0001_p0256a02║沙門釋寶誌遇歊於興皇寺,驚起曰:「隱居學道,清淨登仙。」如此三說。
H01n0001_p0256a03║歊未死之春,有人為其庭中栽柿,歊謂兄子弇曰:「吾不見此實,爾其勿
H01n0001_p0256a04║言。」至秋而亡,人以為知命。親故誄其行跡,謚曰「貞節處士」。
H01n0001_p0256a05║    (《南史》卷四十九《劉懷珍傳附劉歊傳》1225)
H01n0001_p0256a06║
H01n0001_p0256a07║   《梁書曾鞏目錄序》
H01n0001_p0256a08║  《梁書》,六本紀,五十列傳,合五十六篇。唐貞觀三年,詔右散騎常
H01n0001_p0256a09║侍姚思廉撰。思廉者,梁史官察之子。推其父意,又頗采諸儒謝吳等所
H01n0001_p0256a10║記,以成此書。臣等既校正其文字,又集次為目錄一篇而敘之曰:
H01n0001_p0256a11║  自先王之道不明,百家並起,佛最晚出,為中國之患,而在梁為尤甚,
H01n0001_p0256a12║故不得而不論也。蓋佛之徒自以謂吾之所得者內,而世之論佛者皆外也,
H01n0001_p0256a13║故不可絀;雖然,彼惡睹聖人之內哉。書曰:「思曰睿,睿作聖。」蓋思者,
H01n0001_p0256a14║所以致其知也。能致其知者,察三才之道,辯萬物之理,小大精粗無不盡
H01n0001_p0256a15║也。此之謂窮理,知之至也。知至矣,則在我者之足貴,在彼者之不足玩,
H01n0001_p0256a16║未有不能明之者也。有知之之明而不能好之,未可也,故加之誠心以好
H01n0001_p0256a17║之;有好之之心而不能樂之,未可也,故加之至意以樂之。能樂之則能安
H01n0001_p0256a18║之矣。如是,則萬物之自外至者安能累我哉。萬物之所不能累,故吾之所
H01n0001_p0256a19║以盡其性也。能盡其性則誠矣。誠者,成也,不惑也。既成矣,必充之使
H01n0001_p0256a20║可大焉。既大矣,必推之使可化焉。能化矣,則含智之民,肖翹之物,有待
H01n0001_p0256a21║於我者,莫不由之以至其性,遂其宜,而吾之用與天地參矣。德如此其至
H01n0001_p0256a22║也,而應乎外者未嘗不與人同,此吾之道所以為天下之達道也。故與之為
H01n0001_p0256a23║衣冠、飲食、冠昏、喪祭之具,而由之以教其為君臣、父子、兄弟、夫婦者,莫
H01n0001_p0256a24║不一出乎人情;與之同其吉凶而防其憂患者,莫不一出乎人理。故與之處
H01n0001_p0256a25║而安且治之所集也,危且亂之所去也。與之所處者其具如此,使之化者其
H01n0001_p0256a26║德如彼,可不謂聖矣乎。既聖矣,則無思也,其至者循理而已;無為也,其
H01n0001_p0256a27║動者應物而已。是以覆露乎萬物,鼓舞乎群眾,而未有能測之者也,可不
H01n0001_p0256a28║謂神矣乎。神也者,至妙而不息者也,此聖人之內也。聖人者,道之極也,
H01n0001_p0256a29║佛之說其有以易此乎。求其有以易此者,固其所以為失也。夫得於內者,
H01n0001_p0256a30║未有不可行於外也;有不可行於外者,斯不得於內矣。《易》曰:「智周乎
H01n0001_p0257a01║萬物而道濟乎天下,故不過。」此聖人所以兩得之也。智足以知一偏,而
H01n0001_p0257a02║不足以盡萬事之理,道足以為一方,而不足以適天下之用,此百家之所以
H01n0001_p0257a03║兩失之也。佛之失其不以此乎。則佛之徒自以謂得諸內者,亦可謂妄矣。
H01n0001_p0257a04║  夫學史者將以明一代之得失也,臣等故因梁之事,而為著聖人之所以
H01n0001_p0257a05║得及佛之所以失以傳之者,使知君子之所以距佛者非外,而有志於內者,
H01n0001_p0257a06║庶不以此而易彼也。
H01n0001_p0257a07║  臣鞏等謹敘目錄,昧死上。
H01n0001_p0257a08║    (《梁書》卷末《曾鞏目錄序》869)
H01n0001_p0257a09║
H01n0001_p0257a10║   付縡著《明道論》難暠法師《無諍論》
H01n0001_p0257a11║  (付)縡篤信佛教,從興皇惠朗法師受《三論》,盡通其學。時有大心
H01n0001_p0257a12║暠法師著《無諍論》以詆之,縡乃為《明道論》,用釋其難。其略曰:
H01n0001_p0257a13║  《無諍論》言:比有弘《三論》者,雷同訶詆,恣言罪狀,歷毀諸師,非斥
H01n0001_p0257a14║眾學,論中道而執偏心,語忘懷而竟獨勝,方學數論,更為仇敵,仇敵既勾,
H01n0001_p0257a15║諍鬥大生,以此之心,而成罪業,罪業不止,豈不重增生死,大苦聚集?答
H01n0001_p0257a16║曰:《三論》之興,為日久矣。龍樹創其源,除內學之偏見;提婆揚其旨,蕩
H01n0001_p0257a17║外道之邪執。欲使大化流而不擁,玄風闡而無墜。其言曠,其意遠,其道
H01n0001_p0257a18║博,其流深。斯固龍象之勝驤,鯤鵬之搏運。〔蹇〕乘決羽,豈能觖望其間
H01n0001_p0257a19║哉?頃代澆薄,時無曠士,苟習小學,以化蒙心,漸染成俗,遂迷正路,唯竟
H01n0001_p0257a20║穿鑿,各肆營造,枝葉徒繁,本源日翳,一師解釋,復異一師,更改舊宗,各
H01n0001_p0257a21║立新意,同學之中,取寤復別,如是展轉,添糅倍多。總而用之,心無的准;
H01n0001_p0257a22║擇而行之,何者為正?豈不渾沌傷竅,嘉樹弊牙?雖復人說非馬,家握靈
H01n0001_p0257a23║蛇,以無當之卮,同畫地之餅矣。其於失道,不亦宜乎?攝山之學,則不如
H01n0001_p0257a24║是。守一遵本,無改作之過;約文申意,杜臆斷之情。言無預說,理非宿
H01n0001_p0257a25║構。睹緣爾乃應,見敵然後動。縱橫絡驛,忽怳杳冥。或彌綸而不窮,或
H01n0001_p0257a26║消散而無所。煥乎有文章,蹤朕不可得;深乎不可量,即事而非遠。凡相
H01n0001_p0257a27║酬對,隨理詳覈。有何嫉詐,干犯諸師?且諸師所說,為是可毀?為不可
H01n0001_p0257a28║毀?若可毀者,毀故為衰;若不可毀,毀自不及。法師何獨蔽護不聽毀乎?
H01n0001_p0257a29║且教有大小,備在聖誥,大乘之文,則指斥小道。今弘大法,寧得不言大乘
H01n0001_p0257a30║之意耶?斯則褒貶之事,從弘放學;與奪之辭,依經議論。何得見佛說而
H01n0001_p0258a01║信順,在我語而忤逆?無諍平等心如是耶?且忿恚煩惱,凡夫恆性,失理
H01n0001_p0258a02║之徒,率皆有此。豈可以三修未愜,六師懷恨,而蘊涅槃妙法,永不宣揚?
H01n0001_p0258a03║但冀其忿憤之心既極,恬淡之寤自成耳。人面不同,其心亦異,或有辭意
H01n0001_p0258a04║相反,或有心口相符。豈得必謂他人說中道而心偏執,己行無諍,外不違
H01n0001_p0258a05║而內平等?仇敵鬥訟,豈我事焉;罪業聚集,鬥諍者所畏耳。
H01n0001_p0258a06║  《無諍論》言:攝山大師誘進化導,則不如此,既習行於無諍者也。導
H01n0001_p0258a07║悟之德既往,淳一之風已澆,競勝之心,呵毀之曲,盛於茲矣。吾願息諍以
H01n0001_p0258a08║通道,讓勝以忘德。何必排拂異家,生其恚怒者乎?若以中道之心行於
H01n0001_p0258a09║《成實》,亦能不諍;若以偏著之心說於《中論》,亦得有諍。固知諍與不
H01n0001_p0258a10║諍,偏在一法。答曰:攝山大師實無諍矣,但法師所賞,未衷其節。彼靜守
H01n0001_p0258a11║幽谷,寂爾無為,凡有訓勉,莫匪同志,從容語嘿,物無閒然,故其意雖深,
H01n0001_p0258a12║其言甚約。今之敷暢,地勢不然。處王城之隅,居聚落之內,呼吸顧望之
H01n0001_p0258a13║客,脣吻縱橫之士,奮鋒穎,勵羽翼,明目張膽,被堅執銳,騁異家,衒別解,
H01n0001_p0258a14║窺伺間隙,邀冀長短,與相酬對,捔其輕重,豈得默默無言,唯唯應命?必
H01n0001_p0258a15║須掎摭同異,發擿玼瑕,忘身而弘道,忤俗而通教,以此為病,益知未達。
H01n0001_p0258a16║若令大師當此之地,亦何必默己,而為法師所貴耶?法師又言:「吾願息
H01n0001_p0258a17║諍以通道,讓勝以忘德。」道德之事,不止在諍與不諍,讓與不讓也。此語
H01n0001_p0258a18║直是人間所重,法師慕而言之,竟未知勝若為可讓也。若他人道高,則自
H01n0001_p0258a19║勝不勞讓矣;他人道劣,則雖讓而無益矣。欲讓之辭,將非虛設?中道之
H01n0001_p0258a20║心,無處不可。《成實》、《三論》,何事致乖?但須息守株之解,除膠柱之
H01n0001_p0258a21║意,是事皆中也。來旨言「諍與不諍,偏在一法」。何為獨褒無諍耶?詎
H01n0001_p0258a22║非矛盾?
H01n0001_p0258a23║  《無諍論》言:邪正得失,勝負是非,必生於心矣,非謂所說之法,而有
H01n0001_p0258a24║定相論勝劣也。若異論是非,以偏著為失言,無是無非,消彼得失,以此論
H01n0001_p0258a25║為勝妙者,他論所不及,此亦為失也。何者?凡心所破,豈無心於能破,則
H01n0001_p0258a26║勝負之心不忘,寧不存勝者乎?斯則矜我為得,棄他之失,即有取捨,大生
H01n0001_p0258a27║是非,便是增諍。答曰:言為心使,心受言詮;和合根塵,鼓動風氣,故成語
H01n0001_p0258a28║也。事必由心,實如來說。至於心造偽以使口,口行詐以應心,外和而內
H01n0001_p0258a29║險,言隨而意逆,求利養,引聲名,入道之人,在家之士,斯罪非一。聖人所
H01n0001_p0258a30║以曲陳教誡,深致防杜,說見在之殃咎,敘將來之患害,此文明著,甚於日
H01n0001_p0259a01║月,猶有忘愛軀,冒峻制,蹈湯炭,甘虀粉,必行而不顧也。豈能悅無諍之
H01n0001_p0259a02║作,而回首革音耶?若弘道之人,宣化之士,心知勝也,口言勝也,心知劣
H01n0001_p0259a03║也,口言劣也,亦無所苞藏,亦無所忌憚,但直心而行之耳。他道雖劣,聖
H01n0001_p0259a04║人之教也;己德雖優,亦聖人之教也。我勝則聖人勝,他劣則聖人劣。聖
H01n0001_p0259a05║人之優劣,蓋根緣所宜爾。於彼於此,何所厚薄哉?雖復終日按劍,極夜
H01n0001_p0259a06║擊柝,瞋目以爭得失,作氣以求勝負,在誰處乎?有心之與無心,徒欲分別
H01n0001_p0259a07║虛空耳。何意不許我論說,而使我謙退?此謂鷦鵬已翔於寥廓,而虞者猶
H01n0001_p0259a08║窺藪澤而求之。嗟乎!丈夫當弘斯道矣。
H01n0001_p0259a09║  《無諍論》言:無諍之道,通於內外。子所言須諍者,此用末而救本,
H01n0001_p0259a10║失本而營末者也。今為子言之。何則?若依外典,尋書契之前,至淳之
H01n0001_p0259a11║世,樸質其心,行不言之教,當於此時,民至老死不相往來,而各得其所,復
H01n0001_p0259a12║有何諍乎?固知本末不諍,是物之真矣。答曰:諍與無諍,不可偏執。本
H01n0001_p0259a13║之與末,又安可知?由來不諍,寧知非末?於今而諍,何驗非本?夫居後
H01n0001_p0259a14║而望前,則為前;居前而望後,則為後。而前後之事猶如彼此,彼呼此為
H01n0001_p0259a15║彼,此呼彼為彼,彼此之名,的居誰處?以此言之,萬事可知矣。本末前
H01n0001_p0259a16║後,是非善惡,可恆守邪?何得自信聰明,廢他耳目?夫水泡生滅,火輪旋
H01n0001_p0259a17║轉,入牢阱,受羈紲,生憂畏,起煩惱,其失何哉?不與道相應,而起諸見故
H01n0001_p0259a18║也。相應者則不然,無為也,無不為也。善惡不能偕,而未曾離善惡,生死
H01n0001_p0259a19║不能至,亦終然在生死,故得永離而任放焉。是以聖人念繞桎之不脫,愍
H01n0001_p0259a20║黏膠之難離,故慇勤教示,備諸便巧。希向之徒,涉求有類,雖驎角難成,
H01n0001_p0259a21║象形易失,寧得不彷彿遐路,勉勵短晨?且當念己身之善惡,莫揣他物,而
H01n0001_p0259a22║欲分別,而言我聰明,我知見,我計校,我思惟,以此而言,亦為疏矣。他人
H01n0001_p0259a23║者實難測,或可是凡夫真爾,亦可是聖人俯同,時俗所宜見,果報所應睹。
H01n0001_p0259a24║安得肆胸衿,盡情性,而生譏誚乎?正應虛己而游乎世,俛仰於電露之間
H01n0001_p0259a25║耳。明月在天,眾水咸見,清風至林,群籟畢響。吾豈逆物哉?不入鮑魚,
H01n0001_p0259a26║不甘腐鼠。吾豈同物哉?誰能知我,共行斯路。浩浩乎!堂堂乎!豈復
H01n0001_p0259a27║見有諍為非,無諍為是?此則諍者自諍,無諍者自無諍,吾俱取而用之。
H01n0001_p0259a28║寧勞法師費功夫,點筆紙,但申於無諍;弟子疲唇舌,消晷漏,唯對於明道?
H01n0001_p0259a29║戲論哉!糟粕哉!必欲且考真偽,暫觀得失,無過依賢聖之言,檢行藏之
H01n0001_p0259a30║理,始終研究,表裏綜核,使浮辭無所用,詐道自然消。請待後筵,以觀其
H01n0001_p0260a01║妙矣。
H01n0001_p0260a02║    (《陳書》卷三十《傅縡傳》401)
H01n0001_p0260a03║
H01n0001_p0260a04║   元懌表諫
H01n0001_p0260a05║  時有沙門惠憐者,自云咒水飲人,能差諸病。病人就之者,日有千數。
H01n0001_p0260a06║靈太后詔給衣食,事力優重,使於城西之南,治療百姓病。懌表諫曰:「臣
H01n0001_p0260a07║聞律深惑眾之科,禮絕妖淫之禁,皆所以大明居正,防遏奸邪。昔在漢末,
H01n0001_p0260a08║有張角者,亦以此術熒惑當時。論其所行,與今不異。遂能幻誘生人,致
H01n0001_p0260a09║黃巾之禍,天下塗炭數十年間,角之由也。昔新垣奸,不登於明堂;五利
H01n0001_p0260a10║僥,終嬰於顯戮。」
H01n0001_p0260a11║    (《魏書》卷二十二《清河王元懌傳》591)
H01n0001_p0260a12║
H01n0001_p0260a13║   元懌表諫
H01n0001_p0260a14║  孝明熙平初……時有沙門惠憐者,自云咒水飲人,能差諸病。病人就
H01n0001_p0260a15║之者,日有千數。靈太后詔給衣食,事力優重,使於城西之南,治療百姓
H01n0001_p0260a16║病。懌表諫曰:「臣聞律深惑眾之科,禮絕妖淫之禁,皆所以大明居正,防
H01n0001_p0260a17║遏奸邪。昔在漢末,有張角者,亦以此術,熒惑當時。論其所行,與今不
H01n0001_p0260a18║異。遂能[言*玄]誘生人,致黃巾之禍。天下塗炭數十年間,角之由也。昔新
H01n0001_p0260a19║垣奸,不登於明堂;五利僥,終嬰於顯戮。此事可為至鑒」。靈太后深納
H01n0001_p0260a20║之。
H01n0001_p0260a21║    (《北史》卷十九《清河王元懌傳》717)
H01n0001_p0260a22║
H01n0001_p0260a23║   李瑒上言
H01n0001_p0260a24║  於時民多絕戶而為沙門,(李)瑒上言:「禮以教世,法導將來,跡用既
H01n0001_p0260a25║殊,區流亦別。故三千之罪,莫大不孝,不孝之大,無過於絕祀。然則絕祀
H01n0001_p0260a26║之罪,重莫甚焉。安得輕縱背禮之情,而肆其向法之意也?正使佛道,亦
H01n0001_p0260a27║不應然,假令聽然,猶須裁之以禮。一身親老,棄家絕養,既非人理,尤乖
H01n0001_p0260a28║禮情,堙滅大倫,且闕王貫。交缺當世之禮,而求將來之益,孔子云『未知
H01n0001_p0260a29║生,焉知死』,斯言之至,亦為備矣。安有棄堂堂之政,而從鬼教乎!又今
H01n0001_p0260a30║南服未靜,眾役仍煩,百姓之情,方多避役。若復聽之,恐捐棄孝慈,比屋
H01n0001_p0261a01║而是。」沙門都統僧暹等忿瑒鬼教之言,以瑒為謗毀佛法,泣訴靈太后,太
H01n0001_p0261a02║后責之。瑒自理曰:「竊欲清明佛法,使道俗兼通,非敢排棄真學,妄為訾
H01n0001_p0261a03║毀。且鬼神之名,皆通靈達稱,自百代正典,敘三皇五帝,皆號為鬼。天地
H01n0001_p0261a04║曰神祇,人死曰鬼。《易》曰『知鬼神之情狀』,周公自美,亦云『能事鬼
H01n0001_p0261a05║神』,《禮》曰『明則有禮樂,幽則有鬼神』。是以明者為堂堂,幽者為鬼教。
H01n0001_p0261a06║佛非天非地,本出於人,應世導俗,其道幽隱,名之為鬼,愚謂非謗。且心
H01n0001_p0261a07║無不善,以佛道為教者,正可未達眾妙之門耳。」靈太后雖知瑒言為允,然
H01n0001_p0261a08║不免暹等之意,猶罰瑒金一兩。
H01n0001_p0261a09║    (《魏書》卷五十三《素孝伯傳附李瑒傳》1177)
H01n0001_p0261a10║
H01n0001_p0261a11║   程駿上表
H01n0001_p0261a12║  沙門法秀謀反伏誅。駿表曰:「臣聞《詩》之作也,蓋以言志。邇之事
H01n0001_p0261a13║父,遠之事君,闕諸風俗,靡不備焉。上可以頌美聖德,下可以申厚風化,
H01n0001_p0261a14║言之者無罪,聞之者足以誡。此古人用詩之本意。臣以垂沒之年,得逢盛
H01n0001_p0261a15║明之運,雖復昏耄將及,猶慕廉頗強飯之風。伏惟陛下,太皇太后,道合天
H01n0001_p0261a16║地,明侔日月,則天與唐風斯穆,順帝與周道通靈。是以狂妖懷逆,無隱謀
H01n0001_p0261a17║之地;冥靈潛翦,伏發覺之誅。用能七廟幽贊,人神扶助者已。臣不勝喜
H01n0001_p0261a18║踴。謹竭老鈍之思,上《慶國頌》十六章,並序巡狩、甘雨之德焉。」其頌
H01n0001_p0261a19║曰:……忽有狂豎,謀逆聖都。明靈幽告,發覺伏誅。羿浞為亂,祖龍千
H01n0001_p0261a20║紀。狂華冬茂,有自來矣。美哉皇度,道固千祀。百靈潛翦,奸不遑起。
H01n0001_p0261a21║奸不遑起,罪人得情。憲章刑律,五秩猶輕。於穆二聖,仁等春生。除棄
H01n0001_p0261a22║周漢,遐軌犧庭。周流奚棄?忿彼苛刻。犧庭曷軌?希仁尚德。徽音一
H01n0001_p0261a23║振,聲教四塞。豈惟京甸,化播萬國。
H01n0001_p0261a24║    (《魏書》卷六十《程駿傳》1347)
H01n0001_p0261a25║
H01n0001_p0261a26║   崔光上表諫靈太后
H01n0001_p0261a27║  (神龜)二年八月,靈太后幸永寧寺,躬登九層佛圖。(崔)光表諫曰:
H01n0001_p0261a28║「伏見親升上級,佇蹕表剎之下,祗心圖構,誠為福善。聖躬玉趾,非所踐
H01n0001_p0261a29║陟,臣庶恇惶,竊謂未可。按《禮記》:『為人子者,不登高,不臨深。』古賢
H01n0001_p0261a30║有言:『策畫失於廟堂,大人蹶於中野。』《漢書》:上欲西馳下峻阪,爰盎攬
H01n0001_p0262a01║轡停輿曰:『臣聞千金之子不垂堂,百金之子不倚衡,如有車敗馬驚,奈高
H01n0001_p0262a02║廟太后何?』又云:上酎祭宗廟,出,欲御樓船。薛廣德免冠頓首,曰:『宜
H01n0001_p0262a03║從橋,陛下不聽臣,臣以血污車輪。』樂正子春,曾參弟子,亦稱至孝,固自
H01n0001_p0262a04║謹慎,堂基不過一尺,猶有傷足之愧。永寧累級,閣道回隘,以柔懦之寶
H01n0001_p0262a05║體,乘至峻之重峭,萬一差跌,千悔何追?《禮》,將祭宗廟,必散齋七日,
H01n0001_p0262a06║致齋三日,然後入祀,神明可得而通。今雖容像未建,已為神明之宅。方
H01n0001_p0262a07║加雕繢,飾麗丹青,人心所祗,銳觀滋甚,登者既眾,異懷若面。縱一人之
H01n0001_p0262a08║身恆盡誠潔,豈左右臣妾各竭虔仰?不可獨升,必有扈侍,懼或忘慎,非飲
H01n0001_p0262a09║酒茹葷而已。昨風霾暴興,紅塵四塞,白日晝昏,特可敬畏。《春秋》,宋、
H01n0001_p0262a10║衛、陳、鄭同日而災,伯姬待姆,致焚如之禍……《內經》,寶塔高華,堪室
H01n0001_p0262a11║千萬,唯盛言香花禮拜,豈有登上之義。獨稱三寶階,從上而下,人天交
H01n0001_p0262a12║接,兩得相見,超世奇絕,莫可而擬。恭敬拜跽,悉在下級。遠存矚眺,周
H01n0001_p0262a13║見山河,因其所眄,增發嬉笑。未能級級加虔,步步崇慎,徒使京邑士女,
H01n0001_p0262a14║公私湊集。上行下從,理勢以然,迄於無窮,豈長世競慕一登而可抑斷哉?
H01n0001_p0262a15║蓋心信為本,形敬乃末,重實輕根,靖實躁君,恭己正南面者,豈月乘峻極,
H01n0001_p0262a16║旬御層階。今經始既就,子來自勸,基構已興,雕絢漸起,紫山華台,即其
H01n0001_p0262a17║宮也。伏願息躬親之勞,廣風靡之化,因立制防,班之條限,以遏囂污,永
H01n0001_p0262a18║歸清寂。下竭肅穆之誠,上展瞻仰之敬,勿踐勿履,顯固億齡,融教闡悟,
H01n0001_p0262a19║不其博歟。」……九月,靈太后幸嵩高,光(又)上表諫曰:……
H01n0001_p0262a20║    (《魏書》卷六十七《崔光傳》1495)
H01n0001_p0262a21║
H01n0001_p0262a22║   崔光上表諫靈太后
H01n0001_p0262a23║  二年八月,靈太后幸永寧寺,躬登九層佛圖。光表諫曰:「伏見親升
H01n0001_p0262a24║上級,佇蹕表剎之下,祗心圖構,誠為福善,聖躬玉趾,非所踐陟。臣庶恇
H01n0001_p0262a25║惶,竊謂未可。」九月,靈太后幸嵩山佛寺,光上表諫,不從。
H01n0001_p0262a26║    (《北史》卷四十四《崔光傳》1621)
H01n0001_p0262a27║
H01n0001_p0262a28║   尼高皇太后崩於瑤光寺
H01n0001_p0262a29║  神龜元年九月,尼高皇太后崩於瑤光寺。……有司奏:「案舊事,皇
H01n0001_p0262a30║太后崩儀,自復魄斂葬,百官哭臨,其禮甚多。今尼太后既存委俗尊,憑居
H01n0001_p0263a01║道法。凶事簡速,不依配極之典;庭局狹隘,非容百官之位。但昔逕奉接,
H01n0001_p0263a02║義成君臣,終始情禮,理無廢絕。輒准故式,立儀如別。內外群官,權改常
H01n0001_p0263a03║服,單衣邪巾,奉送至墓,列位哭拜,事訖而除。止在說師,更不宣下。」詔
H01n0001_p0263a04║可。
H01n0001_p0263a05║    (《魏書》卷一百八十四《禮志四》2807)
H01n0001_p0263a06║
H01n0001_p0263a07║   樊遜論釋道兩教
H01n0001_p0263a08║  (詔)又問釋道兩教,(樊)遜對曰:
H01n0001_p0263a09║  臣聞天道性命,聖人所不言,蓋以理絕涉求,難為稱謂。伯陽道德之
H01n0001_p0263a10║論,莊周逍遙之旨,遺言取意,猶有可尋。至若玉簡金書,神經秘錄,三尺
H01n0001_p0263a11║九轉之奇,絳雪玄霜之異,淮南成道,犬吠雲中,子喬得仙,劍飛天上,皆是
H01n0001_p0263a12║憑虛之說,海棗之談,求之如係風,學之如捕影。而燕君、齊后、秦皇、漢
H01n0001_p0263a13║帝,信彼方士,冀遇其真,徐福去而不歸,欒大往而無獲。猶謂升遐倒影,
H01n0001_p0263a14║抵掌可期;祭鬼求神,庶或不死。江璧既返,還入驪山之墓;龍媒已至,終
H01n0001_p0263a15║下茂陵之墳。方知劉向之信洪寶,沒有餘責;王充之非黃帝,比為不相。
H01n0001_p0263a16║又末葉已來,大存佛教,寫經西土,畫像南宮。昆池地黑,以為劫燒之灰;
H01n0001_p0263a17║春秋夜明,謂是降神之日。法王自在,變化無窮,置世界於微塵,納須彌於
H01n0001_p0263a18║黍米。蓋理本虛無,示諸方便。而妖妄之輩,苟求出家,藥王燔軀,波論灑
H01n0001_p0263a19║血,假未能然,猶當克命。寧有改形易貌,有異生人,恣意放情,還同俗物。
H01n0001_p0263a20║龍宮餘論,鹿野前言,此而得容,道風前墜。
H01n0001_p0263a21║  伏惟陛下受天明命,屈己濟民,山鬼效靈,海神率職。湘中石燕,沐時
H01n0001_p0263a22║雨而群飛;台上銅鳥,朔和風而杓轉。以周都洛邑,治在鎬京,漢宅咸陽,
H01n0001_p0263a23║魂歸豐、沛,汾、晉之地,王跡維始,眷言巡幸,且勞經略。猶復降情文苑,
H01n0001_p0263a24║斟酌百家,想執玉於瑤池,念求珠於赤水。竊以王母獻環,由感周德;上天
H01n0001_p0263a25║錫珮,實報禹功。二班勒史,兩馬制書,未見三世之辭,無聞一乘之旨。帝
H01n0001_p0263a26║樂王禮,尚有時而沿革;左道怪民,亦何疑於沙汰。
H01n0001_p0263a27║    (《北齊》卷四十五《文苑.樊遜傳》611)
H01n0001_p0263a28║
H01n0001_p0264a01║   北周武帝時辨釋三教先後
H01n0001_p0264a02║  (建德二年)十二月癸巳,集群臣及沙門、道士等,帝升高座,辨釋三
H01n0001_p0264a03║教先後,以儒教為先,道教為次,佛教為後。
H01n0001_p0264a04║    (《周書》卷五《武帝紀上》83)
H01n0001_p0264a05║
H01n0001_p0264a06║   韋敻著《三教序》
H01n0001_p0264a07║  武帝又以佛、道、儒三教不同,詔敻辨其優劣。敻以三教雖殊,同歸於
H01n0001_p0264a08║善,其跡似有深淺,其致理殆無等級。乃著《三教序》奏之。帝覽而稱善。
H01n0001_p0264a09║    (《周書》卷三十一《韋敻傳》545)
H01n0001_p0264a10║
H01n0001_p0264a11║   梁武降號伽藍
H01n0001_p0264a12║  五事愆違則天地見異,況於日月星辰乎?況於水火金木土乎?若梁
H01n0001_p0264a13║武之降號伽藍,齊文宣之盤遊市里,陳則蔣山之鳥呼曰「奈何」,周則陽武
H01n0001_p0264a14║之魚乘空而鬥,隋則鵲巢黼帳,火炎門闕,豈唯天道,亦曰人妖,則祥眚呈
H01n0001_p0264a15║形,於何不至?亦有脫略政教,張羅樽糈,崇信巫史,重增愆罰。
H01n0001_p0264a16║    (《隋書》卷二十二《五行上》617)
H01n0001_p0264a17║
H01n0001_p0264a18║   梁武帝淫於佛道
H01n0001_p0264a19║  中大通元年,朱雀航華表災。明年,同泰寺災。大同三年,朱雀門災。
H01n0001_p0264a20║水沴火也。是時帝崇尚佛道,宗廟牲牷,皆以面代之。又委萬乘之重,數
H01n0001_p0264a21║詣同泰寺,捨身為奴,令王公已下贖之。初陽為不許,後為默許,方始還
H01n0001_p0264a22║宮。天誡若曰,梁武為國主,不遵先王之法,而淫於佛道,橫多糜費,將使
H01n0001_p0264a23║其社稷不得血食也。天數見變,而帝不悟,後竟以亡。及江陵之敗,闔城
H01n0001_p0264a24║為賤隸焉,即捨身為奴之應也。
H01n0001_p0264a25║    (《隋書》卷二十二《五行上》620)
H01n0001_p0264a26║
H01n0001_p0264a27║   李士謙論三教
H01n0001_p0264a28║  (李)士謙善談玄理,嘗有一客在坐,不信佛家應報之義,以為外典無
H01n0001_p0264a29║聞焉。士謙喻之曰:「積善餘慶,積惡餘殃,高門待封,掃墓望喪,豈非休
H01n0001_p0264a30║咎之應邪?佛經云輪轉五道,無復窮已,此則賈誼所言,千變萬化,未始有
H01n0001_p0265a01║極,忽然為人之謂也。佛道未東,而賢者已知其然矣。至若鯀為黃熊,杜
H01n0001_p0265a02║宇為鶗鴃,褒君為龍,牛哀為獸,君子為鵠,小人為猿,彭生為豕,如意為
H01n0001_p0265a03║犬,黃母為黿,宣武為鱉,鄧艾為牛,徐伯為魚,鈴下為鳥,書生為蛇,羊祜
H01n0001_p0265a04║前身,李氏之子,此非佛家變受異形之謂邪?」客曰:「邢子才云,豈有松柏
H01n0001_p0265a05║後身化為樗櫟,僕以為然。」士謙曰:「此不類之談也。變化皆由心而作,
H01n0001_p0265a06║木豈有心乎?」客又問三教優劣,士謙曰:「佛,日也;道,月也;儒,五星
H01n0001_p0265a07║也。」客亦不能難而止。
H01n0001_p0265a08║    (《隋書》卷七十七《隱逸.李士謙傳》1753)
H01n0001_p0265a09║
H01n0001_p0265a10║   李士謙論三教
H01n0001_p0265a11║  (李)士謙善談玄理,嘗有客在坐,不信佛家應報義。士謙喻之曰:
H01n0001_p0265a12║「積善餘慶,積惡餘殃,豈非休咎邪?佛經云『轉輪五道,無復窮已』,此則
H01n0001_p0265a13║賈誼所言『千變萬化,未始有極,忽然為人』之謂也。佛道未來,而賢者已
H01n0001_p0265a14║知其然矣。至若鯀為黃熊,杜宇為鶗鴃,褒君為龍,牛哀為猛獸,君子為
H01n0001_p0265a15║鵠。小人為猿,彭生為豕,如意為犬,黃母為黿,宣武為鱉,鄧艾為牛,徐伯
H01n0001_p0265a16║為魚,鈴下為鳥,書生為蛇,羊祜前身李氏之子,此非佛家變受異形之謂
H01n0001_p0265a17║邪?」客曰:「邢子才云『豈有松柏後身,化為樗櫟』,僕以為然。」士謙曰:
H01n0001_p0265a18║「此不類之談也,變化皆由心作,木豈有心乎?」客又問三教優劣,士謙曰:
H01n0001_p0265a19║「佛,日也;道,月也;儒,五星也。」客亦不能難而止。
H01n0001_p0265a20║    (《北史》卷三《魏本紀三.孝文帝紀》1234)
H01n0001_p0265a21║
H01n0001_p0265a22║   胡僧所傳乃是四夷之樂
H01n0001_p0265a23║  又太子洗馬蘇夔以鍾律自命,尤忌(萬)寶常,夔父威,方用事,凡言
H01n0001_p0265a24║樂者,皆附之而短寶常。數詣公卿怨望,蘇威因詰寶常,所為何所傳受。
H01n0001_p0265a25║有一沙門謂寶常曰:「上雅好符瑞,有言征祥者,上皆悅之。先生當言就
H01n0001_p0265a26║胡僧受學,云是佛家菩薩所傳音律,則上必悅。先生所為,可以行矣。」寶
H01n0001_p0265a27║常然之,遂如其言以答威。威怒曰:「胡僧所傳,乃是四夷之樂,非中國所
H01n0001_p0265a28║宜行也。」其事竟寢。
H01n0001_p0265a29║  杜按:《北史》卷九十(2987)文稍異,意同。故不錄。
H01n0001_p0265a30║    (《隋書》卷七十八《藝術.萬寶常傳》1784)
H01n0001_p0265a31║
H01n0001_p0266a01║   何尚之於宅設八關齋
H01n0001_p0266a02║  先是,何尚之致仕,復膺朝命,於宅設八關齋,大集朝士,自行香,次至
H01n0001_p0266a03║僧達曰:「願郎且放鷹犬,勿復遊獵。」僧達答曰:「家養一老狗,放無處去,
H01n0001_p0266a04║已復還。」尚之失色。
H01n0001_p0266a05║    (《南史》卷二十一《王弘傳附王僧達傳》574)
H01n0001_p0266a06║
H01n0001_p0266a07║   郭祖深論佛教
H01n0001_p0266a08║  (梁武)帝溺情內教,朝政縱弛,(郭)祖深輿櫬詣闕上封事,其略曰:
H01n0001_p0266a09║……
H01n0001_p0266a10║  臣聞人為國本,食為人命,故《禮》曰國無六年之儲,謂非其國也。推
H01n0001_p0266a11║此而言,農為急務。而郡縣苛暴,不加勸獎,今年豐歲稔,猶人有饑色,設
H01n0001_p0266a12║遇水旱,何以救之?陛下昔歲尚學,置立五館,行吟坐詠,誦聲溢境。比來
H01n0001_p0266a13║慕法,普天信向,家家齋戒,人人懺禮,不務百桑,空談彼岸。夫農桑者今
H01n0001_p0266a14║日濟育,功德者將來勝因,豐可墮本勤末,置邇效賒也,今商旅轉繁,游食
H01n0001_p0266a15║轉眾,耕夫日少,杼軸日空。陛下若廣興屯田,賤金貴粟,勤農桑者擢以階
H01n0001_p0266a16║級,惰耕織者告以明刑。如此數年,則家給人足,廉讓可生。
H01n0001_p0266a17║  夫君子小人,智計不同,君子志於道,小人謀於利。志於道者安國濟
H01n0001_p0266a18║人,志於利者損物圖己。道人者害國小人也,忠良者捍國君子也。臣見疾
H01n0001_p0266a19║者詣道士則勸奏章,僧尼則令齋講,俗師則鬼禍須解,醫診則湯熨散丸,皆
H01n0001_p0266a20║先自為也。臣謂為國之本,與療病相類,療病當去巫鬼,尋華、扁,為國當
H01n0001_p0266a21║黜佞邪,用管、晏。今之所任,腹背之毛耳。論外則有勉、捨,說內則有雲、
H01n0001_p0266a22║旻。雲、旻所議則傷俗盛法,勉、捨之志唯原安枕江東。主慈臣恇,息謀外
H01n0001_p0266a23║甸,使中國士女南望懷冤,若賈誼重生,豈不慟哭。臣今直言犯顏,罪或容
H01n0001_p0266a24║宥,而乖忤貴臣,則禍在不測。所以不憚鼎鑊區區必聞者,正以社稷計重
H01n0001_p0266a25║而螻蟻命輕。使臣言入身滅,臣何所恨……
H01n0001_p0266a26║  時帝大弘釋典,將以易俗,故祖深尤言其事,條以為:
H01n0001_p0266a27║  都下佛寺五百餘所,窮極宏麗。僧尼十餘萬,資產豐沃。所在郡縣,
H01n0001_p0266a28║不可勝言。道人又有白徒,尼則皆畜養女,皆不貫人籍,天下戶口幾亡其
H01n0001_p0266a29║半。而僧尼多非法,養女皆服羅紈,其蠹俗傷法,抑由於此。請精加檢括,
H01n0001_p0266a30║若無道行,四十已下,皆使還俗附農。罷白徒養女,聽畜奴婢。婢唯著青
H01n0001_p0267a01║布衣,僧尼皆令蔬食。如此,則法興俗盛,國富人殷。不然,恐方來處處成
H01n0001_p0267a02║寺,家家剃落,尺土一人,非復國有。
H01n0001_p0267a03║  杜按:《梁書》不見《郭祖深傳》。
H01n0001_p0267a04║    (《南史》卷七十《循吏.郭祖深傳》1720)
H01n0001_p0267a05║
H01n0001_p0267a06║   張普惠上疏論佛教
H01n0001_p0267a07║  (張)普惠又表乞朝直之日,時聽奉見。自此之後,月一陛見。又以
H01n0001_p0267a08║肅宗不親視朝,過崇佛法,郊廟之事,多委有司,上疏曰:「臣聞明德卹祀,
H01n0001_p0267a09║成湯光六百之祚;嚴父配天,孔子稱周公其人也。故能馨香上聞,福傳遐
H01n0001_p0267a10║世。伏惟陛下重暉纂統,欽明文思,天地屬心,百神佇望。故宜敦崇祀禮,
H01n0001_p0267a11║咸秩無文。而告朔朝廟,不親於明堂;嘗禘郊社,多委於有司。觀射游苑,
H01n0001_p0267a12║躍馬騁中,危而非典,豈清蹕之意。殖不思之冥業,損巨費於生民。減祿
H01n0001_p0267a13║削力,近供無事之僧;崇飾雲殿,遠邀未然之報。昧爽之臣,稽首於外;玄
H01n0001_p0267a14║寂之眾,遨遊於內。愆禮忤時,人靈未穆。愚謂從朝夕之因,求秖劫之果,
H01n0001_p0267a15║未若先萬國之忻心,以事其親,使天下和平,災害不生者也。伏願淑慎威
H01n0001_p0267a16║儀,萬邦作式,躬致郊廟之虔,親紆朔望之禮,釋奠成均,竭心千畝,明發不
H01n0001_p0267a17║寐。潔誠禋祼,孝悌可以通神明,德教可以光四海,則一人有喜,兆民賴
H01n0001_p0267a18║之。然後精進三寶,信心如來。道由禮深,故諸漏可盡;法隨禮積,故彼岸
H01n0001_p0267a19║可登。量撤僧寺不急之華,還復百官久折之秩。已興之構,務從簡成;將
H01n0001_p0267a20║來之造,權令停息。仍舊亦可,何必改作。庶節用愛人,法俗俱賴。臣學
H01n0001_p0267a21║不經遠,言多孟浪,忝職其憂,不敢默爾。」尋別敕付外,議釋奠之禮。
H01n0001_p0267a22║    (《魏書》卷七十八《張普惠傳》1737)
H01n0001_p0267a23║
H01n0001_p0267a24║   張普惠上疏論佛教
H01n0001_p0267a25║  (張)普惠又表乞朝直之日,時聽奉見。自此之後,月一陛見。又以
H01n0001_p0267a26║孝明不親視朝,過崇佛法,郊廟之事,多委有司,上疏曰:「伏惟陛下重暉
H01n0001_p0267a27║纂統,欽明文思,天地屬心,百神佇望。伏願躬致郊廟之虔,親紆朔望之
H01n0001_p0267a28║澤,釋奠成均,竭心千畝,明發不寐。潔誠禋祼,孝弟可以通神明,德教可
H01n0001_p0267a29║以光四海。然後精進三寶,信心如求。道由化深,故諸漏可盡;法隨禮積,
H01n0001_p0267a30║故彼岸可登。量撤僧寺不急之華,還復百官久折之秩。已興之構,務從簡
H01n0001_p0268a01║成;將來之造,權令停息。但仍舊貫,亦何必改作。庶節用愛人,法俗俱
H01n0001_p0268a02║賴。」尋別敕付外,議釋奠之禮。
H01n0001_p0268a03║    (《北史》卷四十六《張普惠傳》1695)
H01n0001_p0268a04║
H01n0001_p0268a05║   杜弼論佛性
H01n0001_p0268a06║  (杜弼)奉使詣闕,魏帝見之於九龍殿,曰:「朕始讀《莊子》,便值奏
H01n0001_p0268a07║名,定是體道得真,玄同齊物。聞卿精學,聊有所問。經中佛性、法性為一
H01n0001_p0268a08║為異?」弼對曰:「佛性、法性,止是一理。」詔又問曰:「佛性即非法性,何得
H01n0001_p0268a09║為一?」對曰:「性無不在,故不說二。」詔又問曰:「說者皆言法性寬,佛性
H01n0001_p0268a10║狹,寬狹既別,非二如何?」弼又對曰:「在寬成寬,在狹成狹,若論性體,非
H01n0001_p0268a11║寬非狹。」詔問曰:「既言成寬成狹,何得非狹非寬?若定是狹,亦不能成
H01n0001_p0268a12║寬。」對曰:「以非寬狹,故能成寬狹,寬狹所成雖異,能成恆一。」上悅稱
H01n0001_p0268a13║善。乃引入經書庫,賜《地持經》一部,帛一百疋……弼性好名理,探味玄
H01n0001_p0268a14║宗,自在軍旅,帶經從役。注老子《道行經》二卷,表上之曰:……詔答云:
H01n0001_p0268a15║「李君游神冥窅,獨觀恍惚,玄同造化,宗極群有。從中被外,周應可以裁
H01n0001_p0268a16║成;自己及物,運行可以資用。隆家寧國,義屬斯文。卿才思優洽,業尚通
H01n0001_p0268a17║遠,息棲儒門,馳騁玄肆,既啟專家之學,且暢釋老之言。戶列門張,途通
H01n0001_p0268a18║徑達,理事兼申,能用俱表,彼賢所未悟,遺老所未聞,旨極精微,言窮深
H01n0001_p0268a19║妙。朕有味二《經》,倦於舊說,歷覽新注,所得已多,嘉尚之來,良非一
H01n0001_p0268a20║緒。已敕殺青編,藏之延閣。」又上一本於高祖,一本於世宗。……六年
H01n0001_p0268a21║四月八日,魏帝集名僧於顯陽殿講說佛理,弼與吏部尚書楊愔、中書邢邵,
H01n0001_p0268a22║秘書監魏收等並侍法筵。敕弼升師子座,當從敷演。昭玄都僧達及僧道
H01n0001_p0268a23║順並緇林之英,問難鋒至,往復數十番,莫有能屈。帝曰:「此賢若生孔
H01n0001_p0268a24║門,則何如也?」……常與邢邵扈從東山,共論名理。邢以為人死還生,恐
H01n0001_p0268a25║為蛇畫足。弼答曰:「蓋謂人死歸無,非有能生之力。然物之未生,本亦
H01n0001_p0268a26║無也。無而能有,不以為疑。因前生後,何獨致怪?」邢云:「聖人設教,本
H01n0001_p0268a27║由勸獎,故懼以將來,理望各遂其性。」弼曰:「聖人合德天地,齊信四時,
H01n0001_p0268a28║言則為經,行則為法,而云以虛示物,以詭勸民,將同魚腹之書,有異鑿楹
H01n0001_p0268a29║之誥,安得使北辰降光,龍宮韞櫝。既如所論,福果可以鎔鑄性靈,弘獎風
H01n0001_p0268a30║教,為益之大,莫極於斯。此即真教,何謂非實?」邢云:「死之言『澌』,精
H01n0001_p0269a01║神盡也。」弼曰:「此所言澌,如射箭盡,手中盡也。《小雅》曰『無草不
H01n0001_p0269a02║死』,《月令》又云『靡草死』,動植雖殊,亦此之類。無性之卉,尚得還生,
H01n0001_p0269a03║含靈之物,何妨再造。若云草死猶有種在,則復人死亦有識。識種不見,
H01n0001_p0269a04║謂以為無者。神之在形,亦非自矚,離朱之明不能睹。雖蔣濟觀眸,賢愚
H01n0001_p0269a05║可察,鍾生聽曲,山水呈狀。乃神之工,豈神之質。鋒玉帛之非禮,鐘鼓之
H01n0001_p0269a06║非樂,以此而推,義斯見矣。」邢云:「季札言無不之,亦言散盡,若復聚而
H01n0001_p0269a07║為物,不得言無不之也。」弼曰:「骨肉下歸於土,魂氣則無不之,此乃形墜
H01n0001_p0269a08║魂遊,往而非盡。如鳥出巢,如蛇出穴。由其尚有,故無所不之;若令無
H01n0001_p0269a09║也,之將焉適?延陵有察微之識,知其不隨於形;仲尼發習禮之歎,美其斯
H01n0001_p0269a10║與形別。若許以廓然,然則人皆季子。不謂高論,執此為無。」邢云:「神
H01n0001_p0269a11║之在人,猶光之在燭,燭盡則光窮,人死則神滅。」弼曰:「舊學前儒,每有
H01n0001_p0269a12║斯語,群疑眾惑,咸由此起。蓋辨之者未精,思之者不篤。竊有末見,可以
H01n0001_p0269a13║核諸。燭則因質生光,質大光亦大;人則神不係形,形小神不小。故仲尼
H01n0001_p0269a14║之智,必不短於長狄;孟德之雄,乃遠奇於崔琰。神之於形,亦猶君之有
H01n0001_p0269a15║國。國實君之所統,君非國之所生。不與同生,孰云俱滅?」邢云:「捨此
H01n0001_p0269a16║適彼,生生恆在。周、孔自應同莊周之鼓缶,和桑扈之循歌?」弼曰:「共陰
H01n0001_p0269a17║而息,尚有將別之悲;窮轍以游,亦興中途之歎。況曰聯體同氣,化為異
H01n0001_p0269a18║物,稱情之服,何害於聖。」邢云:「鷹化為鳩,鼠變為鴽,黃母為鱉,皆是生
H01n0001_p0269a19║之類也。類化而相生,猶光去此燭,復然彼燭。」弼曰:「鷹未化為鳩,鳩則
H01n0001_p0269a20║非有。鼠。既非二有,何可兩立。光去此燭,得燃彼燭,神去此形,亦托彼
H01n0001_p0269a21║形,又何惑哉?」邢云:「欲使土化為人,木生眼鼻,造化神明,不應如此。」
H01n0001_p0269a22║弼曰:「腐草為螢,老木為蠍,造化不能,誰其然也?」
H01n0001_p0269a23║  其後,別與邢書云:「夫建言明理,宜出典證,而違孔背釋,獨為君子。
H01n0001_p0269a24║若不師聖,物各有心,馬首欲東,誰其能御。奚取於適衷,何貴於得一。逸
H01n0001_p0269a25║韻雖高,管見未喻。」前後往復再三,邢邵理屈而止,文多不載。
H01n0001_p0269a26║    (《北齊書》卷二十四《杜弼傳》348)
H01n0001_p0269a27║
H01n0001_p0269a28║   杜弼論佛性
H01n0001_p0269a29║  (杜弼)奉使詣闕,魏帝見之九龍殿,曰:「聞卿精學,聊有所問。經中
H01n0001_p0269a30║佛性法性,為一為異?」弼曰:「正是一理。」又問曰:「說者妄,皆言法性寬,
H01n0001_p0270a01║佛性狹,如何?」弼曰:「在寬成寬,在狹成狹,若論性體,非狹非寬。」詔曰:
H01n0001_p0270a02║「既言成寬成狹,何得非狹非寬?」弼曰:「若定是寬,則不能為狹;若定是
H01n0001_p0270a03║狹,亦不能為寬。以非寬非狹,所成雖異,能成恆一。」上稱善,引入經庫,
H01n0001_p0270a04║賜《地持經》一部,帛百疋。弼性好名理,探味玄宗,在軍恆帶經行。注老
H01n0001_p0270a05║子《道行經》二卷,表上之。遷廷尉卿……後魏帝集名僧於顯陽殿講說佛
H01n0001_p0270a06║理,敕弼升師子座,莫有能屈。帝歎曰:「此賢若生孔門,則何如也!」……
H01n0001_p0270a07║常與邢邵扈從東山,共論名理。邢以為人死還生,恐是為蛇畫足。弼曰:
H01n0001_p0270a08║「物之未生,本亦無也。無而能有,不以為疑;因前生後,何獨致怪?」邢
H01n0001_p0270a09║云:「聖人設教,本由勸獎,故懼以有來,望各遂其性。」弼曰:「聖人合德天
H01n0001_p0270a10║地,齊信四時,言則為經,行則為法,而云以虛示物,以詭勸人,安得使北辰
H01n0001_p0270a11║降光,龍宮韞櫝。既如所論,福果可以鎔鑄性靈,弘獎風教,為益之大,莫
H01n0001_p0270a12║極於斯。此即真教,何謂非實?」邢云:「季札言無不之,亦言散盡,若復聚
H01n0001_p0270a13║而為物,不得言無不之也。」弼曰:「骨肉下歸於土,魂氣則無不之,此乃形
H01n0001_p0270a14║墜魂遊,往而非盡。由其尚有,故云無所不之。若也全無,之將焉適?」邢
H01n0001_p0270a15║云:「神之在人,猶光之在燭,燭盡則光窮,人死則神滅。」弼曰:「燭則因質
H01n0001_p0270a16║生光,質大光亦大;人則神不係形,形小神不小。故仲尼之智,必不短於長
H01n0001_p0270a17║狄;孟德之雄,乃遠奇於崔琰。」其後,別與邢書,前後往復再三,邢理屈而
H01n0001_p0270a18║止。
H01n0001_p0270a19║    (《北史》卷五十五《杜弼傳》1987)
H01n0001_p0270a20║
H01n0001_p0270a21║   元和六年中書門下奏
H01n0001_p0270a22║  (元和六年六月中書門下奏:)國家自天寶已後,中原宿兵,見在軍士
H01n0001_p0270a23║可使者八十餘萬。其餘浮為商販,度為僧道,雜入色役,不歸農桑者,又十
H01n0001_p0270a24║有五六。則是天下常以三分勞筋苦骨之人,奉七分坐衣待食之輩。今內
H01n0001_p0270a25║外官給俸料者不下一萬餘員,其間有職出異名,奉離本局,府寺曠廢,簪組
H01n0001_p0270a26║因循者甚眾。
H01n0001_p0270a27║    (《舊唐書》卷十四《憲宗紀上》435)
H01n0001_p0270a28║
H01n0001_p0271a01║   殷侑擅制戒壇
H01n0001_p0271a02║  (寶歷二年三月)辛未,江西觀察使殷侑請於洪州寶歷寺置僧尼戒
H01n0001_p0271a03║壇,敕殷侑故違制令,擅置戒壇,罰一季俸料。
H01n0001_p0271a04║    (《舊唐書》卷十七上《敬宗紀上》519)
H01n0001_p0271a05║
H01n0001_p0271a06║   沈傅奏請起方等戒壇
H01n0001_p0271a07║  (太和三年)冬十月戊申朔。己酉,江西沈傅師奏:皇帝誕月,請為僧
H01n0001_p0271a08║尼起方等戒壇。詔曰:「不度僧尼,累有敕命。傅師忝為藩守,合奉詔條,
H01n0001_p0271a09║誘致愚妄,庸非理道,宜罰一月俸料。」
H01n0001_p0271a10║    (《舊唐書》卷十七上《文宗紀上》533)
H01n0001_p0271a11║
H01n0001_p0271a12║   僧徒、道士講論於麟德殿
H01n0001_p0271a13║  (太和七年)冬十月癸未朔,揚州江都等七縣水,害稼。壬辰,上降誕
H01n0001_p0271a14║日,僧徒、道士講論於麟德殿。翌日,御延英,上謂宰臣曰:「降誕日設齋,
H01n0001_p0271a15║起自近代。朕緣相承已久,未可便革,雖置齋會,唯對王源中等暫入殿,至
H01n0001_p0271a16║僧道講論,都不臨聽。」宰相路隨等奏:「誕日設齋會,誠資景福,本非中國
H01n0001_p0271a17║教法。臣伏見開元十七年張說、源乾曜請以誕日為千秋節,內外宴樂,以
H01n0001_p0271a18║慶昌期,頗為得禮。」上深然之,宰臣因請十月十日為慶成節,上誕日也。
H01n0001_p0271a19║從之。
H01n0001_p0271a20║    (《舊唐書》卷十七下《文宗紀下》552)
H01n0001_p0271a21║
H01n0001_p0271a22║   會昌四年敕
H01n0001_p0271a23║  (會昌)四年春正月乙酉朔,以澤潞用兵,罷元會。其日,楊弁逐太原
H01n0001_p0271a24║節度使李石。敕:「齋月斷屠,出於釋氏,國家創業,猶近梁、隋,卿相大
H01n0001_p0271a25║臣,或沿茲弊。鼓刀者既獲厚利,糾察者潛受請求。正月以萬物生植之
H01n0001_p0271a26║初,宜斷三日。列聖忌斷一日。仍准開元二十二年敕,三元日各斷三日,
H01n0001_p0271a27║餘月不禁。」壬子,河東監軍使呂義忠收復太原,生擒楊弁,盡斬其亂卒,
H01n0001_p0271a28║百僚稱賀。
H01n0001_p0271a29║    (《舊唐書》卷十八上《武宗紀》599)
H01n0001_p0271a30║
H01n0001_p0272a01║   史臣論唐武宗削浮圖之法
H01n0001_p0272a02║  史臣曰:……(武宗)於是削浮圖之法,懲遊惰之民,志欲矯步丹梯,
H01n0001_p0272a03║求珠赤水。徒見蕭衍、姚興之謬學,不悟秦王、漢武之非求,盡惑於左道之
H01n0001_p0272a04║言,偏斥異方之說。況身毒西來之教,向欲千祀,蚩蚩之民,習以成俗,畏
H01n0001_p0272a05║其教甚於國法,樂其徒不異登仙。如文身祝髮之鄉,久習而莫知其醜;以
H01n0001_p0272a06║吐火吞刀之戲,乍觀而便以為神。安可正之以《咸》、《韶》,律之以章甫。
H01n0001_p0272a07║加以笮融、何充之佞,代不乏人,非荀卿、孟子之賢,誰與正論。一朝隳殘
H01n0001_p0272a08║金狄,燔棄胡書,結怨於膜拜之流,犯怒於鄙夫之口。哲王之舉,不駭物
H01n0001_p0272a09║情,前代存而勿論,實為中道。欲革斯弊,以俟河清,昭肅明照,聽斯弊矣。
H01n0001_p0272a10║    (《舊唐書》卷十八上《武宗紀》610)
H01n0001_p0272a11║
H01n0001_p0272a12║   陳商議廢弘敬寺為太廟事
H01n0001_p0272a13║  會昌五年,留守李石因太微宮正殿圮墮,以廢弘敬寺為太廟,迎神主
H01n0001_p0272a14║祔之。又下百僚議,皆言准故事,無兩都俱置之禮,唯禮部侍郎陳商議云:
H01n0001_p0272a15║「周之文、武,有鎬、洛二廟,令兩都異廟可也。然不宜置主於廟,主宜依
H01n0001_p0272a16║禮瘞於廟之北墉下。」事未行而武宗崩。宣宗即位,因詔有司迎太微宮寓
H01n0001_p0272a17║主,祔廢寺之新廟,而知禮者非之。
H01n0001_p0272a18║    (《舊唐書》卷十八下《宣宗紀》614)
H01n0001_p0272a19║
H01n0001_p0272a20║   史臣曰「報應必無」
H01n0001_p0272a21║  史臣曰:臣常接咸通耆老,言恭惠皇帝故事……然器本中庸,流於近
H01n0001_p0272a22║習,所親者巷伯,所暱者桑門。以蠱惑之侈言,亂驕淫之方寸,欲無怠忽,
H01n0001_p0272a23║其可得乎!……然猶削軍賦而飾伽藍,因民財而修淨業,以諛佞為愛己,
H01n0001_p0272a24║謂忠諫為妖言……是以干戈布野,蟲旱彌年,佛骨才入於應門,龍輴已泣
H01n0001_p0272a25║於蒼野,報應無必,斯其驗歟!土德凌夷,禍階於此。
H01n0001_p0272a26║    (《舊唐書》卷十九上《懿宗紀》684)
H01n0001_p0272a27║
H01n0001_p0272a28║   蕭昕又奏
H01n0001_p0272a29║  及(永泰二年)二月朔上丁釋奠,蕭昕又奏:諸宰相元載、杜鴻漸、李
H01n0001_p0272a30║抱玉及常參官、六軍軍將就國子學聽講論,賜錢五百貫。令京兆尹黎幹造
H01n0001_p0273a01║食。集諸儒、道、僧,質問竟日。此禮久廢,一朝能舉。
H01n0001_p0273a02║    (《舊唐書》卷二十四《禮儀四》923)
H01n0001_p0273a03║
H01n0001_p0273a04║   長孫皇后論佛教
H01n0001_p0273a05║  (貞觀)八年(長孫皇后)從幸九成宮,染疾危惙,太子承乾入侍,密啟
H01n0001_p0273a06║后曰:「醫藥備盡,尊體不療,請奏赦囚徒,並度人入道,冀蒙福助。」后曰:
H01n0001_p0273a07║「死生有命,非人力所加。若修福可延,吾素非為惡;若行善無效,何福可
H01n0001_p0273a08║求。赦者國之大事,佛道者示存異方之教耳,非惟政體靡弊,又是上所不
H01n0001_p0273a09║為,豈以吾一婦人而亂天下法?」承乾不敢奏,以告左僕射房玄齡,玄齡以
H01n0001_p0273a10║聞,太宗及侍臣莫不歔欷。朝臣咸請肆赦,太宗從之,后聞之固爭,乃止。
H01n0001_p0273a11║    (《舊唐書》卷五十一《后妃上》2166)
H01n0001_p0273a12║
H01n0001_p0273a13║   長孫皇后論佛教
H01n0001_p0273a14║  (長孫皇后)從幸九成宮,方屬疾,會柴紹等急變聞,帝甲而起,后輿
H01n0001_p0273a15║疾以從,宮司諫止,后曰:「上震驚,吾可自安?」疾稍亟,太子欲請大赦,汎
H01n0001_p0273a16║度道人,祓塞災會。后曰:「死生有命,非人力所支。若修福可延,吾不為
H01n0001_p0273a17║惡;使善無效,我尚何求?且赦令,國大事,佛、老異方教耳,皆上所不為,
H01n0001_p0273a18║豈宜以吾亂天下法!」太子不敢奏,以告房玄齡,玄齡以聞,帝嗟美。
H01n0001_p0273a19║    (《新唐書》卷七十六《后妃傳上》3471)
H01n0001_p0273a20║
H01n0001_p0273a21║   懿宗喜佛道,蕭倣諫之
H01n0001_p0273a22║  咸通初,為左散騎常侍。懿宗怠政事,喜佛道,引桑門入禁中為禱祠
H01n0001_p0273a23║事,數幸佛廬,廣施予。(蕭)倣諫,以為:「天竺法割愛取滅,非帝王所尚
H01n0001_p0273a24║慕。今筆梵言,口佛音,不若懲謬賞濫罰,振殃祈福。況佛者可以悟取,不
H01n0001_p0273a25║可以相求。」帝雖昏從,猶嘉歎其言。後官數遷,拜義成軍節度使。
H01n0001_p0273a26║    (《新唐書》卷一百一《蕭瑀傳附蕭倣傳》3960)
H01n0001_p0273a27║
H01n0001_p0273a28║   孫令問論殺生
H01n0001_p0273a29║  令問雖特承恩寵,未嘗干預時政,深為物論所稱。然厚於自奉,食饌
H01n0001_p0273a30║豐侈,廣畜芻豢,躬臨宰殺。時方奉佛,其篤信之士或譏之,令問曰:「此
H01n0001_p0274a01║物畜生,與果菜何異,胡為強生分別,不亦遠於道乎?」略不以恩眄自恃,
H01n0001_p0274a02║閒適郊野,縱禽自娛。
H01n0001_p0274a03║    (《舊唐書》卷六十七《李靖傳附李令瓿傳》2482)
H01n0001_p0274a04║
H01n0001_p0274a05║   韋嗣立上疏
H01n0001_p0274a06║  景龍三年,(韋嗣立)轉兵部尚書、同中書門下三品。時中宗崇飾寺
H01n0001_p0274a07║觀,又濫食封邑者眾,國用虛竭。(韋)嗣立上疏諫曰:……臣竊見比者營
H01n0001_p0274a08║造寺觀,其數極多,皆務取宏博,競崇環麗。大則費耗百十萬,小則尚用三
H01n0001_p0274a09║五萬餘,略計都用資財,動至千萬已上。轉運木石,人牛不停,廢人功,害
H01n0001_p0274a10║農務,事既非急,時多怨咨。故《書》曰:「不作無益害有益,功乃成;不貴
H01n0001_p0274a11║異物賤用物,民乃足。」誠哉此言,非虛談也。且玄旨秘妙,歸於空寂,苟
H01n0001_p0274a12║非修心定慧,諸法皆涉有為。至如土木雕刻等功,唯是殫竭人力,但學相
H01n0001_p0274a13║誇壯麗,豈關降伏身心。且凡所興功,皆須掘鑿,蟄蟲在土,種類實多。每
H01n0001_p0274a14║日殺傷,動盈萬計,連年如此,損害可知。聖人慈悲為心,豈有須行此事,
H01n0001_p0274a15║不然之理,皎在目前。世俗眾僧,未通其旨,不慮府庫空竭,不思聖人憂
H01n0001_p0274a16║勞,謂廣樹福田,即是增修法教。倘水旱為災,人至饑餒,夷狄作梗,兵無
H01n0001_p0274a17║資糧,陛下雖有龍象如雲,伽藍概日,豈能裨萬分之一,救元元之苦哉!於
H01n0001_p0274a18║道法既有乖,在生人極為損,陛下豈可不深思之!
H01n0001_p0274a19║    (《舊唐書》卷八十八《韋恩謙傳附韋嗣立傳》2870)
H01n0001_p0274a20║
H01n0001_p0274a21║   韋嗣立建言
H01n0001_p0274a22║  (韋)嗣立建言:……伏見營立寺觀,累年不絕,鴻侈繁麗,務相矜勝,
H01n0001_p0274a23║大抵費常千萬以上。轉徒木石,廢功害農;地藏開發,蟄蟲傷露。上聖至
H01n0001_p0274a24║慈,理必不然。准之道法則乖,質之生人則損。陛下豈不是思?
H01n0001_p0274a25║    (《新唐書》卷一百一十六《韋恩謙傳附韋嗣立傳》4232)
H01n0001_p0274a26║
H01n0001_p0274a27║   狄仁傑上疏諫武則天造大像
H01n0001_p0274a28║  (武)則天又將造大像,用功數百萬,令天下僧尼每日人出一錢,以助
H01n0001_p0274a29║成之。(狄)仁傑上疏諫曰:
H01n0001_p0274a30║  臣聞為政之本,必先人事。陛下矜群生迷謬,溺喪無歸,欲令像教兼
H01n0001_p0275a01║行,睹相生善。非為塔廟必欲崇奢,豈令僧此皆須檀施?得筏尚捨,而況
H01n0001_p0275a02║其餘。今之伽藍,制過宮闕,窮奢極壯,畫繢盡工,寶珠殫於綴飾,環材竭
H01n0001_p0275a03║於輪奐。工不使鬼,止在役人,物不天來,終須地出,不損百姓,將何以求?
H01n0001_p0275a04║生之有時,用之無度,編戶所奉,常若不充,痛切肌膚,不辭箠楚。游僧一
H01n0001_p0275a05║說,矯陳禍福,翦髮解衣,仍慚其少。亦有離間骨肉,事均路人,身自納妻,
H01n0001_p0275a06║謂無彼我。皆托佛法,詿誤生人。里陌動有經坊,闤闠亦立精舍。化誘倍
H01n0001_p0275a07║急,切於宮征,法事所須,嚴於制敕。膏腴美業,倍取其多;水碾莊園,數亦
H01n0001_p0275a08║非少。逃丁避罪,並集法門,無名之僧,凡有幾萬,都下檢括,已得數千。
H01n0001_p0275a09║且一夫不耕,猶受其弊,浮食者眾,又劫人財。臣每思惟,實所悲痛。
H01n0001_p0275a10║  往在江表,像法盛興,梁武、簡文,捨施無限。其三淮沸浪,五嶺騰
H01n0001_p0275a11║煙。列剎盈衢,無救危亡之禍;緇衣蔽路,豈有勤王之師!比年已來,風塵
H01n0001_p0275a12║屢擾,水旱不節,征役稍繁。家業先空,瘡痍未復,此時興役,力所未堪。
H01n0001_p0275a13║伏惟聖朝,功德無量,何必要營大像,而以勞費為名。雖斂僧錢,百未支
H01n0001_p0275a14║一。尊容既廣,不可露居,覆以百層,尚憂未遍,自餘廊廡,不得全無。又
H01n0001_p0275a15║云不損國財,不傷百姓,以此事主,可謂盡忠?臣今思惟,兼采眾議,咸以
H01n0001_p0275a16║為如來設教,以慈悲為主,下濟群品,應是本心,豈欲勞人,以存虛飾。當
H01n0001_p0275a17║今有事,邊境未寧,宜寬征鎮之徭,省不急之費。設令雇作,皆以利趨,既
H01n0001_p0275a18║失田時,自然棄本。今不樹稼,來歲必饑,役在其中,難以取給。況無官
H01n0001_p0275a19║助,義無得成,若費官財,又盡人力,一隅有難,將何救之!
H01n0001_p0275a20║  則天乃罷其役。是歲九月,病卒,則天為之舉哀,廢朝三日,贈文昌右
H01n0001_p0275a21║相,謚曰文惠。
H01n0001_p0275a22║    (《舊唐書》卷八十九《狄仁傑傳》2893)
H01n0001_p0275a23║
H01n0001_p0275a24║   狄仁傑上疏諫武則天造大像
H01n0001_p0275a25║  (武則天)后將造浮屠大像,度費數百萬,官不能足,更詔天下僧日施
H01n0001_p0275a26║一錢助之。(狄)仁傑諫曰:「工不役鬼,必在役人;物不天降,終由地出。
H01n0001_p0275a27║不損百姓,且將何求?今邊垂未寧,宜寬征鎮之徭,省不急之務。就令顧
H01n0001_p0275a28║作,以濟窮人,既失農時,是為棄本。且無官助,理不得成。既費官財,又
H01n0001_p0275a29║竭人力,一方有難,何以救之?」后由是罷役。
H01n0001_p0275a30║    (《新唐書》卷一百一十五《狄仁傑傳》4213)
H01n0001_p0275a31║
H01n0001_p0276a01║   姚[王*壽]論明堂火
H01n0001_p0276a02║  時武三思率蕃夷酋長,請造天樞於端門外,刻字紀功,以頌周德,[王*壽]為
H01n0001_p0276a03║督作使。證聖初,(姚)[王*壽]加秋官尚書、同平章事。是歲,明堂災,則天欲
H01n0001_p0276a04║責躬避正殿,[王*壽]奏曰:「此實人火,非曰天災。至如成周宣榭,卜代愈隆;
H01n0001_p0276a05║漢武建章,盛德彌永。臣又見《彌勒下生經》云,當彌勒成佛之時,七寶台
H01n0001_p0276a06║須臾散壞。睹此無常之相,便成正覺之因,故知聖人之道,隨緣示化,方
H01n0001_p0276a07║便之利,博濟良多。可使由之,義存於此。況今明堂,乃是布政之所,非宗
H01n0001_p0276a08║廟之地,陛下若避正殿,於禮未為得也。」左拾遺劉承慶廷奏云:「明堂宗
H01n0001_p0276a09║祀之所,今既被焚,陛下宜輟朝思過。」[王*壽]又持前議以爭之,則天乃依[王*壽]
H01n0001_p0276a10║奏。先令[王*壽]監造天樞,至是以功當賜爵一等。[王*壽]表請回贈父一官,乃追贈
H01n0001_p0276a11║其父豫州司戶參軍處平為博州刺史。天后將封嵩岳,命[王*壽]總知撰儀注,並
H01n0001_p0276a12║充封禪副使。及重造明堂,又令[王*壽]充使督作,以功加銀青光祿大夫。
H01n0001_p0276a13║    (《舊唐書》卷八十九《姚[王*壽]傳》2902)
H01n0001_p0276a14║
H01n0001_p0276a15║   姚[王*壽]論明堂火
H01n0001_p0276a16║  證聖初,加秋官尚書。明堂火,后欲避正殿,應天變。(姚)[王*壽]奏:「此
H01n0001_p0276a17║人火,非天災也。昔宣榭火,周世延;建章焚,漢業昌。且彌勒成佛,七寶
H01n0001_p0276a18║台須臾散壞。聖人之道,隨物示化,況明堂布政之宮,非宗廟,不宜避正
H01n0001_p0276a19║殿,貶常禮。」左拾遺劉承慶曰:「明堂所以宗祀,為天所焚,當側身思過,
H01n0001_p0276a20║振除前犯。」[王*壽]挾前語以傾後意。后乃更御端門,大酺,燕群臣,與相娛
H01n0001_p0276a21║樂,遂造天樞著己功德,命[王*壽]為使,董督之。功費浩廣,見金不足,乃斂天
H01n0001_p0276a22║下農器並鑄。以功賜爵一級。后封嵩山,詔[王*壽]總知儀注,為封禪副使。更
H01n0001_p0276a23║造明堂,又以使護作,加銀青光祿大夫。大食使者獻師子,[王*壽]曰:「是獸非
H01n0001_p0276a24║肉不食,自碎葉至都,所費廣矣。陛下鷹犬且不蓄,而厚資養猛獸哉!」有
H01n0001_p0276a25║詔大食停獻。時九鼎成,后欲用黃金塗之。[王*壽]奏:「鼎者,神器,貴質樸,
H01n0001_p0276a26║不待外飾。臣觀其上先有五采雜昈,豈待塗金為符曜耶?」后乃止。
H01n0001_p0276a27║    (《新唐書》卷一百二《姚思廉傳附姚[王*壽]傳》3980)
H01n0001_p0276a28║
H01n0001_p0276a29║   桓彥范表論時政
H01n0001_p0276a30║  (桓)彥范嘗表論時政數條,其大略曰:……「臣聞京師喧喧,道路籍
H01n0001_p0277a01║籍,皆云胡僧慧范矯托佛教,詭惑后妃,故得出入禁闈,撓亂時政。陛下又
H01n0001_p0277a02║輕騎微行,數幸其室,上下媟黷,有虧尊嚴。臣抑嘗聞興化致理,必由進
H01n0001_p0277a03║善;康國寧人,莫大棄惡。故孔子曰:『執左道以亂政者殺,假鬼神以危人
H01n0001_p0277a04║者殺』今慧范之罪,不殊於此也,若不急誅,必生變亂。除惡務本,去邪勿
H01n0001_p0277a05║疑,實願天聰,早加裁貶。」疏奏不納。時有墨敕授方術人鄭普思秘書監,
H01n0001_p0277a06║葉淨能國子祭酒,彥范苦言其不可。帝曰:「既要用之,無容便止。」彥范
H01n0001_p0277a07║又對曰:「陛下自龍飛寶位,遽下制云:『軍國政化,皆依貞觀故事。』昔貞
H01n0001_p0277a08║觀中嘗以魏征、虞世南、顏師古為秘書監,孔穎達為國子祭酒。至如普思
H01n0001_p0277a09║等是方伎庸流,豈足以比蹤前烈?臣恐物議謂陛下官不擇才,濫以天秩加
H01n0001_p0277a10║於私愛。惟陛下少加慎擇。」帝竟不納。
H01n0001_p0277a11║    (《舊唐書》卷九十一《桓彥范傳》2929)
H01n0001_p0277a12║
H01n0001_p0277a13║   郭霸表稱武則天是彌勒佛身
H01n0001_p0277a14║  時有御史郭霸上表稱則天是彌勒佛身,鳳閣舍人張嘉福與洛州人王
H01n0001_p0277a15║慶之等請立武承嗣為皇太子,皆請(張)仁願連名署表,仁願正色拒之,甚
H01n0001_p0277a16║為有識所重。
H01n0001_p0277a17║    (《舊唐書》卷九十三《張仁願傳》2981)
H01n0001_p0277a18║
H01n0001_p0277a19║   李嶠上疏諫武則天於白司馬阪建大像
H01n0001_p0277a20║  長安末,則天將建大像於白司馬阪,(李)嶠上疏諫之,其略曰:「臣以
H01n0001_p0277a21║法王慈敏,菩薩護持,唯擬饒益眾生,非要營修土木。伏聞造像,稅非戶
H01n0001_p0277a22║口,錢出僧尼,不得州縣祗承,必是不能濟辦,終須科率,豈免勞擾!天下
H01n0001_p0277a23║編戶,貧弱者眾,亦有傭力客作以濟餱糧,亦有賣舍貼田以供王役。造像
H01n0001_p0277a24║錢見有一十七萬餘貫,若將散施,廣濟貧窮,人與一千,濟得一十七萬餘
H01n0001_p0277a25║戶。拯饑寒之弊,省勞役之勤,順諸佛慈悲之心,沾聖君亭育之意,人神胥
H01n0001_p0277a26║悅,功德無窮。」疏奏不納。
H01n0001_p0277a27║    (《舊唐書》卷九十四《李嶠傳》2994)
H01n0001_p0277a28║
H01n0001_p0277a29║   李嶠上疏諫武則天於白司馬阪建大像
H01n0001_p0277a30║  武后將建大像於白司馬阪,(李)嶠諫:「造像雖俾浮屠輸錢,然非州
H01n0001_p0277a31║縣承辦不能濟,是名雖不稅而實稅之。臣計天下編戶,貧弱者眾,有賣舍、
H01n0001_p0278a01║帖田供王役者。今造像錢積十七萬緡,若頒之窮人,家給千錢,則紓十七
H01n0001_p0278a02║萬戶饑寒之苦,德無窮矣。」不納。
H01n0001_p0278a03║    (《新唐書》卷一百二十三《李嶠傳》4368)
H01n0001_p0278a04║
H01n0001_p0278a05║   姚崇論佛教
H01n0001_p0278a06║  先是,中宗時,公主外戚皆奏請度人為僧尼,亦有出私財造寺者,富戶
H01n0001_p0278a07║強丁,皆經營避役,遠近充滿。至是,(姚)崇奏曰:「佛不在外,求之於心。
H01n0001_p0278a08║佛圖澄最賢,無益於全趙;羅什多藝,不救於亡秦。何充、苻融,皆遭敗滅;
H01n0001_p0278a09║齊襄、梁武,未免災殃。但發心慈悲,行事利益,使蒼生安樂,既是佛身。
H01n0001_p0278a10║何用妄度奸人,令壞正法?」上納其言,令有司隱括僧徒,以偽濫還俗者萬
H01n0001_p0278a11║二千餘人。
H01n0001_p0278a12║    (《舊唐書》卷九十六《姚崇傳》3023)
H01n0001_p0278a13║
H01n0001_p0278a14║   姚崇論佛教
H01n0001_p0278a15║  崇先分其田園,令諸子侄各守其分,仍為遺令以誡子孫,其略曰:……
H01n0001_p0278a16║今之佛經,羅什所譯,姚興執本,與什對翻。姚興造浮屠於永貴里,傾竭府
H01n0001_p0278a17║庫,廣事莊嚴,而興命不得延,國亦隨滅。又齊跨山東,周據關右,周則多
H01n0001_p0278a18║除佛法而修繕兵威,齊則廣置僧徒而依憑佛力。及至交戰,齊氏滅亡,國
H01n0001_p0278a19║既不存,寺復何有?修福之報,何其蔑如!梁武帝以萬乘為奴,胡太后以
H01n0001_p0278a20║六宮入道,豈特身戮名辱,皆以亡國破家。近日孝和皇帝發使贖生,傾國
H01n0001_p0278a21║造寺,太平公主、武三思、悖逆庶人、張夫人等皆度人造寺,竟術彌街,咸不
H01n0001_p0278a22║免受戮破家,為天下所笑,經云:「求長命得長命,求富貴得富貴」,「刀尋
H01n0001_p0278a23║段段壞,火坑變成池」。比來緣精進得富貴長命者為誰?生前易知,尚覺
H01n0001_p0278a24║無應,身後難究,誰見有征。且五帝之時,父不葬子,兄不哭弟,言其致仁
H01n0001_p0278a25║壽、無夭橫也。三王之代,國祚延長,人用休息,其人臣則彭祖、老聃之類,
H01n0001_p0278a26║皆享遐齡。當此之時,未有佛教,豈抄經鑄像之力,設齋施物之功耶?
H01n0001_p0278a27║《宋書》、《西域傳》,有名僧為《白黑論》,理證明白,足解沈疑,宜觀而行之。
H01n0001_p0278a28║  且佛者覺也,在乎方寸,假有萬像之廣,不出五蘊之中,但平等慈悲,
H01n0001_p0278a29║行善不行惡,則佛道備矣。何必溺於小說,惑於凡僧,仍將喻品,用為實
H01n0001_p0279a01║錄,抄經寫像,破業傾家,乃至施身亦無所吝,可謂大惑也。亦有緣亡人造
H01n0001_p0279a02║像,名為追福,方便之教,雖則多端,功德須自發心,旁助寧應獲報?遞相
H01n0001_p0279a03║欺誑,浸成風俗,損耗生人,無益亡者。假有通才達識,亦為時俗所拘。如
H01n0001_p0279a04║來普慈,意存利物,損眾生之不足,厚豪僧之有餘,必不然矣。且死者是
H01n0001_p0279a05║常,古來不免,所造經像,何所施為?
H01n0001_p0279a06║  夫釋伽之本法,為蒼生之大弊,汝等名宜警策,正法在心,勿效兒女子
H01n0001_p0279a07║曹,終身不悟也。吾亡後必不得為此弊法。若未能全依正道,須順俗情,
H01n0001_p0279a08║從初七至終七,任設七僧齋。若隨齋須佈施,宜以吾緣身衣物充,不得輒
H01n0001_p0279a09║用餘財,為無益之枉事,亦不得妄出私物,徇追福之虛談。
H01n0001_p0279a10║  道士者,本以玄牝為宗,初無趨競之教,而無識者慕僧家之有利,約佛
H01n0001_p0279a11║教而為業。敬尋老君之說,亦無過齋之文,抑同僧例,失之彌遠。汝等勿
H01n0001_p0279a12║拘鄙俗,輒屈於家。汝等身沒之後,亦教子孫依吾此法云。
H01n0001_p0279a13║    (《舊唐書》卷九十六《姚崇傳》3026)
H01n0001_p0279a14║
H01n0001_p0279a15║   姚崇論佛教
H01n0001_p0279a16║  (姚)崇因跪奏:「臣願以十事聞,陛下度不可行,臣敢辭。」帝曰:「試
H01n0001_p0279a17║為朕言之。」崇曰:「垂拱以來,以峻法繩下;臣願政先仁恕,可乎?……武
H01n0001_p0279a18║后造福先寺,上皇造金仙、玉真二觀,費鉅百萬;臣請絕道佛營造,可
H01n0001_p0279a19║乎?……」中宗時,近戚奏度僧尼,溫戶強丁因避賦役。至是(姚)崇建言:
H01n0001_p0279a20║「佛不在外,悟之於心。行事利益,使蒼生安穩,是謂佛理。烏用奸人以
H01n0001_p0279a21║汩真教?」帝善之,詔天下汰僧偽濫,發而農者餘萬二千人。
H01n0001_p0279a22║    (《新唐書》卷一百二十四《姚崇傳》4383)
H01n0001_p0279a23║
H01n0001_p0279a24║   姚崇論佛教
H01n0001_p0279a25║  (姚)崇析貲產,令諸子各有定分。治令曰:……今之佛經,羅什所
H01n0001_p0279a26║譯,姚興與之對翻,而興命不延,國亦隨滅。梁武帝身為寺奴,齊胡太后以
H01n0001_p0279a27║六宮入道,皆亡國殄家。近孝和皇帝發使贖生,太平公主、武三思等度人
H01n0001_p0279a28║造寺,身嬰夷戮,為天下笑。五帝之時,父不喪子,兄不哭弟,致仁壽,無凶
H01n0001_p0279a29║短也。下逮三王,國祚延久,其臣則彭祖、老聃皆得長齡,此時無佛,豈抄
H01n0001_p0279a30║經鑄像力邪?緣死喪造經像,以為追福。夫死者生之常,古所不免,彼經
H01n0001_p0280a01║與像何所施為?兒曹慎不得為此!
H01n0001_p0280a02║    (《新唐書》卷一百二十四《姚崇傳》4386)
H01n0001_p0280a03║
H01n0001_p0280a04║   張廷珪論佛教
H01n0001_p0280a05║  張廷珪,河南濟源人,其先自常州徙焉。廷珪少以文學知名,性慷慨,
H01n0001_p0280a06║有志尚。弱冠應制舉。長安中,累遷監察御史。則天稅天下僧尼出錢,欲
H01n0001_p0280a07║於白司馬阪營建大像。廷珪上疏諫曰:
H01n0001_p0280a08║  夫佛者,以覺知為義,因心而成,不可以諸相見也。經云「若以色見
H01n0001_p0280a09║我,以音聲求我,是人行邪道,不能見如來。」此真如之果不外求也,陛下
H01n0001_p0280a10║信心歸依,發宏誓願,壯其塔廟,廣其尊容,已遍於天下久矣。蓋有住於相
H01n0001_p0280a11║而行佈施,非最上第一希有之法。何以言之?經云:「若人滿三千大千世
H01n0001_p0280a12║界七寶以用佈施,及恆河沙等身命佈施,其福甚多。若人於此經中受持及
H01n0001_p0280a13║四句偈等為人演說,其福勝彼。」如佛所言,則陛下傾四海之財,殫萬人之
H01n0001_p0280a14║力,窮山之木以為塔,極冶之金以為像,雖勞則甚矣,費則多矣,而所獲福
H01n0001_p0280a15║不愈於一禪房之匹夫。
H01n0001_p0280a16║  菩薩作福德,不應貪著,蓋有為之法不足高也。況此營建,事殷木土,
H01n0001_p0280a17║或開發盤礡,峻築基階,或塞穴洞,通轉采斫,輾壓蟲蟻,動盈巨億。豈佛
H01n0001_p0280a18║標坐夏之義,憫蠢動而不忍害其生哉!又役鬼不可,唯人是營,通計工匠,
H01n0001_p0280a19║率多貧窶,朝驅暮役,勞筋苦骨,簞食瓢飲,晨炊星飯,飢渴所致,疾疹交
H01n0001_p0280a20║集。豈佛標徒行之義,憫畜獸而不忍殘其力哉!又營築之資,僧尼是稅,
H01n0001_p0280a21║雖乞丐所致,而貧闕猶多。州縣征輸,星火逼迫,或謀計靡所,或鬻賣以
H01n0001_p0280a22║充,怨聲載路,和氣未洽。豈佛標隨喜之義,憫愚蒙而不忍奪其產哉!且
H01n0001_p0280a23║邊朔未寧,軍裝日給,天下虛竭,海內勞弊。伏惟陛下慎之重之,思菩薩之
H01n0001_p0280a24║行為利益一切眾生,應如是佈施,則其福德若南西北方四維上下虛空不可
H01n0001_p0280a25║思量矣,何必勤於住相,凋蒼生之業,崇不急之務乎!臣以時政論之,則
H01n0001_p0280a26║宜先邊境,蓄府庫,養人力;臣以釋教論之,則宜救苦厄,滅諸相,崇無為。
H01n0001_p0280a27║伏願陛下察臣之愚,行佛之意,務以理為上,不以人廢言,幸甚幸甚。
H01n0001_p0280a28║  則天從其言,即停所作,仍於長生殿召見,深賞慰之。景龍末,為中書
H01n0001_p0280a29║舍人,再轉洪州都督,仍為江南西道按察使。
H01n0001_p0280a30║    (《舊唐書》卷一百一《張廷珪傳》3150)
H01n0001_p0280a31║
H01n0001_p0281a01║   張廷珪論佛教
H01n0001_p0281a02║  張廷珪,河南濟源人……武后稅天下浮屠錢,營佛祠於白司馬阪,作
H01n0001_p0281a03║大象,廷珪諫,以為:「傾四海之財,殫萬民之力,窮山之木為塔,極冶之金為
H01n0001_p0281a04║象,然猶有為之法,不足高也。填塞澗穴,覆壓蟲蟻,且巨億計。工員窮
H01n0001_p0281a05║窶,驅役為勞,飢渴所致,疾疹方作。又僧尼乞丐自贍,而州縣督輸,星火
H01n0001_p0281a06║迫切,鬻賣以充,非浮屠所謂隨喜者。今天下虛竭,蒼生凋弊,謂宜先邊
H01n0001_p0281a07║境,實府庫,養人力。」后善之,召見長生殿,賞慰良厚,因是罷役……神龍
H01n0001_p0281a08║初,詔白司馬阪復營佛祠,廷珪方奉詔抵河北,道出其所,見營築勞亟,懷
H01n0001_p0281a09║不能已,上書切爭,且言:「自中興之初,下詔書,弛不急,斥少監楊務廉,
H01n0001_p0281a10║以示中外。今土木復興,不稱前詔,掘壤伐木,浸害生氣。願罷之,以紓窮
H01n0001_p0281a11║乏。」帝不省。尋為中書舍人。再遷禮部侍郎。
H01n0001_p0281a12║    (《新唐書》卷一百一十八《張廷珪傳》4261)
H01n0001_p0281a13║
H01n0001_p0281a14║   辛替否論佛教
H01n0001_p0281a15║  當今疆場危駭,倉廩空虛,揭竿守禦之士賞不及,肝腦塗地之卒輸不
H01n0001_p0281a16║充。而方大起寺舍,廣造第宅,伐木空山,不足充梁棟,運土塞路,不足充
H01n0001_p0281a17║牆壁。誇古躍今,逾章越制,百僚鉗口,四海傷心。夫釋教者,以清淨為
H01n0001_p0281a18║基,慈悲為主,故當體道以濟物,不欲利己以損人,故常去己以全真,不為
H01n0001_p0281a19║榮身以害教。三時之月,掘山穿池,損命也;殫府虛帑,損人也,廣殿長廊,
H01n0001_p0281a20║榮身也。損命則不慈悲,損人則不濟物,榮身則不清淨,豈大聖神之心乎!
H01n0001_p0281a21║臣以為非真教,非佛意,違時行,違人欲。自像王西下,佛教東傳,青螺不
H01n0001_p0281a22║入於周前,白馬方行於漢後。風流雨散,千帝百王,飾彌盛而國彌空,役彌
H01n0001_p0281a23║重而禍彌大。覆車繼軌,曾不改途,晉臣以佞佛取譏,梁主以捨身構隙。
H01n0001_p0281a24║若以造寺必為其理體,養人不足以經邦,則殷、周已往皆暗亂,漢、魏已降
H01n0001_p0281a25║皆聖明;殷、周已往為不長,漢、魏已降為不短。臣聞夏為天子二十餘代而
H01n0001_p0281a26║殷受之,殷為天子二十餘代而周受之,周為天子三十餘代而秦受之,自漢
H01n0001_p0281a27║已後歷代可知也。何者?有道之長,無道之短,豈因其窮金玉、修塔廟,方
H01n0001_p0281a28║得久長之祚乎?
H01n0001_p0281a29║  臣聞於經曰:「菩薩心住於法而行佈施,如人入暗,既無所見。」又曰:
H01n0001_p0281a30║「一切有為法,如夢幻泡影,如露亦如電。」臣以減雕琢之費以賑貧下,是
H01n0001_p0282a01║有如來之德;息穿掘之苦以全昆蟲,是有如來之仁;罷營構之直以給邊陲,
H01n0001_p0282a02║是有湯、武之功;回不急之祿以購廉清,是有唐、虞之理。陛下緩其所急,
H01n0001_p0282a03║急其所緩,親未來而疏見在,失真實而冀虛無,重俗人之所為而輕天子之
H01n0001_p0282a04║功業,臣竊痛之矣。當今出財依勢者盡度為沙門,避役奸訛者盡度為沙
H01n0001_p0282a05║門;其所未度,唯貧窮與善人。將何以作范乎?將何以役力乎?臣以為出
H01n0001_p0282a06║家者,捨塵俗,離朋黨,無私愛。今殖貨營生,非捨塵俗,拔親樹知,非離朋
H01n0001_p0282a07║黨;畜妻養孥,非無私愛。是致人以毀道,非廣道以求人。伏見今之宮觀
H01n0001_p0282a08║台榭,京師之與洛陽,不增修飾,猶恐奢麗。陛下尚欲填池塹,損苑囿,以
H01n0001_p0282a09║賑貧人無產業者。今天下之寺蓋無其數,一寺當陛下一宮,壯麗之甚矣!
H01n0001_p0282a10║用度過之矣!是十分天下之財而佛有七八,陛下何有之矣!百姓何食之
H01n0001_p0282a11║矣!雖以陰陽為炭,萬物為銅,役不食之人,使不衣之士,猶尚不給。況資
H01n0001_p0282a12║於天生地養,風動雨潤,而後得之乎!臣聞國無九年之儲,國非其國。伏
H01n0001_p0282a13║計倉廩,度府庫,百僚供給,百事用度,臣恐卒歲不充,況九年之積乎!一
H01n0001_p0282a14║旦風塵再擾,霜雹荐臻,沙門不可擐干戈,寺塔不足攘饑饉,臣竊痛之矣!
H01n0001_p0282a15║  疏奏不納。歲餘,安樂公主被誅。
H01n0001_p0282a16║  睿宗即位,又為金仙、玉真公主廣營二觀。先是,中宗時斜封受官人
H01n0001_p0282a17║一切停任,凡數百千人,又有敕放令卻上。替否時為左補闕,又上疏陳時
H01n0001_p0282a18║政曰:……伏以太宗文武聖皇帝,陛下之祖,撥亂反正,開階立極,得至理
H01n0001_p0282a19║之體,設簡要之方。省其官,清其吏,舉天下職司無一虛授,用天下財帛無
H01n0001_p0282a20║一枉費。賞必俟功,官必得俊,所為無不成,所征無不伏。不多造寺觀而
H01n0001_p0282a21║福德自至,不多度僧尼而殃咎自滅。道合乎天地,德通乎神明。故天地憐
H01n0001_p0282a22║之,神明佑之,使陰陽不愆,風雨合度。四人樂其業,五穀逐其成,腐粟爛
H01n0001_p0282a23║帛,填街委巷。千里萬里,貢賦於郊;九夷百蠻,歸款於闕。自有帝皇已
H01n0001_p0282a24║來,未有若斯之神聖者也,故得享國久長,多歷年所,陛下何不取而則之?
H01n0001_p0282a25║  中宗孝和皇帝,陛下之兄,居先人之業,忽先人之化,不取賢良之言,
H01n0001_p0282a26║而恣子女之意。官爵非擇,虛食祿者數千人;封建無功,妄食土者百餘戶。
H01n0001_p0282a27║造寺不止,枉費財者數百億;度人不休,免租庸者數十萬。是使國家所出
H01n0001_p0282a28║加數倍,所入減數倍。倉不停卒歲之儲,庫不貯一時之帛。所惡者逐,逐
H01n0001_p0282a29║多忠良;所愛者賞,賞多讒慝。朋佞喋喋,交相傾動。容身不為於朝廷,保
H01n0001_p0282a30║位皆由於黨附。奪百姓之食,以養殘凶;剝萬人之衣,以塗土木。於是人
H01n0001_p0283a01║怨神怒,親忿眾離,水旱不調,疾疫屢起。遠近殊論,公私罄然。五六年
H01n0001_p0283a02║間,再三禍變,享國不永,受終於凶婦人。寺舍不能保其身,僧尼不能護妻
H01n0001_p0283a03║子,取譏萬代,見笑四夷。此陛下之所眼見也,何不除而改之?
H01n0001_p0283a04║  依太宗之理國,則百官以理,百姓無憂,故太山之安立可致矣;依中宗
H01n0001_p0283a05║之理國,則萬人以怨,百事不寧,故累卵之危立可致矣。頃自夏已來,霪雨
H01n0001_p0283a06║不解,谷荒於壟,麥爛於場。入秋已來,亢旱成災,苗而不實,霜損蟲暴,草
H01n0001_p0283a07║葉枯黃。下人咨嗟,未知周賑;而營寺造觀,日繼於時,檢校試官,充台溢
H01n0001_p0283a08║署。伏惟陛下愛兩女,為造兩觀,燒瓦運木,載土填坑,道路流言,皆云計
H01n0001_p0283a09║用錢百餘萬貫。惟陛下,聖人也,無所不知;陛下,明君也,無所不見。既
H01n0001_p0283a10║知且見,知倉有幾年之儲,庫有幾歲之帛?知百姓之間可存活乎?三邊之
H01n0001_p0283a11║上可轉輸乎?當今發一卒以御邊陲,遣一兵以衛社稷,多無衣食,皆帶饑
H01n0001_p0283a12║寒。賞賜之間,迥無所出,軍旅驟敗,莫不由斯。而乃以百萬貫錢造無用
H01n0001_p0283a13║之觀,以受六合之怨乎!以違萬人之心乎!伏惟陛下續阿韋之醜跡,而不
H01n0001_p0283a14║改阿韋之亂政。忍棄太宗之理本,不忍棄中宗之亂階;忍棄太宗久長之
H01n0001_p0283a15║謀,不忍棄中宗短促之計。陛下又何以繼祖宗、觀萬國?
H01n0001_p0283a16║  昔陛下為皇太子,在阿韋之時,危亡是懼,常切齒於群凶。今貴為天
H01n0001_p0283a17║子,富有海內,而不改群凶之事,臣恐復有切齒於陛下者也,陛下又何以非
H01n0001_p0283a18║群凶而誅之?臣往見明敕,自今已後,一依貞觀故事。且貞觀之時,豈有
H01n0001_p0283a19║今日之造寺營觀,加僧尼道士,益無用之官,行不急之務,而亂政者也!臣
H01n0001_p0283a20║以為棄其言而不行其信,慕其善而不遷其惡,陛下又何以刑於四海?往
H01n0001_p0283a21║者,和帝之憐悖逆也,為奸人之所誤,宗晉卿勸為第宅,趙履溫觀為園亭,
H01n0001_p0283a22║損數百家之居,侵數百家之地。工徒斫而未息,義兵紛以交馳,卒使亭不
H01n0001_p0283a23║得游,宅不得坐。信邪佞之說,成骨肉之刑,此陛下之所眼見也。今茲造
H01n0001_p0283a24║觀,臣必知非陛下、公主之本意,得無趙履溫之徒將勸為之,冀誤其骨肉,
H01n0001_p0283a25║不可不明察也。
H01n0001_p0283a26║  臣聞出家修道者,不預人事,專清其身心,以虛泊為高,以無為為妙,
H01n0001_p0283a27║依兩卷《老子》,視一軀天尊,無慾無營,不損不害。何必璇台玉榭,寶像
H01n0001_p0283a28║珍龕,使人困窮,然後為道哉!且舊觀足可歸依,無造無營,以取窮竭。若
H01n0001_p0283a29║此行之三年,國不富,人不安,朝廷不清,陛下不樂,則臣請殺身於朝,以令
H01n0001_p0283a30║天下言事者。伏惟陛下行非常之惠,權停兩觀,以俟豐年。以兩觀之財,
H01n0001_p0284a01║為公主施貧窮,填府庫,則公主福德無窮矣。不然,臣恐下人怨望,不減於
H01n0001_p0284a02║前朝之時。前朝之時,賢愚知敗,人雖有口而不敢言,言未發聲,禍將及
H01n0001_p0284a03║矣。韋月將受誅於丹徼,燕欽融見殺於紫庭,此人皆不惜其身而納忠於
H01n0001_p0284a04║主,身既死矣,朝亦危矣。故先朝誅之,陛下賞之,是陛下知直言之士有裨
H01n0001_p0284a05║於國。臣今直言,亦先代之直,惟陛下察之。
H01n0001_p0284a06║  疏奏,睿宗嘉其公直。稍遷為右台殿中侍御史。開元中,累轉穎王府
H01n0001_p0284a07║長史。天寶初卒,年八十餘。
H01n0001_p0284a08║    (《舊唐書》卷一百一《辛替否傳》3156)
H01n0001_p0284a09║
H01n0001_p0284a10║   辛替否論佛教
H01n0001_p0284a11║  辛替否字協時,京兆萬年人……武崇訓死,主棄故宅,別築第,侈費過
H01n0001_p0284a12║度;又盛興佛寺,公私疲匱。替否上疏曰:
H01n0001_p0284a13║  古之建宮不必備,九卿有位而闕其選。故賞不僭,官不濫;士有完行,
H01n0001_p0284a14║家有廉節;朝廷餘奉,百姓餘食;下忠於上,上禮於下;委裘無倉卒之危,垂
H01n0001_p0284a15║拱無顛沛之患。夫事有惕耳目,動心慮,作不師古,以行於今,臣得言之。
H01n0001_p0284a16║陛下倍百行賞,倍十增官,金銀不供於印,束帛不充於錫,何所愧於無用之
H01n0001_p0284a17║臣、無力之士哉?……今疆場危駭,倉廩空虛,卒輸不充,士賞不及,而大
H01n0001_p0284a18║建寺宇,廣造第宅。伐木空山,不給棟樑;運土塞路,不充牆壁。所謂佛
H01n0001_p0284a19║者,清淨慈悲,體道以濟物,不欲利以損人,不榮身以害教。今三時之月,
H01n0001_p0284a20║掘山穿地,損命也;殫府虛帑,損人也;廣殿長廊,榮身也。損命則不慈悲,
H01n0001_p0284a21║損人則不愛物,榮身則不清淨,寧佛者之心乎?昔夏為天子二十餘世而商
H01n0001_p0284a22║受之,商二十餘世而周受之,周三十餘世而漢受之,由漢而後,歷代可知
H01n0001_p0284a23║已。咸有道之長,無道之短,豈窮金玉修塔廟享久長之祚乎?臣以為減凋
H01n0001_p0284a24║琢之費以貝周不足,是有佛之德;息穿掘之苦以全昆蟲,是有佛之仁;罷營
H01n0001_p0284a25║構之直以給邊垂,是有湯、武之功;回不急之祿以購廉清,是有唐、虞之治。
H01n0001_p0284a26║陛下緩其所急,急其所緩,親未來,疏見在,失真實,冀虛無,重俗人之所
H01n0001_p0284a27║為,而輕天子之業,臣竊痛之。
H01n0001_p0284a28║  今出財依勢,避役亡命,類度為沙門,其未度者,窮民善人耳。拔親樹
H01n0001_p0284a29║知,豈離朋黨,畜妻養孥,非無私愛,是致毀道,非廣道求人也。陛下常欲
H01n0001_p0284a30║填池塹,捐苑囿,以賑貧人。今天下之寺無數,一寺當陛下一宮,壯麗用度
H01n0001_p0285a01║尚或過之。十分天下之財而佛有七八,陛下何有之矣?雖役不食之人、不
H01n0001_p0285a02║衣之士,猶尚不給,況必待天生地養、風動雨潤而後得之乎?臣聞國無九
H01n0001_p0285a03║年之儲,曰非其國。今計倉廩,度府庫,百僚共給,萬事用度,臣恐不能卒
H01n0001_p0285a04║歲。假如兵旱相乘,則沙門不能擐甲冑,寺塔不足穰饑饉矣。
H01n0001_p0285a05║  帝不省。
H01n0001_p0285a06║  睿宗立,罷斜封官千餘人,俄詔復之。方營金仙、玉真觀。替否以左
H01n0001_p0285a07║補闕上疏曰:
H01n0001_p0285a08║  臣謂古之用度不時、爵賞不當、國破家亡者,口說不若身逢,耳聞不若
H01n0001_p0285a09║目見,臣請以有唐治道得失,陛下所及見者言之。
H01n0001_p0285a10║  太宗,陛下之祖,撥亂立極,得至治之體。省官清吏,舉天下職司無虛
H01n0001_p0285a11║授,用天下財帛無枉費;賞必待功,官必得才,為無不成,征無不服。不多
H01n0001_p0285a12║寺觀而福祿至,不度僧尼而咎殃滅。陰陽不愆,五穀遂成,粟腐帛爛。萬
H01n0001_p0285a13║里貢賦,百蠻歸款。享國久長,多歷年所。陛下何憚而不法之?
H01n0001_p0285a14║  中宗,陛下之兄,居先帝之業,忽先帝之化,不聽賢臣之言,而悅子女
H01n0001_p0285a15║之意。虛食祿者數千人,妄食土者百餘戶;造寺蠹財數百億,度人免租、庸
H01n0001_p0285a16║數十萬。是故國家所出日加,所入日減,倉乏半歲之儲,庫無一時之帛。
H01n0001_p0285a17║所惡者逐,逐必忠良;所愛者賞,賞皆讒慝。朋佞喋喋,交相傾動。奪百姓
H01n0001_p0285a18║之食以養殘凶,剝萬人之衣以塗土木。人怨神怒,親忿眾離,水旱疾疫,六
H01n0001_p0285a19║年之間,三禍為變。享國不永,受終於凶婦,取譏萬代,詒笑四夷,陛下所
H01n0001_p0285a20║見也。若法太宗治國,太山之安可致也;法中宗治國,累卵之危亦可致也。
H01n0001_p0285a21║  頃淫雨不解,谷荒於壟,麥爛於場,入秋亢旱,霜損蟲暴,草木枯黃,下
H01n0001_p0285a22║人咨嗟,未知所濟。而營寺造觀,日繼於時,道路流言,計用緡錢百餘萬。
H01n0001_p0285a23║陛下知倉有錢幾儲?庫有幾歲帛?百姓何所活?三邊何所輸?民散兵
H01n0001_p0285a24║亂,職此由也。而以百萬構無用之觀,受天下之怨。陛下忍棄太宗之治
H01n0001_p0285a25║本,不忍棄中宗之亂階;忍棄太宗久長之謀,不忍棄中宗短促之計。何以
H01n0001_p0285a26║繼祖宗、觀萬國耶?陛下在韋氏時,切齒群凶;今貴為天子不改其事,恐復
H01n0001_p0285a27║有切齒於陛下者。
H01n0001_p0285a28║  往見明敕,一用貞觀故事。且貞觀有營寺觀,加浮屠、黃老,益無用之
H01n0001_p0285a29║官,行不急之務者乎?往者和帝之憐悖逆也,宗晉卿勸為第宅,趙履溫勸
H01n0001_p0285a30║為園亭,工徒未息,義兵交馳,亭不得游,宅不得息,信邪僻之說,成骨肉之
H01n0001_p0286a01║刑,陛下所見也。今茲二觀,得無晉卿之徒陰勸為之,冀誤骨肉?不可不
H01n0001_p0286a02║察也。惟陛下停二觀以須豐年,以所費之財給貧窮,填府庫,則公主福無
H01n0001_p0286a03║窮矣。
H01n0001_p0286a04║  疏奏,帝不能用,然嘉切直。
H01n0001_p0286a05║    (《新唐書》卷一百一十八《辛替否傳》4277)
H01n0001_p0286a06║
H01n0001_p0286a07║   食去葷血,心依定惠
H01n0001_p0286a08║  維上元元年,太歲庚子,六月己未朔,二十六日甲申,皇第十二子持節
H01n0001_p0286a09║鳳翔等四州節度觀察大使興王[仁-二+召],薨於中京內邸,殯於寢之西階……愛詔
H01n0001_p0286a10║有司,恭宣懿德。其辭曰:
H01n0001_p0286a11║  惟天祚唐……《五經》在口,六律諧心,才優藝洽,絕古超今。蛇豕猶
H01n0001_p0286a12║梗,寰區未父。滌慮祈真,焚香演偈。食去葷血,心依定惠。庶福邦家,俾
H01n0001_p0286a13║清凶穢。霧露嬰疾,聰明害神,沉痾始遘,彌曠盈旬。止慮無擾,發言有倫
H01n0001_p0286a14║……
H01n0001_p0286a15║    (《舊唐書》卷一百一十六《肅宗代宗諸子.恭懿太子(李)[仁-二+召]傳》3389)
H01n0001_p0286a16║
H01n0001_p0286a17║   彭偃論佛道
H01n0001_p0286a18║  彭偃,少負俊才,銳於進取,為當塗者所抑,形於言色。大歷末,為都
H01n0001_p0286a19║官員外郎。時劍南東川觀察使李叔明上言,以「佛,道二教,無益於時,請
H01n0001_p0286a20║粗加澄汰。其東川寺觀,請定為二等:上等寺留僧二十一人,上觀留道士
H01n0001_p0286a21║十四人,降殺以七,皆精選有道行者,餘悉令返初。蘭若、道場無名者皆
H01n0001_p0286a22║廢」。德宗曰:「叔明此奏,可為天下通制,不唯劍南一道。」下尚書集議。
H01n0001_p0286a23║(彭)偃獻議曰:
H01n0001_p0286a24║  王者之政,變人心為上,因人心次之,不變不因,循常守固者為下。故
H01n0001_p0286a25║非有獨見之明,不能行非常之事。今陛下以惟新之政,為萬代法,若不革
H01n0001_p0286a26║舊風,令歸正道者,非也。
H01n0001_p0286a27║  當今道士,有名無實,時俗鮮重,亂政猶輕。唯有僧尼,頗為穢雜。自
H01n0001_p0286a28║西方之教,被於中國,去聖日遠,空門不行五濁,比丘但行粗法。爰自後
H01n0001_p0286a29║漢,至於陳、隋,僧之廢滅,其亦數乎!或至坑殺,殆無遺餘。前代帝王,豈
H01n0001_p0286a30║惡僧道之善如此之深耶?蓋其亂人亦已甚矣。且佛之立教,清淨無為,若
H01n0001_p0287a01║以色見,即是邪法,開示悟人,唯有一門,所以三乘之人,比之外道。況今
H01n0001_p0287a02║出家者皆是無識下劣之流,縱其戒行高潔,在於王者,已無用矣,況是苟避
H01n0001_p0287a03║征徭,於殺盜淫穢,無所不犯者乎!今叔明之心甚善,然臣恐其奸吏詆欺,
H01n0001_p0287a04║而去者未必非,留者不必是,無益於國,不能息奸。既不變人心,亦不因人
H01n0001_p0287a05║心,強制力持,難致遠耳。
H01n0001_p0287a06║  臣聞天生烝人,必將有職,遊行浮食,王制所禁,故有才者受爵祿,不
H01n0001_p0287a07║肖者出租征,此古之常道也。今天下僧道,不耕而食,不織而衣,廣作危言
H01n0001_p0287a08║險語,以惑愚者。一僧衣食,歲計約三萬有餘,五丁所出,不能致此。舉一
H01n0001_p0287a09║僧以計天下,其費可知。陛下日旰憂勤,將去人害,此而不救,奚其為政?
H01n0001_p0287a10║臣伏請僧道未滿五十者,每年輸絹四疋;尼及女道士未滿五十者,每年輸
H01n0001_p0287a11║絹二疋;其雜色役與百姓同。有才智者令入仕,請還俗為平人者聽。但令
H01n0001_p0287a12║就役輸課,為僧何傷。臣竊料其所出,不下今之租賦三分之一,然則陛下
H01n0001_p0287a13║之國富矣,蒼生之害除矣。其年過五十者,請皆免之。夫子曰:「五十而
H01n0001_p0287a14║知天命。」列子曰:「不班白,不知道。」人年五十,嗜欲已衰,縱不出家,心
H01n0001_p0287a15║已近道,況戒律檢其情性哉!臣以為此令既行,僧道規避還俗者固已太
H01n0001_p0287a16║半。其年老精修者,必盡為人師,則道、釋二教益重明矣。
H01n0001_p0287a17║  議者是之,上頗善其言。大臣以二教行之已久,列聖奉之,不宜頓擾,
H01n0001_p0287a18║宜去其太甚,其議不行。
H01n0001_p0287a19║  偃以才地當掌文誥,以躁求為時論所抑,鬱鬱不得志。涇師之亂,從
H01n0001_p0287a20║駕不及,匿於田家,為賊所得,朱泚素知之,得偃甚喜,偽署中書舍人,僭號
H01n0001_p0287a21║辭令,皆偃為之。賊敗,與偽中丞崔宣、賊將杜如江、吳希光等十三人,李
H01n0001_p0287a22║晟收之,俱斬於安國寺前。
H01n0001_p0287a23║    (《舊唐書》卷一百二十七《彭偃傳》3579)
H01n0001_p0287a24║
H01n0001_p0287a25║   姚南仲諫代宗於章敬寺北起陵廟
H01n0001_p0287a26║  大歷十三年,貞懿皇后獨孤氏崩,代宗悼惜不已,令於近城為陵墓,冀
H01n0001_p0287a27║朝夕臨望於目前。(姚)南仲上疏諫曰:
H01n0001_p0287a28║  伏聞貞懿皇后今於城東章敬寺北以起陵廟,臣不知有司之請乎,陛下
H01n0001_p0287a29║之意乎,陰陽家流希旨乎?臣愚以為非所宜也。謹具疏陳論,伏願暫留天
H01n0001_p0287a30║眷而省察焉。
H01n0001_p0288a01║  臣聞人臣宅於家,君上宅於國。長安城是陛下皇居也,其可穿鑿興
H01n0001_p0288a02║動,建陵墓於其側乎?此非宜一也。夫葬者藏也,欲人之不得見也。是以
H01n0001_p0288a03║古帝前王葬后妃,莫不憑丘原,遠郊郭……如骨肉歸土,魂無不之,章敬之
H01n0001_p0288a04║北,竟何所益?視之兆庶,則彰溺愛;垂之萬代,則累明德,此非所宜二也。
H01n0001_p0288a05║    (《舊唐書》卷一百五十三《姚南仲傳》4081)
H01n0001_p0288a06║
H01n0001_p0288a07║   韓愈諫唐憲宗迎佛骨
H01n0001_p0288a08║  鳳翔法門寺有護國真身塔,塔內有釋伽文佛指骨一節,其書本傳法,
H01n0001_p0288a09║三十年一開,開則歲豐人泰。(元和)十四年正月,上令中使杜英奇押宮
H01n0001_p0288a10║人三十人,持香花,赴臨皋驛迎佛骨。自光順門入大內,留禁中三日,乃送
H01n0001_p0288a11║諸寺。王公士庶,奔走捨施,唯恐在後。百姓有廢業破產、燒頂灼臂而求
H01n0001_p0288a12║供養者。韓愈素不喜佛,上疏諫曰:
H01n0001_p0288a13║  伏以佛者,夷狄之一法耳。自後漢時始流入中國,上古未嘗有也。昔
H01n0001_p0288a14║黃帝在位百年,年百一十歲;少昊在位八十年,年百歲;顓頊在位七十九
H01n0001_p0288a15║年,年九十八歲;帝嚳在位七十年,年百五歲;帝堯在位九十八年,年百一
H01n0001_p0288a16║十八歲;帝舜及禹年皆百歲。此時天下太平,百姓安樂壽考,然而中國未
H01n0001_p0288a17║有佛也。其後殷湯奕年百歲,湯孫太戊在位七十五年,武丁在位五十年,
H01n0001_p0288a18║書史不言其壽,推其年數,蓋亦俱不減百歲。周文王年九十七歲,武王年
H01n0001_p0288a19║九十三歲,穆王在位百年。此時佛法亦未至中國,非因事佛而致此也。
H01n0001_p0288a20║  漢明帝時始有佛法,明帝在位才十八年耳。其後亂亡相繼,運祚不
H01n0001_p0288a21║長,宋、齊、梁、陳、元魏已下,事佛漸謹,年代尤促。唯梁武帝在位四十八
H01n0001_p0288a22║年,前後三度捨身施佛,宗廟之祭,不用牲牢,晝日一食,止於菜果;其後竟
H01n0001_p0288a23║為侯景所逼,餓死台城,國亦尋滅,事佛求福,乃更得禍。由此觀之,佛不
H01n0001_p0288a24║足信,亦可知矣。
H01n0001_p0288a25║  高祖始受隋禪,則議除之。當時群臣識見不遠,不能深究先王之道、
H01n0001_p0288a26║古今之宜,推闡聖明,以救斯弊,其事遂止。臣嘗恨焉!伏惟皇帝陛下,神
H01n0001_p0288a27║聖英武,數千百年以來未有倫比。即位之初,即不許度人為僧尼、道士,又
H01n0001_p0288a28║不許別立寺觀。臣當時以為高祖之志,必行於陛下之手。今縱未能即行,
H01n0001_p0288a29║豈可恣之轉令盛也!
H01n0001_p0288a30║  今聞陛下令群僧迎佛骨於鳳翔,御樓以觀,舁入大內,令諸寺遞迎供
H01n0001_p0289a01║養。臣雖至愚,必知陛下不惑於佛,作此崇奉以祈福祥也。直以年豐人
H01n0001_p0289a02║樂,徇人之心,為京都士庶設詭異之觀、戲玩之具耳。安有聖明若此而肯
H01n0001_p0289a03║信此等事哉?然百姓愚冥,易惑難曉,苟見陛下如此,將謂真心信佛。皆
H01n0001_p0289a04║云天子大聖,猶一心敬信,百姓微賤,於佛豈合惜身命。所以灼頂燔指,百
H01n0001_p0289a05║十為群,解衣散錢,自朝至暮,轉相倣傚,唯恐後時,老幼奔波,棄其生業。
H01n0001_p0289a06║若不即加禁遏,更歷諸寺,必有斷臂臠身以為供養者。傷風敗俗,傳笑四
H01n0001_p0289a07║方,非細事也。
H01n0001_p0289a08║  佛本夷狄之人,與中國言語不通,衣服殊制。口不道先王之法言,身
H01n0001_p0289a09║不服先王之法服,不知君臣之義、父子之情。假如其身尚在,奉其國命,來
H01n0001_p0289a10║朝京師,陛下容而接之,不過宣政一見,禮賓一設,賜衣一襲,衛而出之於
H01n0001_p0289a11║境,不令惑於眾也。況其身死已久,枯朽之骨,凶穢之餘,豈宜以入宮禁!
H01n0001_p0289a12║孔子曰:「敬鬼神而遠之。」古之諸侯,行弔於國,尚令巫祝先以桃茢,祓除
H01n0001_p0289a13║不祥,然後進弔。今無故取朽穢之物,親臨觀之,巫祝不先,桃茢不用,群
H01n0001_p0289a14║臣不言其非,御史不舉其失,臣實恥之。乞以此骨付之水火,永絕根本,斷
H01n0001_p0289a15║天下之疑,絕後代之惑。使天下之人,知大聖人之所作為出於尋常萬萬
H01n0001_p0289a16║也,豈不盛哉!豈不快哉!佛如有靈,能作禍崇,凡有殃咎,宜加臣身。上
H01n0001_p0289a17║天鑒臨,臣不怨悔。
H01n0001_p0289a18║  疏奏,憲宗怒甚。間一日,出疏以示宰臣,將加極法。裴度、崔群奏
H01n0001_p0289a19║曰:「韓愈上忤尊聽,誠宜得罪,然而非內懷忠懇,不避黜責,豈能至此?
H01n0001_p0289a20║伏乞稍賜寬容,以來諫者。」上曰:「愈言我奉佛太過,我猶為容之。至謂
H01n0001_p0289a21║東漢奉佛之後,帝王咸致夭促,何言之乖剌也?愈為人臣,敢爾狂妄,固不
H01n0001_p0289a22║可赦。」於是人情驚惋,乃至國戚諸貴亦以罪愈太重,因事言之,乃貶為潮
H01n0001_p0289a23║州刺史。
H01n0001_p0289a24║    (《舊唐書》卷一百六十《韓愈傳》4198)
H01n0001_p0289a25║
H01n0001_p0289a26║   唐憲宗評韓愈
H01n0001_p0289a27║  憲宗謂宰臣曰:「昨得韓愈到潮州表,因思其所諫佛骨事,大是愛我,
H01n0001_p0289a28║我豈不知?然愈為人臣,不當言人主事佛乃年促也。我以是惡其容易。」
H01n0001_p0289a29║上欲復用愈,故先語及,觀宰臣之奏對。
H01n0001_p0289a30║    (《舊唐書》卷一百六十《韓愈傳》4202)
H01n0001_p0289a31║
H01n0001_p0290a01║   韓愈諫唐憲宗迎佛骨
H01n0001_p0290a02║  憲宗遣使者往鳳翔迎佛骨入禁中,三日,乃送佛祠。王公士人奔走膜
H01n0001_p0290a03║唄,至為夷法灼體膚,委珍貝,騰沓係路。愈聞惡之,乃上表曰:
H01n0001_p0290a04║  佛者,夷狄之一法耳。自後漢時始入中國,上古未嘗有也。昔黃帝在
H01n0001_p0290a05║位百年,年百一十歲;少昊在位八十年,年百歲;顓頊在位七十九年,年九
H01n0001_p0290a06║十歲;帝嚳在位七十年,年百五歲;堯在位九十八年,年百一十八歲;帝舜
H01n0001_p0290a07║在位及禹年皆百歲。此時天下太平,百姓安樂壽考,然而中國未有佛也。
H01n0001_p0290a08║其後,湯亦年百歲,湯孫太戊在位七十五年,武丁在位五十年,書史不言其
H01n0001_p0290a09║壽,推其年數,盡不減百歲。周文王年九十七歲,武王年九十三歲,穆王在
H01n0001_p0290a10║位百年。此時佛法亦未至中國,非因事佛而致然也。
H01n0001_p0290a11║  漢明帝時始有佛法,明帝在位才十八年。其後亂亡相繼,運祚不長。
H01n0001_p0290a12║宋、齊、梁、陳、元魏以下,事佛漸謹,年代尤促。唯梁武帝在位四十八年,
H01n0001_p0290a13║前後三捨身施佛,宗廟祭不用牲牢,晝日一食,止於菜果,後為侯景所逼,
H01n0001_p0290a14║餓死台城,國亦尋滅。事佛求福,乃更得禍。由此觀之,佛不足信,亦可知
H01n0001_p0290a15║矣。
H01n0001_p0290a16║  高祖始受隋禪,則議除之。當時群臣識見不遠,不能深究先王之道、
H01n0001_p0290a17║古今之宜,推闡聖明,以救斯弊,其事遂止。臣常恨焉!伏惟睿聖文武皇
H01n0001_p0290a18║帝陛下,神聖英武,數千百年以來,未有倫比。即位之初,即不許度人為僧
H01n0001_p0290a19║尼、道士,又不許別立寺觀。臣當時以為高祖之志,必行於陛下。今縱未
H01n0001_p0290a20║能即行,豈可恣之令盛也?今陛下令群僧迎佛骨於鳳翔,御樓以觀,舁入
H01n0001_p0290a21║大內,又令諸寺遞加供養。臣雖至愚,必知陛下不惑於佛,作此崇奉以祈
H01n0001_p0290a22║福祥也。直以豐年之樂,徇人之心,為京都士庶設詭異之觀、戲玩之具耳。
H01n0001_p0290a23║安有聖明若此,而肯信此等事哉?然百姓愚冥,易惑難曉,苟見陛下如此,
H01n0001_p0290a24║將謂真心信佛,皆云:「天子大聖,猶一心信向,百姓微賤,於佛豈合更惜
H01n0001_p0290a25║身命?」以至灼頂燔指,十百為群,解衣散錢,自朝至暮,轉相放效,唯恐後
H01n0001_p0290a26║時,老幼奔波,棄其生業。若不即加禁遏,更歷諸寺,必有斷臂臠身以為供
H01n0001_p0290a27║養者。傷風敗俗,傳笑四方,非細事也。
H01n0001_p0290a28║  佛本夷狄之人,與中國言語不通,衣服殊制,口不道先王之法言,身不
H01n0001_p0290a29║服先王之法服,不知君臣之義、父子之情。假如其身尚在,奉其國命來朝
H01n0001_p0290a30║京師,陛下容而接之,不過宣政一見,禮賓一設,賜衣一襲,衛而出之於境,
H01n0001_p0291a01║不令貳於眾也。況其身死已久,枯朽之骨,凶穢之餘,豈宜以入宮禁?孔
H01n0001_p0291a02║子曰:「敬鬼神而遠之。」古之諸侯弔於其國,必令巫祝先以桃茢祓除不
H01n0001_p0291a03║祥,然後進弔。今無故取朽穢之物,親臨觀之,巫祝不先,桃茢不用,群臣
H01n0001_p0291a04║不言其非,御史不舉其失,臣實恥之。乞以此骨會之水火,永絕根本,斷天
H01n0001_p0291a05║下之疑,絕前代之惑,使天下之人知大聖人之所作為出於尋常萬萬也。佛
H01n0001_p0291a06║如有靈,能作禍崇,凡有殃咎,宜加臣身。上天鑒臨,臣不怨悔。
H01n0001_p0291a07║  表入,帝大怒,持示宰相,將抵以死。裴度、崔群曰:「愈言訐牾,罪之
H01n0001_p0291a08║誠宜。然非內懷至忠,安能及此?願少寬假,以來諫爭。」帝曰:「愈言我
H01n0001_p0291a09║奉佛太過,猶可容;至謂東漢奉佛以後,天子咸夭促,言何乖剌邪?愈,人
H01n0001_p0291a10║臣,狂妄敢爾,固不可赦。」於是中外駭懼,雖戚里諸貴,亦為愈言,乃貶潮
H01n0001_p0291a11║州刺史。
H01n0001_p0291a12║  既至潮,以表哀謝曰:
H01n0001_p0291a13║  臣以狂妄戇愚,不識禮度,陳佛骨事,言涉不恭,正名定罪,萬死莫塞。
H01n0001_p0291a14║陛下哀臣愚忠,恕臣狂直,謂言雖可罪,心亦無它,特屈刑章,以臣為潮州
H01n0001_p0291a15║刺史,既免刑誅,又獲祿食,聖恩寬大,天地莫量,破腦刳心,豈足為謝!
H01n0001_p0291a16║……
H01n0001_p0291a17║    (《新唐書》卷一百七十六《韓愈傳》5258)
H01n0001_p0291a18║
H01n0001_p0291a19║   張籍論韓愈
H01n0001_p0291a20║  張籍者,字文昌,和州烏江人……當時有名士皆與游,而愈賢重之。
H01n0001_p0291a21║籍性狷直,嘗責(韓)愈喜博塞及為駁雜之說,論議好勝人,其排釋老不能
H01n0001_p0291a22║著書若孟軻、楊雄以垂世者。愈最後答書曰:……
H01n0001_p0291a23║    (《新唐書》卷一百七十六《韓愈傳附張籍傳》5266)
H01n0001_p0291a24║
H01n0001_p0291a25║   史臣贊韓愈
H01n0001_p0291a26║  贊曰:唐興,承五代剖分,王政不綱,文弊質窮,圭黽俚混並。天下已
H01n0001_p0291a27║定,治荒剔蠹,討究儒術,以興典憲,薰醲涵浸,殆百餘年,其後文章稍稍可
H01n0001_p0291a28║述。至貞元、元和間,愈遂以六經之文為諸儒倡,障隄末流,反刓以樸,剷
H01n0001_p0291a29║偽以真。然愈之才,自視司馬遷、楊雄,至班固以下不論也。當其所得,粹
H01n0001_p0291a30║然一出於正,刊落陳言,橫騖別驅,汪洋大肆,要之無抵捂聖人者。其道盡
H01n0001_p0292a01║自比孟軻,以荀況、楊雄為未淳,寧不信然?至進諫陳謀,排難恤孤,矯拂
H01n0001_p0292a02║媮末,皇皇於仁義,可謂篤道君子矣。自晉汔隋,老佛顯行,聖道不斷如
H01n0001_p0292a03║帶。諸儒倚天下正議,助為怪神。愈獨喟然引聖,爭四海之惑,雖蒙訕笑,
H01n0001_p0292a04║跲而復奮,始若未之信,卒大顯於時。昔孟軻拒楊、墨,去孔子才二百年。
H01n0001_p0292a05║愈排二家,乃去千餘歲,撥衰反正,功與齊而力倍之,所以過況、雄為不少
H01n0001_p0292a06║矣。自愈沒,其言大行,學者仰之如泰山、北斗云。
H01n0001_p0292a07║    (《新唐書》卷一百七十六《韓愈傳》5269)
H01n0001_p0292a08║
H01n0001_p0292a09║   蕭倣論佛教
H01n0001_p0292a10║  懿宗怠臨朝政,僻於奉佛,內結道場,聚僧念誦。又數幸諸寺,施與過
H01n0001_p0292a11║當。(蕭)倣上疏論之曰:
H01n0001_p0292a12║  臣聞玄祖之道,由慈儉為先;而素王之風,以仁義為首。相沿百代,作
H01n0001_p0292a13║則千年,至聖至明,不可易也。如佛者,生於天竺,去彼王宮,割愛中之至
H01n0001_p0292a14║難,取滅後之殊勝,名歸象外,理絕塵中,非為帝王之所能慕也。昔貞觀
H01n0001_p0292a15║中,高宗在東宮,以長孫皇后疾亟,嘗上言曰:「欲請度僧,以資福事。」后
H01n0001_p0292a16║曰:「為善有征,吾未為惡,善或無報,求福非宜。且佛者,異方之教,所可
H01n0001_p0292a17║存而勿論。豈以一女子而紊王道乎?」故謚為文德。且母后之論,尚能如
H01n0001_p0292a18║斯,哲王之謨,安可反是?
H01n0001_p0292a19║  伏睹陛下留神天竺,屬意桑門,內設道場,中開講會,或手錄梵筴,或
H01n0001_p0292a20║口揚佛音。雖時啟於延英,從容四輔;慮稍稀於聽政,廢失萬機。居安思
H01n0001_p0292a21║危,不可忽也。夫從容者君也,必疇咨於臣,盡忠匡救,外逆其耳,內沃其
H01n0001_p0292a22║心,陳皋陶之謨,述仲虺之誥,發揮王道,恢益帝圖,非賜對之閒徒侍坐而
H01n0001_p0292a23║已。夫廢失者,上拒其諫,下希其旨,言則狎玩,意在順從。漢重神仙,東
H01n0001_p0292a24║方朔著《十洲》之記;梁崇佛法,劉孝儀詠《七覺》之詩。致祠禱無休,講誦
H01n0001_p0292a25║不已,以至大空海內,中輟江東。以此言之,是廢失也。然佛者,當可以
H01n0001_p0292a26║悟取,不可以相求。漢、晉已來,互興寶剎;姚、石之際,亦有高僧。或問
H01n0001_p0292a27║以苦空,究其不滅,止聞有性,多曰忘言。執著貪緣,非其旨也。必乞陛
H01n0001_p0292a28║下力求民瘼,虔奉宗祧。思繆賞與濫刑,其殃立至;俟勝殘而去殺,得福
H01n0001_p0292a29║甚多。幸罷講筵,頻親政事。昔年韓愈已得罪於憲宗,今日微臣固甘心
H01n0001_p0292a30║於遐徼。
H01n0001_p0293a01║  疏奏,帝甚嘉之。
H01n0001_p0293a02║    (《舊唐書》卷一百七十二《蕭俛傳附蕭倣傳》4480)
H01n0001_p0293a03║
H01n0001_p0293a04║   蕭瑀好浮屠法
H01n0001_p0293a05║  (蕭)瑀好浮屠法,間請捨家為桑門,帝許之矣,復奏自度不能為,又
H01n0001_p0293a06║足疾不入謁,帝曰:「瑀豈不得其所邪?」乃詔奪爵,下除商州刺史。未幾,
H01n0001_p0293a07║復其封,加特進。卒,年七十四。遺命斂以單衣,無卜日。詔贈司空、荊州
H01n0001_p0293a08║都督,陪葬昭陵。
H01n0001_p0293a09║    (《新唐書》卷一百一《蕭瑀傳附蕭倣傳》3951)
H01n0001_p0293a10║
H01n0001_p0293a11║   李德裕論泗州置僧尼戒壇
H01n0001_p0293a12║  元和已來,累敕天下州府,不得私度僧尼。徐州節度使王智興聚貨無
H01n0001_p0293a13║厭,以敬宗誕月,請於泗州置僧壇,度人資福,以邀厚利。江、淮之民,皆群
H01n0001_p0293a14║黨渡淮。(李)德裕奏論曰:「王智興於所屬泗州置僧尼戒壇,自去冬於
H01n0001_p0293a15║江、淮已南,所在懸榜招置。江、淮自元和二年後,不敢私度。自聞泗州有
H01n0001_p0293a16║壇,戶有三丁必令一丁落髮,意在規避王徭,影庇資產。自正月已來,落髮
H01n0001_p0293a17║者無算。臣今於蒜山渡點其過者,一日一百餘人,勘問唯十四人是舊日沙
H01n0001_p0293a18║彌,餘是蘇、常百姓,亦無本州文憑,尋已勒還本貫。訪聞泗州置壇次第,
H01n0001_p0293a19║凡僧徒到者,人納二緡,給牒即回,別無法事。若不特行禁止,比到誕節,
H01n0001_p0293a20║計江、淮已南,失卻六十萬丁壯。此事非細,繫於朝廷法度。」狀奏,即日
H01n0001_p0293a21║詔徐州罷之。
H01n0001_p0293a22║    (《舊唐書》卷一百七十四《李德裕傳》4514)
H01n0001_p0293a23║
H01n0001_p0293a24║   李德裕論亳州聖水
H01n0001_p0293a25║  寶歷二年,亳州言出聖水,飲之者愈疾。德裕奏曰:「臣訪聞此水,本
H01n0001_p0293a26║因妖僧誑惑,狡計丐錢。數月已來,江南之人,奔走塞路。每三二十家,都
H01n0001_p0293a27║顧一人取水。擬取之時,疾者斷食葷血,既飲之後,又二七日蔬餐,危疾之
H01n0001_p0293a28║人,俟之愈病。其水斗價三貫,而取者益之他水,沿路轉以市人,老疾飲
H01n0001_p0293a29║之,多至危篤。
H01n0001_p0293a30║  「昨點兩浙、福建百姓渡江者,日三五十人。臣於蒜山渡已加捉搦,若
H01n0001_p0294a01║不絕其根本,終無益黎氓。……」西川承蠻寇剽虜之後,郭釗撫理無術,人
H01n0001_p0294a02║不聊生。德裕乃復葺關防,繕完兵守。又遣人入南詔,求其所俘工匠,得
H01n0001_p0294a03║僧道工巧四千餘人,復歸成都。
H01n0001_p0294a04║    (《舊唐書》卷一百七十四《李德裕傳》4516)
H01n0001_p0294a05║
H01n0001_p0294a06║   李德裕論亳州聖水
H01n0001_p0294a07║  寶歷二年,亳州言出聖水,飲之者愈疾。德裕奏曰:「臣訪聞此水,本
H01n0001_p0294a08║因妖僧誑惑,狡計丐錢。數月已來,江南之人,奔走塞路。每三二十家,都
H01n0001_p0294a09║顧一人取水。擬取之時,疾者斷食葷血,既飲之後,又二七日蔬餐,危疾之
H01n0001_p0294a10║人,俟之愈病。其水斗價三貫,而取者益之他水,沿路轉以市人,老疾飲
H01n0001_p0294a11║之,多至危篤。昨點兩浙、福建百姓渡江者,日三五十人。臣於蒜山渡已
H01n0001_p0294a12║加捉搦。若不絕其根本,終無益黎甿。昔吳時有聖水,宋、齊有聖火,事皆
H01n0001_p0294a13║妖妄,古人所非。乞下本道觀察使令狐楚,速令填塞,以絕妖源。」從之。
H01n0001_p0294a14║  敬宗為兩街道士趙歸真說以神仙之術,宜訪求異人以師其道;僧惟
H01n0001_p0294a15║真、齊賢、正簡說以祠禱修福,以致長年。四人皆出入禁中,日進邪說。山
H01n0001_p0294a16║人杜景先進狀,請於江南求訪異人。至浙西,言有隱士週息元壽數百歲,
H01n0001_p0294a17║帝即令高品薛季稜往潤州迎之,仍詔德裕給公乘遣之。德裕因中使還,獻
H01n0001_p0294a18║疏曰:
H01n0001_p0294a19║  臣聞道之高者莫若廣成、玄元,人之聖者莫若軒黃、孔子。昔軒黃問
H01n0001_p0294a20║廣成子,理身之要,何以長久?對曰「無視無聽,抱神以靜。形將自正,神
H01n0001_p0294a21║必自清。無勞子形,無搖子精,乃可長生。慎守其一,以處其和。故我修
H01n0001_p0294a22║身千二百歲矣,吾形未嘗衰。」又云「得吾道者,上為皇而下為王。」玄元語
H01n0001_p0294a23║孔子曰:「去子之驕氣與多欲,態色與淫志,是皆無益於子之身。吾所告
H01n0001_p0294a24║子者是已。」故軒黃發謂天子歎,孔子興猶龍之感。前聖於道,不其至乎?
H01n0001_p0294a25║  伏惟文武大聖廣孝皇帝陛下,用玄祖之訓,修軒黃之術,凝神閒館,物
H01n0001_p0294a26║色異人,將以覿冰雪之姿,屈順風之請。恭惟聖感,必降真仙。若使廣成、
H01n0001_p0294a27║玄元混跡而至,語陛下之道,授陛下之言,以臣度思,無出於此。臣所慮赴
H01n0001_p0294a28║召者,必迂怪之士,苟合之徒,使物淖冰,以為小術,衒耀邪僻,蔽欺聰明。
H01n0001_p0294a29║如文成、五利,一無可驗。臣所以三年之內,四奉詔書,未敢以一人塞詔,
H01n0001_p0294a30║實有所懼。
H01n0001_p0295a01║  臣又聞前代帝王,雖好方士,未有服其藥者。故《漢書》稱黃金可成,
H01n0001_p0295a02║以為飲食器則益壽。又高宗朝劉道合、玄宗朝孫甑生,皆成黃金,二祖竟
H01n0001_p0295a03║不敢服,豈不以宗廟社稷之重,不可輕易。此事炳然載於國史。以臣微
H01n0001_p0295a04║見,倘陛下睿慮精求,必致真隱,唯問保和之術,不求餌藥之功,縱使必成
H01n0001_p0295a05║黃金,止可充於玩好。則九廟靈鑒,必當慰悅,寰海兆庶,誰不歡心?臣思
H01n0001_p0295a06║竭愚衷,以裨玄化,無任兢憂之至。
H01n0001_p0295a07║    (《舊唐書》卷一百七十四《李德裕傳》4516)
H01n0001_p0295a08║
H01n0001_p0295a09║   李德裕論聖水
H01n0001_p0295a10║  時亳州浮屠詭言水可愈疾,號曰:「聖水」,轉相流聞,南方之人,率十
H01n0001_p0295a11║戶僦一人使往汲。既行若飲,病者不敢近葷血,危老之人率多死。而水斗
H01n0001_p0295a12║三十千,取者益它汲轉鬻於道,互相欺訹,往者日數十百人。(李)德裕嚴
H01n0001_p0295a13║勒津邏捕絕之,且言:「昔吳有聖水,宋、齊有聖火,皆本妖祥,古人所禁。
H01n0001_p0295a14║請下觀察使令狐楚填塞,以絕妄源。」從之。
H01n0001_p0295a15║  帝方惑佛老,禱福祈年,浮屠方士,並出入禁中。狂人杜景先上言,其
H01n0001_p0295a16║友週息元壽數百歲,帝遣宦者至浙西迎之,詔在所馳馹敦遣。德裕上疏
H01n0001_p0295a17║曰:「道之高者,莫若廣成、玄元;人之聖者,莫若軒轅、孔子……又前世天
H01n0001_p0295a18║子雖好方士,未有御其藥者。故漢人稱黃金可成,以為飲食器則壽。高宗
H01n0001_p0295a19║時劉道合、玄宗時孫甑生皆能作黃金,二祖不之服,豈非以宗廟為重乎?
H01n0001_p0295a20║儻必致真隱,願止師保和之術,慎毋及藥,則九廟尉悅矣。」息元果誕譎不
H01n0001_p0295a21║情,自言與張果、葉靜能游。帝詔畫工肖狀為圖以觀之,終帝世無它驗。
H01n0001_p0295a22║文宗即位,乃逐之。
H01n0001_p0295a23║    (《新唐書》卷一百八十《李德裕傳》5330)
H01n0001_p0295a24║
H01n0001_p0295a25║   李瞻論佛教
H01n0001_p0295a26║  (咸通)十一年八月,同昌公主薨,懿宗尤嗟惜之。以翰林醫官韓宗
H01n0001_p0295a27║召、康仲殷等用藥無效,收之下獄。兩家宗族,枝蔓盡捕三百餘人,狴牢皆
H01n0001_p0295a28║滿。(劉)瞻召諫官令上疏,無敢極言。瞻自上疏曰:
H01n0001_p0295a29║  臣聞修短之期,人之定分,賢愚共一,今古攸同……陛下信崇釋典,留
H01n0001_p0295a30║意生天,大要不過喜捨慈悲,方便佈施,不生惡念,所謂福田。則業累盡
H01n0001_p0296a01║消,往生忉利,比居濁惡,未可同年。伏望陛下盡釋繫囚,易怒為喜,虔奉
H01n0001_p0296a02║空王之教,以資愛主之靈。中外臣僚,同深懇激。
H01n0001_p0296a03║  帝閱疏大怒,即日罷瞻相位,檢校刑部尚書、同平章事、江陵尹,充荊
H01n0001_p0296a04║南節度等使。
H01n0001_p0296a05║  杜按:《新唐書》本傳(5352)不載與佛教有關文。
H01n0001_p0296a06║    (《舊唐書》卷一百七十七《劉瞻傳》4605)
H01n0001_p0296a07║
H01n0001_p0296a08║   李蔚論佛教
H01n0001_p0296a09║  懿宗奉佛太過,常於禁中飯僧,親為贊唄。以旃檀為二高座,賜安國
H01n0001_p0296a10║寺僧徹,逢八飯萬僧。(李)蔚上疏諫曰:
H01n0001_p0296a11║  臣聞孔丘聖者也,言則引周任之言;苻融賢者也,諫必稱王猛之議。
H01n0001_p0296a12║誠以事求師古,詞貴達情。陛下自纘帝圖,克崇佛事,止當修外,未甚得
H01n0001_p0296a13║中。臣略采本朝名臣啟奏之言,以證奉佛初終之要。
H01n0001_p0296a14║  天后時,曾營大像,功費百萬,狄仁傑諫曰:「夫寶鉸殫於綴飾,環材
H01n0001_p0296a15║竭於輪奐。功不使鬼,必在役人,物不天來,皆從地出,非苦百姓,物何以
H01n0001_p0296a16║求?物生有時,用之無度,臣每思惟,實所悲痛。至如往在江表,像法盛
H01n0001_p0296a17║興,梁武、簡文,施捨無限。及乎三淮沸浪,五嶺騰煙,列剎盈衢,無救危亡
H01n0001_p0296a18║之禍;緇衣蔽路,豈益勤王之師?況近年以來,風塵屢擾,水旱失節,征役
H01n0001_p0296a19║稍繁。必若多費官財,又苦人力,一隅有難,將何以救?」此切當之言一
H01n0001_p0296a20║也。
H01n0001_p0296a21║  中宗時,公主外戚,奏度僧尼,姚崇諫曰:「佛不在外,求之於心。佛
H01n0001_p0296a22║圖澄最賢,無益於後趙;羅什多藝,不救於姚秦。何充、苻融,皆遭敗滅;齊
H01n0001_p0296a23║襄、梁武,未免災殃。但志發慈悲,心行利益,若蒼生安樂,即是佛身。」此
H01n0001_p0296a24║切當之言二也。
H01n0001_p0296a25║  睿宗為金仙、玉真二公主造二道宮,辛替否諫曰:「自夏已來,淫雨不
H01n0001_p0296a26║解,谷荒於壟,麥爛於場。入秋已來,亢旱為災,苗而不實,霜損蟲暴,草菜
H01n0001_p0296a27║枯黃,下人咨嗟,未加賑貸。陛下愛兩女而造兩觀,燒瓦運木,載土填沙。
H01n0001_p0296a28║道路流言,皆云用錢百萬。陛下聖人也,遠無不知;陛下明君也,細無不
H01n0001_p0296a29║見。既知且見,知倉有幾年之儲?庫有幾年之帛?知百姓之間可存活乎?
H01n0001_p0296a30║三邊之士可轉輸乎?今發一卒以[打-丁+幹]邊陲,追一兵以衛社稷,多無衣食,皆
H01n0001_p0297a01║帶饑寒,賞賜之間,迥無所出。軍旅驟敗,莫不由斯。而陛下破百萬貫錢,
H01n0001_p0297a02║造不急之觀,以賈六合之怨,以違萬人之心。」此切當之言三也。
H01n0001_p0297a03║  替否又諫造寺曰:「釋教以清淨為基,慈悲為主。常體道以濟物,不
H01n0001_p0297a04║利己而害人;每去己以全真,不營身以害教。今三時之月,築山穿池,損命
H01n0001_p0297a05║也;殫府虛藏,損人也;廣殿長廊,營身也。損命則不慈悲,損人則不濟物,
H01n0001_p0297a06║營身則不清淨。豈大聖至神之心乎?佛書曰:『一切有為法,如夢幻泡
H01n0001_p0297a07║影,如露亦如電。』臣以為減雕琢之費以賑貧人,是有如來之德;息穿掘之
H01n0001_p0297a08║苦以全昆蟲,是有如來之仁;罷營葺之直以給邊陲,是有湯武之功;回不急
H01n0001_p0297a09║之祿以購清廉,是有唐虞之治。陛下緩其所急,急其所緩,親未來而疏見
H01n0001_p0297a10║在,失真實而冀虛無。重俗人之所為,輕天子之功業,臣實痛之。」此切當
H01n0001_p0297a11║之言四也。
H01n0001_p0297a12║  臣觀仁傑,天后時上公也;姚崇,開元時賢相也;替否,睿宗之直臣也。
H01n0001_p0297a13║臣每覽斯言,未嘗不廢卷而太息,痛其言之不行也。伏以陛下深重緇流,
H01n0001_p0297a14║妙崇佛事,其為樂善,實邁前蹤。但細詳時代之安危,渺鑒昔賢之敷奏,則
H01n0001_p0297a15║思過半矣,道遠乎哉!臣過忝渥恩,言虧匡諫,但舉從繩之義,少裨負扆之
H01n0001_p0297a16║明。營繕之間,稍宜停減。
H01n0001_p0297a17║  優詔嘉之。尋拜京兆尹、太常卿。
H01n0001_p0297a18║  杜按:《新唐書》本傳(5353)李蔚此《疏》。
H01n0001_p0297a19║    (《舊唐書》卷一百七十八《李蔚傳》4625)
H01n0001_p0297a20║
H01n0001_p0297a21║   張士衡論佛教
H01n0001_p0297a22║  承乾又問曰:「佈施營功德,有果報不?」(張士衡)對曰:「事佛在於清
H01n0001_p0297a23║淨無慾,仁恕為心。如其貪婪無厭,驕虐是務,雖復傾財事佛,無救目前之
H01n0001_p0297a24║禍。且善惡之報,若影隨形,此是儒書之言,豈徒佛經所說。是為人君父,
H01n0001_p0297a25║當須仁慈;為人臣子,宜盡忠孝。仁慈忠孝,則福祚攸永;如或反此,則殃
H01n0001_p0297a26║禍斯及。此理昭然,願殿下勿為憂慮。」
H01n0001_p0297a27║    (《舊唐書》卷一百八十九上《儒學上.張士衡傳》4949)
H01n0001_p0297a28║
H01n0001_p0298a01║   張士衡論佛教
H01n0001_p0298a02║  張士衡,瀛州樂壽人。父文慶,北齊國子助教。……太子以士衡齊人
H01n0001_p0298a03║也,問高氏何以亡?士衡曰:「高阿那環之凶險,駱提婆之佞,韓長鸞之
H01n0001_p0298a04║虐,皆奴隸才,是信是使,忠良外誅,骨肉內離,剝喪黎元,故周師臨郊,人
H01n0001_p0298a05║莫為之用,此所以亡。」復問:「事佛營福,其應奈何?」對曰:「事佛在清靜
H01n0001_p0298a06║仁恕爾,如貪惏驕虐,雖傾財事之,無損於禍。且善惡必報,若影赴形,聖
H01n0001_p0298a07║人言之備矣。為君仁,為臣忠,為子孝,則福祚永;反是而殃禍至矣!」時
H01n0001_p0298a08║太子以過失聞,士衡因是規之,然不能用也。太子廢,給傳罷歸鄉里,卒。
H01n0001_p0298a09║    (《新唐書》卷一百九十八《張士衡傳》5648)
H01n0001_p0298a10║
H01n0001_p0298a11║   突厥人暾欲谷論造寺觀
H01n0001_p0298a12║  (毗伽可汗以開元四年即位,本番號為小殺)小殺又欲修築城壁,造立寺
H01n0001_p0298a13║觀,暾欲谷曰:「不可。突厥人戶寡少,不敵唐家百分之一,所以常能抗拒
H01n0001_p0298a14║者,正以隨逐水草,居處無常,射獵為業,又皆習武。強則進兵抄掠,弱則
H01n0001_p0298a15║竄伏山林,唐兵雖多,無所施用。若築城而居,改變舊俗,一朝失利,必將
H01n0001_p0298a16║為唐所並。且寺觀之法,教人仁弱,本非用武爭強之道,不可置也。」小殺
H01n0001_p0298a17║等深然其策。
H01n0001_p0298a18║    (《舊唐書》卷一百九十四上《突厥傳上》5174)
H01n0001_p0298a19║
H01n0001_p0298a20║   傅奕論佛教
H01n0001_p0298a21║  (武德)七年,(傅)奕上疏請除去釋教,曰:
H01n0001_p0298a22║  佛在西域,……,易服以逃租賦。演其妖書,述其邪法,偽啟三塗,謬
H01n0001_p0298a23║張六道,恐嚇愚夫,詐欺庸品。凡百黎庶,通識者稀,不察根源,信其矯詐。
H01n0001_p0298a24║乃追既往之罪,虛規將來之福。佈施一錢,希萬倍之報;持齋一日,冀百日
H01n0001_p0298a25║之糧。遂使愚迷,妄求功德,不憚科禁,輕犯憲章。其有造作惡逆,身墜刑
H01n0001_p0298a26║綱,方乃獄中禮佛,口誦佛經,晝夜忘疲,規免其罪。且生死壽夭,由於自
H01n0001_p0298a27║然,刑德威福,關之人主。乃謂貧富貴賤,功業所招,而愚僧矯詐,皆云由
H01n0001_p0298a28║佛。竊人主之權,擅造化之力,其為害政,良可悲矣!
H01n0001_p0298a29║  案《書》云:「惟闢作福威,惟辟玉食。臣有作福、作威、玉食,害於而
H01n0001_p0298a30║家,凶於而國,人用側頗僻。」降自犧、農,至於漢、魏,皆無佛法,君明臣
H01n0001_p0299a01║忠,祚長年久。漢明帝假托夢想,始立胡神,西域桑門,自傳其法。西晉以
H01n0001_p0299a02║上,國有嚴科,不許中國之人,輒行髡髮之事。洎於苻、石、羌胡亂華,主庸
H01n0001_p0299a03║臣佞,政虐祚短,皆由佛教致災也。梁武、齊襄,足為明鏡。昔褒姒一女,
H01n0001_p0299a04║妖惑幽王,尚至亡國,況天下僧尼,數盈十萬,翦刻繒彩,裝束泥人,而為厭
H01n0001_p0299a05║魅,迷惑萬姓者乎!今之僧尼,請令匹配,即成十萬餘戶,產育男女,十年
H01n0001_p0299a06║長養,一紀教訓,自然益國,可以足兵。四海免蠶食之殃,百姓知威福所
H01n0001_p0299a07║在,則妖惑之風自革,淳樸之化還興。
H01n0001_p0299a08║  且古今忠諫,鮮不及禍。竊見齊朝章仇子他上表言:「僧尼徒眾,糜
H01n0001_p0299a09║損國家,寺塔奢侈,虛費金帛。」為諸僧附會宰相,對朝讒毀;諸尼依托妃
H01n0001_p0299a10║主,潛行謗讟。子他竟被囚執,刑於都市。及周武平齊,制封其墓。臣雖
H01n0001_p0299a11║不敏,竊慕其蹤。
H01n0001_p0299a12║  又上疏十一首,詞甚切直。高祖付群官詳議,唯太僕卿張道源稱奕奏
H01n0001_p0299a13║合理。中書令蕭瑀與之爭論曰:「佛,聖人也。奕為此議,非聖人者無法,
H01n0001_p0299a14║請置嚴刑。」奕曰:「禮本於事親,終於奉上,此則忠孝之理著,臣子之行
H01n0001_p0299a15║成。而佛逾城出家,逃背其父,以匹夫而抗天子,以繼體而悖所親。蕭瑀
H01n0001_p0299a16║非出於空桑,乃遵無父之教。臣聞非孝者無親,其瑀之謂矣!」瑀不能答,
H01n0001_p0299a17║但合掌曰:「地獄所設,正為是人。」高祖將從奕言,會傳位而止。
H01n0001_p0299a18║  奕武德九年五月密奏太白見秦分,秦王當有天下,高祖以狀授太宗。
H01n0001_p0299a19║及太宗嗣位,召奕賜之食,謂曰:「汝前所奏,幾累於我,然今後但須盡言,
H01n0001_p0299a20║無以前事為慮也。」太宗常臨朝謂奕曰:「佛道玄妙,聖跡可師,且報應顯
H01n0001_p0299a21║然,屢有征驗,卿獨不悟其理,何也?」奕對曰:「佛是胡中桀黠,欺誑夷狄,
H01n0001_p0299a22║初止西域,漸流中國。遵尚其教,皆是邪僻小人,模寫莊、老玄言,文飾妖
H01n0001_p0299a23║幻之教耳。於百姓無補,於國家有害。」太宗頗然之。
H01n0001_p0299a24║  貞觀十三年卒,年八十五。臨終誡其子曰:「老、莊玄一之篇,周、孔,
H01n0001_p0299a25║《六經》之說,是為名教,汝宜習之。妖胡亂華,舉時皆惑,唯獨竊歎,眾不
H01n0001_p0299a26║我從,悲夫!汝等勿學也。古人裸葬,汝宜行之。」奕生平遇患,未嘗請醫
H01n0001_p0299a27║服藥,雖究陰陽數術之書,而並不之信。又嘗醉臥,蹶然起曰:「吾其死
H01n0001_p0299a28║矣!」因自為墓誌曰:「傅奕,青山白雲人也。因酒醉死,嗚呼哀哉!」其從
H01n0001_p0299a29║達皆此類。注《老子》,並撰《音義》,又集魏、晉以來駁佛教者為《高識
H01n0001_p0299a30║傳》十卷,行於世。    (《舊唐書》卷七十九《傅奕傳》2715)
H01n0001_p0299a31║
H01n0001_p0300a01║   傅奕論佛教
H01n0001_p0300a02║  武德七年,(傅奕)上疏極詆浮圖法曰:
H01n0001_p0300a03║  西域之法,無君臣父子,以三塗六道嚇愚欺庸。追既往之罪,窺將來
H01n0001_p0300a04║之福,至有身陷惡逆,獄中禮佛,口誦梵言,以圖偷免。且生死壽夭,本諸
H01n0001_p0300a05║自然;刑德威福,繫之人主。今其徒矯托,皆云由佛,攘天理,竊主權。
H01n0001_p0300a06║《書》曰:「惟闢作福,惟闢作威,惟辟玉食。臣有作福作威玉食,害於而
H01n0001_p0300a07║家,凶於而國。」
H01n0001_p0300a08║  五帝三王,未有佛法,君明臣忠,年祚長久。至漢明帝始立胡祠,然惟
H01n0001_p0300a09║西域桑門自傳其教。西晉以上,不許中國髡髮事胡。至石、苻亂華,乃弛
H01n0001_p0300a10║厥禁,主庸臣佞,政虐祚短,事佛致然。梁武、齊襄尤足為戒。昔褒姒一
H01n0001_p0300a11║女,營惑幽王,能亡其國,況今僧尼十萬,刻繒泥像,以惑天下,有不亡乎?
H01n0001_p0300a12║陛下以十萬之眾自相夫婦,十年滋產,十年教訓,兵農兩足,利可勝既邪?
H01n0001_p0300a13║昔高齊章仇子他言僧尼塔廟,外見毀宰臣,內見疾妃嬙,陽讒陰謗,卒死都
H01n0001_p0300a14║市,周武帝入齊,封寵其墓,臣竊賢之。
H01n0001_p0300a15║  又上十二論,言益痛切。帝下弈議有司,唯道源佐其請。中書令蕭瑀
H01n0001_p0300a16║曰:「佛,聖人也,非聖人者無法,請誅之。」弈曰:「禮,始事親,終事君。而
H01n0001_p0300a17║佛逃父出家,以匹夫抗天子,以繼體悖所親。瑀非出空桑,乃尊其言,蓋所
H01n0001_p0300a18║謂非孝者無親。」瑀不答,但合爪曰:「地獄正為是人設矣。」帝善弈對,未
H01n0001_p0300a19║及行,會傳位止。
H01n0001_p0300a20║  初,九年,太白躔秦分,弈奏秦王當有天下,帝以奏付王。及太宗即
H01n0001_p0300a21║位,召賜食,謂曰:「向所奏,幾敗我!雖然,自今毋有所諱而不盡言。」又
H01n0001_p0300a22║嘗問:「卿拒佛法,奈何?」弈曰:「佛,西胡黠人爾,欺訹夷狄以自神。至入
H01n0001_p0300a23║中國,而奸兒幻夫摸象莊、老以文飾之,有害國家,而無補百姓也。」帝異
H01n0001_p0300a24║之。
H01n0001_p0300a25║  貞觀十三年,卒,年八十五。弈病,未嘗問醫。忽酣臥,蹶然悟曰:
H01n0001_p0300a26║「吾死矣乎!」即自志曰:「傅弈,青山白雲人也。以醉死,嗚乎!」遺言戒
H01n0001_p0300a27║子:「六經名教言,若可習也;妖胡之法,慎勿為。吾死當裸葬。」弈雖善
H01n0001_p0300a28║數,然嘗自言其學不可以傳。又注《老子》,並集晉、魏以來與佛議駁者為
H01n0001_p0300a29║《高識篇》。
H01n0001_p0300a30║    (《新唐書》卷一百七《傅奕傳》4060)
H01n0001_p0300a31║
H01n0001_p0301a01║   陳子昂論建明堂
H01n0001_p0301a02║  垂拱初,詔問群臣「調元氣當以何道?」(陳)子昂因是勸后興明堂、大
H01n0001_p0301a03║學,即上言:……陛下含天地之德,日月之明,眇然遠思,欲求太和,此伏羲
H01n0001_p0301a04║氏所以為三皇首也。昔者,天皇大帝攬元符,東封太山,然未建明堂,享上
H01n0001_p0301a05║帝,使萬世鴻業闕而不照,殆留此盛德,以發揮陛下哉!臣謂和元氣,睦人
H01n0001_p0301a06║倫,捨此則無以為也……臣願陛下為唐恢萬世之業,相國南郊,建明堂,與
H01n0001_p0301a07║天下更始,按《周禮》、《月令》而成之。迺月孟春,乘鸞輅,駕蒼龍,朝三
H01n0001_p0301a08║公、九卿、大夫於青陽左個,負斧扆,馮玉几,聽天下之政。
H01n0001_p0301a09║  杜按:武則天之明堂多於佛教有關,故錄此文。
H01n0001_p0301a10║    (《新唐書》卷一百七《陳子昂傳》4068)
H01n0001_p0301a11║
H01n0001_p0301a12║   道佛不懲而戒
H01n0001_p0301a13║  (韓琬上言:)國安危在於政。政以法,暫安焉必危;以德,始不便焉
H01n0001_p0301a14║終治。夫法者,智也;德者,道也。智,權宜也;道,可以久大也。故以智治
H01n0001_p0301a15║國,國之賊;不以智治國,國之福。
H01n0001_p0301a16║  貞觀、永徽之間,農不勸而耕者眾,法施而犯者寡;俗不偷薄,器不行
H01n0001_p0301a17║窳,吏貪者士恥同列,忠正清白者比肩而立;罰雖輕而不犯,賞雖薄而勸;
H01n0001_p0301a18║位尊不倨,家富不奢;學校不勵而勤,道佛不懲而戒;土木質厚,裨販弗蚩。
H01n0001_p0301a19║其故奈何?雜以皇道也。自茲以來,任巧智,斥謇諤;趨勢者進,守道者
H01n0001_p0301a20║退;諧附者無黜剝之憂,正直者有後時之歎;人趨家競,風俗淪替。其故奈
H01n0001_p0301a21║何?行以霸道也。
H01n0001_p0301a22║    (《新唐書》卷一百一十二《韓思彥傳附韓琬傳》4164)
H01n0001_p0301a23║
H01n0001_p0301a24║   柳澤評太平公主事胡僧慧范
H01n0001_p0301a25║  (柳澤上疏曰:)今海內咸稱太平公主令胡僧慧范曲引此輩,將有誤
H01n0001_p0301a26║於陛下矣。謗議盈耳,咨嗟滿衢,故語曰:「姚、宋為相,邪不如正;太平用
H01n0001_p0301a27║事,正不如邪。」《書》曰:「無偏無陂,遵王之義,無反無側,王道正直。」臣
H01n0001_p0301a28║恐因循,流近至遠,積小為大,累微起高。勿謂何傷,其禍將長;勿謂何害,
H01n0001_p0301a29║其禍將大。
H01n0001_p0301a30║    (《舊唐書》卷七十七《柳亨傳附柳澤傳》2683)
H01n0001_p0301a31║
H01n0001_p0302a01║   柳澤評太平公主事胡僧慧范
H01n0001_p0302a02║  (柳澤上疏曰:)今天下咸稱太平公主與胡僧慧范以此誤陛下,故語
H01n0001_p0302a03║曰:「姚、宋為相,邪不如正;太平用事,正不如邪。」臣恐流遁至遠,積小為
H01n0001_p0302a04║大,累微起高。勿謂何傷,其禍將長;勿謂何害,其禍將大。
H01n0001_p0302a05║    (《新唐書》卷一百一十二《柳澤傳》4174)
H01n0001_p0302a06║
H01n0001_p0302a07║   袁楚客論佛教
H01n0001_p0302a08║  (陳州袁楚客曰:)今度人既多,緇衣半道,不本行業,專以重寶附權
H01n0001_p0302a09║門,皆有定直。昔之賣官,錢入公府,今之賣度,錢入私家。以茲入道,徒
H01n0001_p0302a10║為游食。此朝廷三失也。
H01n0001_p0302a11║  杜按:《舊唐書》同傳不載袁楚客上書事。
H01n0001_p0302a12║    (《新唐書》卷一百二十二《魏元忠傳》4346)
H01n0001_p0302a13║
H01n0001_p0302a14║   蘇環論佛教
H01n0001_p0302a15║  武后鑄浮屠,立廟塔,役無虛歲。(蘇)環以為「縻損浩廣,雖不出國
H01n0001_p0302a16║用,要自民產日殫。百姓不足,君孰與足?天下僧尼濫偽相半,請並寺,著
H01n0001_p0302a17║僧常員數,缺則補。」后善其言。
H01n0001_p0302a18║    (《新唐書》卷一百二十五《蘇環傳》4398)
H01n0001_p0302a19║
H01n0001_p0302a20║   裴漼諫睿宗造寺觀
H01n0001_p0302a21║  太極元年,睿宗為金仙、玉真公主造觀及寺等,時屬春旱,興役不止。
H01n0001_p0302a22║(裴)漼上疏諫曰:
H01n0001_p0302a23║  臣謹案《禮記》春、夏令曰:無聚大眾,無起大役,不可興土功,恐妨農
H01n0001_p0302a24║事。若號令乖度,役使不時,則人加疾疫之危,國有水旱之災,此五行之必
H01n0001_p0302a25║應也。今自春至夏,時雨愆期,下人憂心,莫知所出。陛下雖降哀矜之旨,
H01n0001_p0302a26║兩都仍有寺觀之作,時旱之應,實此之由。且春令告期,東作方始,正是丁
H01n0001_p0302a27║壯就功之日,而土木方興,臣恐所妨尤多,所益尤少,耕夫蠶妾,饑寒之源。
H01n0001_p0302a28║故《春秋》「莊公三十一年冬,不雨」,《五行傳》以為「歲三築台」;「僖公二
H01n0001_p0302a29║十一年夏,大旱」,《五行傳》以「時作南門,勞人興役」。陛下每以萬方為
H01n0001_p0302a30║念,睿旨慇勤,安國濟人,防微慮遠。伏願下明制,發德音,順天時,副人
H01n0001_p0303a01║望,兩京公私營造及諸和市木石等並請且停,則蒼生幸甚。農桑失時,戶
H01n0001_p0303a02║口流散,縱寺觀營構,豈救黎元饑寒之敝哉!
H01n0001_p0303a03║  疏奏不報。尋轉兵部侍郎,以銓敘平允,特授一子為太子通事舍人。
H01n0001_p0303a04║    (《舊唐書》卷一百《裴漼傳》3128)
H01n0001_p0303a05║
H01n0001_p0303a06║   裴漼諫睿宗造寺觀
H01n0001_p0303a07║  睿宗造金仙、玉真二觀,時旱甚,役不止,漼上言:「春夏毋聚大眾,起
H01n0001_p0303a08║大役,不可興土功,妨農事。若役使乖度,則有疾疫水旱之災,此天人常應
H01n0001_p0303a09║也。今自冬徂春,雨不時降,人心憔然,莫知所出,而土木方興,時暵之孽,
H01n0001_p0303a10║職為此發。今東作云始,丁壯就功,妨多益少,饑寒有漸。……陛下以四
H01n0001_p0303a11║方為念,宜下明制,令二京營作、和市木石,一切停止。有如農桑失時,戶
H01n0001_p0303a12║口流散,雖寺觀營立,能救饑寒敝哉!」不報。
H01n0001_p0303a13║    (《新唐書》卷一百三十《裴漼傳》4488)
H01n0001_p0303a14║
H01n0001_p0303a15║   李叔明論道佛
H01n0001_p0303a16║  (李)叔明素惡道、佛之弊,上言曰:「佛,空寂無為者也;道,清虛寡慾
H01n0001_p0303a17║者也。今迷其內而飾其外,使農夫工女墮業以避役,故農桑不勸,兵賦日
H01n0001_p0303a18║屈,國用軍儲為斁耗。臣請本道定寺為三等,觀為二等,上寺留僧二十一,
H01n0001_p0303a19║上觀道士十四,每等降殺以七,皆擇有行者,餘還為民。」德宗善之,以為
H01n0001_p0303a20║不止本道,可為天下法,乃下尚書省雜議。於是都官員外郎彭偃曰:「王
H01n0001_p0303a21║者之政,變人心為上,因人心次之,不變不因為下。今道士有名亡實,俗鮮
H01n0001_p0303a22║歸重,於亂政輕;僧尼帤穢,皆天下不逞,苟避征役,於亂人甚。今叔明之
H01n0001_p0303a23║請雖善,然未能變人心,亦非因人心者。夫天生蒸人,必將有職;游閒浮
H01n0001_p0303a24║食,王制所禁。故賢者受爵祿,不肖者出租稅,古常道也。今僧、道士不耕
H01n0001_p0303a25║而食,不織而衣,一僧衣食,歲無慮三萬,五夫所不能致。舉一僧以計天
H01n0001_p0303a26║下,其費不貲。臣謂僧、道士年未滿五十,可令歲輸絹四,尼及女官輸絹
H01n0001_p0303a27║二,雜役與民同之;過五十者免。凡人年五十,嗜欲已衰,況有戒法以檢其
H01n0001_p0303a28║性情哉!」刑部員外郎裴伯言曰:「衣者,蠶桑也;食者,耕農也;男女者,繼
H01n0001_p0303a29║祖之重也。而二教悉禁,國家著令,又從而助之,是以夷狄不經法反制中
H01n0001_p0303a30║夏禮義之俗也。傳曰:『女子十四有為人母之道,四十九絕生育之理;男
H01n0001_p0304a01║子十六有為人父之道,六十四絕陽化之理』臣請僧、道士一切限年六十四
H01n0001_p0304a02║以上,尼、女官四十九以上,許終身在道,餘悉還為編人,官為計口授地,收
H01n0001_p0304a03║廢寺觀以為廬舍。」議雖上,罷之。
H01n0001_p0304a04║  杜按:《舊唐書》本傳(3506)不載此事。
H01n0001_p0304a05║    (《新唐書》卷一百四十七《李叔明傳》4758)
H01n0001_p0304a06║
H01n0001_p0304a07║   常袞論佛教
H01n0001_p0304a08║  常袞,京兆人,天寶末,及進士第。性狷潔,不妄交遊……袞建言:
H01n0001_p0304a09║「今西蕃盤桓境上,數入寇,若相連結,以乘無備,其變不細,請早圖之。」
H01n0001_p0304a10║又天子誕日,諸道爭以侈麗奉獻,不則為老子、浮屠解禱事。袞以為:「漢
H01n0001_p0304a11║文帝還千里馬不用,晉武帝焚雉頭裘,宋高祖碎琥珀枕,是三主者,非有聰
H01n0001_p0304a12║明大聖以致治安,謹身率下而已。今諸道饋獻,皆淫侈不急,而節度使、刺
H01n0001_p0304a13║史非能男耕女織者,類出於民,是斂怨以媚上也,請皆還之。今軍旅未寧,
H01n0001_p0304a14║王畿戶口十不一在,而諸祠寺寫經造像,焚幣埋玉,所以賞賚若比丘、道
H01n0001_p0304a15║士、巫祝之流,歲巨萬計。陛下若以易芻粟,減貧民之賦,天下之福豈有量
H01n0001_p0304a16║哉!」代宗嘉納。
H01n0001_p0304a17║  杜按:《舊唐書》本傳(3445)不載此事。
H01n0001_p0304a18║    (《新唐書》卷一百五十《常袞傳》4809)
H01n0001_p0304a19║
H01n0001_p0304a20║   李絳評安國寺立《聖政碑》
H01n0001_p0304a21║  時中官吐突承璀自藩邸承恩寵,為神策護軍中尉,乃於安國佛寺建立
H01n0001_p0304a22║《聖政碑》,大興功作,仍請翰林為其文。絳上言曰:
H01n0001_p0304a23║  陛下布惟新之政,劃積習之弊,四海延頸,日望德音。今忽立《聖政
H01n0001_p0304a24║碑》,示天下以不廣。《易》稱:大人者與天地合德,與日月合明。執契垂
H01n0001_p0304a25║拱,勵精求理,豈可以文字而盡聖德,碑表而贊皇猷?若可敘述,是有分
H01n0001_p0304a26║限,虧損盛德,豈謂敷揚至道哉?故自堯、舜、禹、湯、文、武,並無建碑之
H01n0001_p0304a27║事。至秦始皇荒逸之君,煩酷之政,然後有罘、嶧之碑,揚誅伐之功,紀巡
H01n0001_p0304a28║幸之跡,適足為百王所笑,萬代所譏,至今稱為失道亡國之主,豈可擬議於
H01n0001_p0304a29║此?陛下嗣高祖、太宗之業,舉貞觀、開元之政,思理不遑食,從諫如順流,
H01n0001_p0304a30║固可與堯、舜、禹、湯、文、武方駕而行,又安得追秦皇暴虐不經之事而自損
H01n0001_p0305a01║聖政?近者,閻巨源請立紀聖功碑,陛下詳盡事宜,皆不允許。今忽令立
H01n0001_p0305a02║此,與前事頗乖。況此碑既在安國寺,不得不敘載遊觀崇飾之事,述遊觀
H01n0001_p0305a03║且乖理要,敘崇飾又匪政經,固非哲王所宜行也。其碑,伏乞聖恩特令寢
H01n0001_p0305a04║罷。
H01n0001_p0305a05║  憲宗深然之,其碑遂止。
H01n0001_p0305a06║    (《舊唐書》卷一百六十四《李絳傳》4286)
H01n0001_p0305a07║
H01n0001_p0305a08║   李絳評安國寺立《聖政碑》
H01n0001_p0305a09║  是時,盛興安國佛祠,倖臣吐突承璀請立石紀聖德焉,營構華廣,欲使
H01n0001_p0305a10║(李)絳為之頌,將遺錢千萬。絳上言:「陛下蕩積習之弊,四海延頸望德
H01n0001_p0305a11║音,忽自立碑,示人以不廣。易稱:『大人與天地合德。』謂非文字所能盡,
H01n0001_p0305a12║若令可述,是陛下美有分限。堯、舜至文、武,皆不傳其事,惟秦始刻嶧山,
H01n0001_p0305a13║揚暴誅伐巡幸之勞,失道之君,不足為法。今安國有碑,若敘遊觀,即非治
H01n0001_p0305a14║要;述崇飾,又非政宜。請罷之。」帝怒,絳伏奏愈切,帝悟曰:「微絳,我不
H01n0001_p0305a15║自知。」命百牛倒石,令使者勞諭絳。襄陽裴均違詔書,獻銀壺甕數百具,
H01n0001_p0305a16║絳請歸之度支,示天下以信。帝可奏,仍赦均罪。時議還盧從史昭義,已
H01n0001_p0305a17║而將復召之,從史以軍無見儲為解。李吉甫謂鄭絪漏其謀,帝召絳議,欲
H01n0001_p0305a18║逐絪,絳為開白,乃免。
H01n0001_p0305a19║    (《新唐書》卷一百五十二《李絳傳》4836)
H01n0001_p0305a20║
H01n0001_p0305a21║   高郢論佛教
H01n0001_p0305a22║  寶應初,(高郢)及進士第。代宗為太后營章敬寺,郢以白衣上書諫
H01n0001_p0305a23║曰:
H01n0001_p0305a24║  陛下大孝因心,與天罔極,烝烝之思,要無以加。臣謂悉力追孝,誠為
H01n0001_p0305a25║有益,妨時剿人,不得無損。舍人就寺,何福之為?昔魯莊公丹桓公廟楹
H01n0001_p0305a26║而刻其桷,春秋書之為非禮。漢孝惠、孝景、孝宣令郡國諸侯立高祖、文、
H01n0001_p0305a27║武廟,至元帝,與博士、議郎斟酌古禮,一罷之。夫廟猶不越禮而立,況寺
H01n0001_p0305a28║非宗祏所安、神靈所宅乎?殫萬人之力,邀一切之報,其為不可亦明矣。
H01n0001_p0305a29║  間者昆吾孔熾,薦食生人,百姓懍懍,無日不惕。遣將攘卻,亡尺寸
H01n0001_p0305a30║功,隴外壤地,委諸豺狼。太宗艱難之業,傳之陛下,一夫不獲,尺土見侵,
H01n0001_p0306a01║告成之時,猶恐有闕。況用武以來十三年,傷者不救,死者不收,繕卒補
H01n0001_p0306a02║乘,於今未已。夫興師十萬,日費千金,計十三年,舉百萬之眾,資糧屝屨,
H01n0001_p0306a03║取足於人,勞罷宛轉,十不一在。父子兄弟,相視無聊,延頸嗷嗷,以役王
H01n0001_p0306a04║命。縱未能出禁財,贍鰥寡,猶當稍息勞弊,以噢休之。奈何戎虜未平,侵
H01n0001_p0306a05║地未復,金革未戢,疲人未撫,太倉無終歲之儲,大農有榷酤之敝,欲以此
H01n0001_p0306a06║時興力役哉?比八月雨不潤下,菽麥失時,黔首狼顧,憂在艱食,若遂不
H01n0001_p0306a07║給,將何以救之?無寺猶可,無人其可乎?然土木之勤,功用之費,不虛府
H01n0001_p0306a08║庫,將焉取之?府庫既竭,則又誅求,若人不堪命,盜賊相挻而興,戎狄乘
H01n0001_p0306a09║間,以為風塵,得不為陛下深憂乎?
H01n0001_p0306a10║  臣聞聖人受命於天,以人為主,苟功濟於天,天人同和,則宗廟受福,
H01n0001_p0306a11║子孫蒙慶。傳曰:「德教加於百姓,刑於四海,天子之孝也。」又曰:「無念
H01n0001_p0306a12║爾祖,聿修厥德。」「既受帝祉,施於孫子。」是知王者之孝,在於承順天地,
H01n0001_p0306a13║嚴配宗考,恭慎德教,以臨兆民。俾四海之內,歡心助祭,延福流祚,永永
H01n0001_p0306a14║無窮。未聞崇樹梵宮,雕琢金玉之為孝者。夏禹卑宮室,盡力溝洫,人到
H01n0001_p0306a15║於今稱之。梁武帝窮土木,飾塔廟,人無稱焉。陛下若節用愛人,當與夏
H01n0001_p0306a16║後齊美,何必勞人動眾,踵梁武遺風乎?及製作之初,伎費尚淺,人貴量
H01n0001_p0306a17║力,不貴必成,事貴相時,不貴必遂。陛下若回思慮,從人心,則聖德孝思,
H01n0001_p0306a18║格於天地,千福萬祿,先後受之,曾是一寺較功德邪?
H01n0001_p0306a19║  書奏。未報。復上言:
H01n0001_p0306a20║  王者將有為也,將有行也,必稽於眾而順於人,則自然之福,不求而
H01n0001_p0306a21║至,未然之禍,不除而絕。臣聞神人無功者,不為有功之功;聖人無名者,
H01n0001_p0306a22║不為有名之名。不為有功之功,故功莫大;不為有名之名,故名莫厚。古
H01n0001_p0306a23║之明王積善以致福,不費財以求福;修德以銷禍,不勞人以攘禍。陛下之
H01n0001_p0306a24║營作,臣竊惑之。若以為功,則天覆地載,陰施陽化,未曾有為也。若以為
H01n0001_p0306a25║名,則至德要道,以順天下,未曾有待也。若以致福,則通於神明,光於四
H01n0001_p0306a26║海,不在費財。若以攘禍,則方務厥德,罔有天災,不在勞人。今興造趣
H01n0001_p0306a27║急,人徒竭作,土木並起,日課萬工,不遑食息,搒笞愁痛,盈於道路。以此
H01n0001_p0306a28║望福,臣恐不然。陛下戢定多難,勵精思治,務行寬仁,以幸天下。今固違
H01n0001_p0306a29║群情,徇左右過計,臣竊為陛下惜之。
H01n0001_p0306a30║  不納。    (《新唐書》卷一百六十五《高郢傳》5070)
H01n0001_p0306a31║
H01n0001_p0307a01║   《新唐書》史臣贊論佛教
H01n0001_p0307a02║  贊曰:人之惑怪神也,甚哉!若佛者,特西域一槁人耳。裸顛露足,以
H01n0001_p0307a03║乞食自資,臞辱其身,屏營山樊,行一概之苦,本無求於人,徒屬稍稍從之。
H01n0001_p0307a04║然其言荒茫漫靡,夷幻變現,善推不驗無實之事,以鬼神死生貫為一條,據
H01n0001_p0307a05║之不疑。掊嗜欲,棄親屬,大抵與黃老相出入,至漢十四葉,書入中國。
H01n0001_p0307a06║跡夫生人之情,以耳目不際為奇,以不可知為神,以物理之外為畏,以變化
H01n0001_p0307a07║無方為聖,以生而死、死復生、回復償報、歆艷其間為或然,以賤近貴遠為。
H01n0001_p0307a08║鞮譯差殊,不可研詰。華人之譎誕者,又攘莊周、列禦寇之說佐其高,層累
H01n0001_p0307a09║架騰,直出其表,以無上不可加為勝,妄相誇協而倡其鳳。於是,自天子逮
H01n0001_p0307a10║庶人,皆震動而祠奉之。
H01n0001_p0307a11║  初,宰相王縉以緣業事佐代宗,於是始作內道場,晝夜梵唄,冀禳寇
H01n0001_p0307a12║戎,大作盂蘭,肖祖宗像,分供塔廟,為賊臣嘻笑。至憲宗世,遂迎佛骨於
H01n0001_p0307a13║鳳翔,內之宮中。韓愈指言其弊,帝怒,竄愈瀕死,憲亦弗獲天年。幸福而
H01n0001_p0307a14║禍,無亦左乎!懿宗不君,精爽奪迷,復陷前車而覆之。興哀無知之場,丐
H01n0001_p0307a15║庇百解之胔,以死自誓,無有顧藉,流淚拜伏,雖事宗廟上帝,無以進焉。
H01n0001_p0307a16║屈萬乘之貴,自等太古胡,數千載而遠,以身為徇。嗚呼,運祚殫,天告之
H01n0001_p0307a17║矣!懿不三月而徂,唐德之不競,厥有來哉,悲夫!
H01n0001_p0307a18║    (《新唐書》卷一百八十一《史臣贊》5355)
H01n0001_p0307a19║
H01n0001_p0307a20║   史臣評天竺胡僧
H01n0001_p0307a21║  臣檢討先代圖籍,今古歷書,皆無蝕神首尾之文,蓋天竺胡僧之妖說
H01n0001_p0307a22║也。
H01n0001_p0307a23║    (《舊五代》卷一百四十《歷志》1866)
H01n0001_p0307a24║
H01n0001_p0307a25║   馮道曰:佛救不得百姓
H01n0001_p0307a26║  契丹入汴,道自襄,鄧召入,戎王因從容問曰:「天下百姓,如何可
H01n0001_p0307a27║救?」道曰:「此時百姓,佛再出救不得,唯皇帝救得。」其後衣冠不至傷夷,
H01n0001_p0307a28║皆道與趙延壽陰護之所至也。
H01n0001_p0307a29║    (《舊五代史》卷一百二十六《馮道傳》1660)
H01n0001_p0307a30║
H01n0001_p0308a01║   馮道曰:佛救不得百姓
H01n0001_p0308a02║  耶律德光嘗問(馮)道曰:「天下百姓如何救得?」道為俳語以對曰:
H01n0001_p0308a03║「此時佛出救不得,惟皇帝救得。」人皆以謂契丹不夷滅中國之人者,賴道
H01n0001_p0308a04║一言之善也。
H01n0001_p0308a05║    (《新五代》卷五十四《馮道傳》614)
H01n0001_p0308a06║
H01n0001_p0308a07║   宋庠論僧道
H01n0001_p0308a08║  (宋庠疏曰:)今左藏無積年之鏹,太倉無三歲之粟……朝廷大有三
H01n0001_p0308a09║冗,小有三費,以困天下之財。財窮用褊,而欲興師遠事,誠無謀矣。能去
H01n0001_p0308a10║三冗、節三費,專備西北之屯,可曠然高枕矣。
H01n0001_p0308a11║  何謂三冗?天下有定官無限員,一冗也;天下廂軍不任戰而耗衣食,
H01n0001_p0308a12║二冗也;僧道日益多而無定數,三冗也。三冗不去,不可為國。請斷自今,
H01n0001_p0308a13║僧道已受戒具者姑如舊,其他悉罷還為民,可得耕夫織婦五十餘萬人,一
H01n0001_p0308a14║冗去矣……何謂三費?一曰道場齋醮,無有虛日,且百司供億,至不可貲
H01n0001_p0308a15║計。彼皆以祝帝壽、奉先烈、祈民福為名,臣愚以為此主者為欺盜之計爾。
H01n0001_p0308a16║陛下事天地、宗廟、社稷、百神,犧牲玉帛,使有司端委奉之、歲時薦之,足
H01n0001_p0308a17║以竦明德、介多福矣,何必希屑屑之報哉?則一費節矣。二曰京師寺觀,
H01n0001_p0308a18║或多設徒卒,添置官府,衣糧率三倍他處。居大屋高廡,不徭不役,坐蠹齊
H01n0001_p0308a19║民,其尤者也。而又自募民財,營建祠廟,雖曰不費官帑,然國與民一也,
H01n0001_p0308a20║捨國取民,其傷一焉,請罷去之,則二費節矣。三曰使相節度,不隸藩
H01n0001_p0308a21║要……請自今地非邊要、州無師屯者,不得建節度;已帶節度,不得留近藩
H01n0001_p0308a22║及京師,則三費節矣。
H01n0001_p0308a23║    (《宋史》卷二百八十四《宋庠傳》9594)
H01n0001_p0308a24║
H01n0001_p0308a25║   賈昌朝評修佛寺
H01n0001_p0308a26║  太平興國寺災,是夕,大雨震雷。朝廷議修復,(賈)昌朝上言:「《易
H01n0001_p0308a27║震》之《象》曰:『洊雷震,君子以恐懼修省。』近年寺觀屢災,此殆天示警
H01n0001_p0308a28║告,可勿繕治,以示畏天愛人之意。」西域僧獻佛骨、銅像,(賈)昌朝請加
H01n0001_p0308a29║賜遣還,毋以所獻示中外。悉行其言。
H01n0001_p0308a30║    (《宋史》卷二百八十五《賈昌朝傳》9614)
H01n0001_p0308a31║
H01n0001_p0309a01║   王禹稱上疏沙汰僧尼
H01n0001_p0309a02║  真宗即位,遷秩刑部,會詔求直言,(王)禹稱上疏言五事:
H01n0001_p0309a03║  一曰謹邊防,通盟好,使輦運之民有所休息……
H01n0001_p0309a04║  二曰減冗兵,並冗吏,使山澤之饒,稍流於下……
H01n0001_p0309a05║  三曰艱難選舉,使入官不濫……
H01n0001_p0309a06║  四曰沙汰僧尼,使疲民無耗。夫古者惟有四民,兵不在其數。蓋古者
H01n0001_p0309a07║井田之法,農即兵也。自秦以來,戰士不服農業,是四民之外,又生一民,
H01n0001_p0309a08║故農益困。然執干戈衛社稷,理不可去。漢明之後,佛法流入中國,度人
H01n0001_p0309a09║修寺,歷代增加。不蠶而衣,不耕而食,是五民之外,又益一而為六矣。假
H01n0001_p0309a10║使天下有萬僧,日食米一升,歲用絹一匹,是至儉也,猶月費三千斛,歲用
H01n0001_p0309a11║萬縑,何況五七萬輩哉。不曰民蠹得乎?臣愚以為國家度人眾矣,造寺多
H01n0001_p0309a12║矣,計其費耗,何啻億萬。先朝不豫,捨施又多,佛若有靈,豈不蒙福?事
H01n0001_p0309a13║佛無效,斷可知矣。願陛下深鑒治本,亟行沙汰,如以嗣位之初,未欲驚駭
H01n0001_p0309a14║此輩,且可以二十載,不度人修寺,使自銷鑠,亦救弊之一端也。
H01n0001_p0309a15║  五曰親大臣,遠小人,使忠良蹇諤之士,知進而不疑,奸憸傾巧之徒,
H01n0001_p0309a16║知退而有懼……
H01n0001_p0309a17║    (《宋史》卷二百九十三《王禹稱傳》9795)
H01n0001_p0309a18║
H01n0001_p0309a19║   張洞奏請評度僧之敝
H01n0001_p0309a20║  時天下戶口日蕃,民去為僧者眾。(張)洞奏:「至和元年,敕增歲度
H01n0001_p0309a21║僧,舊敕諸路三百人度一人,後率百人度一人;又文武官、內臣墳墓,得置
H01n0001_p0309a22║寺撥放,近歲滋廣。若以勳勞宜假之者,當依古給戶守塚,禁毋樵采而已。
H01n0001_p0309a23║今祠部帳至三十餘萬僧,失不裁損,後不勝其弊。」朝廷用其言,始三分減
H01n0001_p0309a24║一。
H01n0001_p0309a25║    (《宋史》卷二百九十九《張洞傳》9933)
H01n0001_p0309a26║
H01n0001_p0309a27║   余靖上疏言舍利入禁中
H01n0001_p0309a28║  開寶寺靈感塔災,(余靖)復上疏言:「五行之占,本是災變,朝廷所宜
H01n0001_p0309a29║誡懼,以答天意。聞嘗詔取舊瘞舍利入禁中閱視,道路傳言,舍利在內廷
H01n0001_p0309a30║有光怪,竊恐巧佞之人,推為靈異,惑亂視聽,再圖營造。臣聞帝王之道,
H01n0001_p0310a01║能勤儉厥德,感動人心,則雖有危難,後必安濟。今自西垂用兵,國帑虛
H01n0001_p0310a02║竭,民亡儲蓄,十室九空。陛下若勤勞罪己,憂人之憂,則四民安居,海內
H01n0001_p0310a03║蒙福。如不恤民病,廣事浮費,奉佛求福,非天下所望也。若以舍利經火
H01n0001_p0310a04║不壞,遽為神異,即本在土中,火所不及。若言舍利皆能出光怪,必有神靈
H01n0001_p0310a05║憑之,此妄言也。且一塔不能自衛,為火所毀,況藉其福以庇民哉?」
H01n0001_p0310a06║    (《宋史》卷三百二十《余靖傳》10408)
H01n0001_p0310a07║
H01n0001_p0310a08║   司馬光不喜釋老
H01n0001_p0310a09║  (司馬光)光於物澹然無所好,於學無所不通,惟不喜釋、老,曰:「其
H01n0001_p0310a10║微言不能出吾書,其誕吾不信也。」
H01n0001_p0310a11║    (《宋史》卷三百三十六《司馬光傳》10769)
H01n0001_p0310a12║
H01n0001_p0310a13║   曹輔上疏言去浮屠
H01n0001_p0310a14║  曹輔字載德,南劍州人。第進士……自政和後,帝多微行,乘小轎子,
H01n0001_p0310a15║數內臣導從……輔上疏略曰:……況今革冗員,斥濫奉,去浮屠,誅胥吏,
H01n0001_p0310a16║蚩愚之民,豈能一一引咎安分?萬一當乘輿不戒之初,一夫不逞,包藏禍
H01n0001_p0310a17║心,發蜂蠆之毒,奮獸窮之計,雖神靈垂護,然亦損威傷重矣。又況有臣子
H01n0001_p0310a18║不忍言者,可不戒哉!
H01n0001_p0310a19║    (《宋史》卷三百五十二《曹輔傳》11128)
H01n0001_p0310a20║
H01n0001_p0310a21║   尤袤奏請禁釋老
H01n0001_p0310a22║  台臣乞定喪制,(尤)袤奏:「釋老之教,矯誣褻瀆,非所以嚴宮禁、崇
H01n0001_p0310a23║几筵,宜一切禁止。」
H01n0001_p0310a24║    (《宋史》卷三百八十九《尤袤傳》11926)
H01n0001_p0310a25║
H01n0001_p0310a26║   程大昌謂僧寺違法置田
H01n0001_p0310a27║  六和塔寺僧以鎮潮為功,求內降給賜所置田產仍免科徭,(程)大昌
H01n0001_p0310a28║奏:「僧寺既違法置田,又移科徭於民,奈何許之!況自修塔之後,潮果不
H01n0001_p0310a29║嚙岸乎?」寢其命。
H01n0001_p0310a30║    (《宋史》卷四百三十三《儒林.程大昌傳》12860)
H01n0001_p0310a31║
H01n0001_p0311a01║   劉恕不信浮屠之說
H01n0001_p0311a02║  (劉恕)尤不信浮屠說,以為必無是事,曰:「人如居逆旅,一物不可
H01n0001_p0311a03║乏,去則盡棄之矣,豈得賚以自隨哉。」
H01n0001_p0311a04║    (《宋史》卷四百四十四《文苑.劉恕傳》13120)
H01n0001_p0311a05║
H01n0001_p0311a06║   松江漁翁觀釋氏書
H01n0001_p0311a07║  (松江漁)翁曰:「吾厭喧煩,處閒曠,遁跡於此三十年矣。幼喜誦經
H01n0001_p0311a08║史百家之言,後觀釋氏書,今皆棄去。唯飽食以嬉,尚何所事?」(潘)裕
H01n0001_p0311a09║曰:「先生澡身浴德如此。今聖明在上,盍出而仕乎?」笑曰:「君子之道,
H01n0001_p0311a10║或出或處,吾雖不能棲隱巖穴,追園、綺之蹤,竊慕老氏曲全之義。且養志
H01n0001_p0311a11║者忘形,養形者忘利,致道者忘心,心形俱忘,其視軒冕如糞土耳,與子出
H01n0001_p0311a12║處異趣,子勉之。」裕曰:「裕也不才,幸聞先生之高義,敢問舍所在。」曰:
H01n0001_p0311a13║「吾姓名且不欲人知,況居室耶!」飲畢,長揖使裕反其所,鼓枻而去。
H01n0001_p0311a14║    (《宋史》卷四百五十八《隱逸中.松江漁翁傳》13451)
H01n0001_p0311a15║
H01n0001_p0311a16║   劉豫不度僧道
H01n0001_p0311a17║  四月丙寅,(劉)豫遷都汴……是日,暴風捲旗,屋瓦皆震,士民大恐。
H01n0001_p0311a18║豫曲赦汴人,與民約曰:「自今不肆赦,不用宦官,不度僧道。文武雜用,
H01n0001_p0311a19║不限資格。」
H01n0001_p0311a20║    (《宋史》卷四百七十五《叛臣上.劉豫傳》13796)
H01n0001_p0311a21║
H01n0001_p0311a22║   僧德詔語錢俶
H01n0001_p0311a23║  晉開運中,(錢俶)為台州刺史。數月,有僧德詔語俶曰:「此地非君
H01n0001_p0311a24║為治之所,當速歸,不然不利。」俶從其言,即求歸國,未幾,有進思之變。
H01n0001_p0311a25║    (《宋史》卷四百八十《吳越錢氏世家》13897)
H01n0001_p0311a26║
H01n0001_p0311a27║   宗太祖曰「佛非中國教」
H01n0001_p0311a28║  義宗,名倍,小字圖欲,太祖長子,母淳欽皇后蕭氏。幼聰敏好學,外
H01n0001_p0311a29║寬內摯。神冊元年春,立為皇太子。
H01n0001_p0311a30║  時太祖問侍臣曰:「受命之君,當事天敬神。有大功德者,朕欲祀之,
H01n0001_p0312a01║何先?」皆以佛對。太祖曰:「佛非中國教。」倍曰:「孔子大聖,萬世所尊,
H01n0001_p0312a02║宜先。」太祖大悅,即建孔子廟,詔皇太子春秋釋奠。
H01n0001_p0312a03║    (《遼史》卷七十二《宗室.義宗傳》1209)
H01n0001_p0312a04║
H01n0001_p0312a05║   室昉論寺院賜額
H01n0001_p0312a06║  初,晉國公主建佛寺於南京,上許賜額。(室)昉奏曰:「詔書悉罪無
H01n0001_p0312a07║名寺院。今以主請賜額,不惟違前詔,恐此風愈熾。」上從之。
H01n0001_p0312a08║    (《遼史》卷七十九《室昉傳》1272)
H01n0001_p0312a09║
H01n0001_p0312a10║   金世宗「至於佛法,尤所未信」
H01n0001_p0312a11║  (大定)八年正月甲子朔,宋、高麗、夏遣使來賀……辛未,謂秘書監
H01n0001_p0312a12║移剌子敬等曰:「昔唐、虞之時,未有華飾,漢惟孝文務為純儉。朕於宮室
H01n0001_p0312a13║惟恐過度,其或興修,即損宮人歲費以充之,今亦不復營建矣。如宴飲之
H01n0001_p0312a14║事,近惟太子生日及歲元嘗飲酒,往者亦止上元、中秋飲之,亦未嘗至醉。
H01n0001_p0312a15║至於佛法,尤所未信。梁武帝為同泰寺奴,遼道宗以民戶賜寺僧,復加以
H01n0001_p0312a16║三公之官,共惑深矣。」庚辰,行皇太子冊禮。
H01n0001_p0312a17║    (《金史》卷六《世宗紀上》141)
H01n0001_p0312a18║
H01n0001_p0312a19║   金世宗言「奉道崇佛」
H01n0001_p0312a20║  (大定二十七年十二月)甲申,上諭宰臣曰:「人皆以奉道崇佛設齋讀
H01n0001_p0312a21║經為福,朕使百姓無冤,天下安樂,不勝於彼乎。爾等居輔相之任,誠能匡
H01n0001_p0312a22║益國家,使百姓蒙利,不惟身享其報,亦將施及子孫矣。」左丞斡特剌曰:
H01n0001_p0312a23║「臣等敢不盡心,第才不逮,不能稱職耳。」上曰:「人亦安能每事盡善,但
H01n0001_p0312a24║加勉勵可也。」戊子,禁女直(真)人不得改稱漢姓,學南人衣裝,犯者抵
H01n0001_p0312a25║罪。
H01n0001_p0312a26║    (《金史》卷八《世宗紀下》199)
H01n0001_p0312a27║
H01n0001_p0312a28║   孔廟何以不如佛寺道觀
H01n0001_p0312a29║  (明昌五年閏十月)戊寅,上問輔臣:「孔子廟諸處何如?」平章政事守
H01n0001_p0312a30║貞曰:「諸縣見議建立。」上因曰:「僧徒修飾宇像甚嚴,道流次之,惟儒者
H01n0001_p0313a01║於孔子廟最為滅裂。」守貞曰;「儒者不能長居學校,非若僧道久處寺觀。」
H01n0001_p0313a02║上曰:「僧道以佛、老營利,故務在莊嚴閎侈,起人施利自多,所以為觀美
H01n0001_p0313a03║也。」
H01n0001_p0313a04║    (《金史》卷十《章宗紀二》234)
H01n0001_p0313a05║
H01n0001_p0313a06║   海陵王責卿臣奉佛
H01n0001_p0313a07║  會磁州僧法寶欲去,張浩、張暉欲留之不可得,朝官又有欲留之者。
H01n0001_p0313a08║海陵聞其事,詔三品以上官上殿,責之曰:「聞卿等每到寺,僧法寶正坐,
H01n0001_p0313a09║卿等皆坐其側,朕甚不取。佛者本一小國王子,能輕捨富貴,自苦修行,由
H01n0001_p0313a10║是成佛,今人崇敬。以希福利,皆妄也。況僧者,往往不第秀才,市井游
H01n0001_p0313a11║食,生計不足,乃去為僧,較其貴賤,未可與簿尉抗禮。閭閻老婦,迫於死
H01n0001_p0313a12║期,多歸信之。卿等位為宰輔,乃復效此,失大臣體。張司徒老成舊人,三
H01n0001_p0313a13║教該通,足為儀表,何不師之。」召法寶謂之曰:「汝既為僧,去住在己,何
H01n0001_p0313a14║乃使人知之?」法寶戰懼,不知所為。海陵曰:「汝為長老,當有定力,今乃
H01n0001_p0313a15║畏死耶?」遂於朝堂杖之二百,張浩、張暉杖二十。
H01n0001_p0313a16║    (《金史》卷八十三《張通古傳》1861)
H01n0001_p0313a17║
H01n0001_p0313a18║   完顏襄論放寺奴
H01n0001_p0313a19║  章宗初即政,議罷僧道奴婢。太尉克寧奏曰:「此蓋成俗日久,若遽
H01n0001_p0313a20║更之,於人情不安。陛下如惡其數多,宜嚴立格法,以防濫度,則自少
H01n0001_p0313a21║矣。」襄曰:「出家之人安用僕隸?乞不問從初如何所得,悉放為良。若寺
H01n0001_p0313a22║觀物力元係奴婢之數推定者,併合除免。」詔從襄言。由是二稅戶多為良
H01n0001_p0313a23║者。
H01n0001_p0313a24║    (《金史》卷九十四《完顏襄傳》2088)
H01n0001_p0313a25║
H01n0001_p0313a26║   三君矯枉(滅佛)太過
H01n0001_p0313a27║  承安元年八月壬子,上(金章宗)召(張)暐至內殿,問曰:……「僧道
H01n0001_p0313a28║三年一試,八十而取一,不亦少乎?」對曰:「此輩浮食,無益有損,不宜滋
H01n0001_p0313a29║益也。」上曰:「周武帝、唐武宗、後周世宗皆賢君,其壽不永,雖曰偶然,似
H01n0001_p0313a30║亦有因也。」對曰:「三君矯枉太過。今不毀除、不崇奉,是為得中矣。」是
H01n0001_p0314a01║歲,郊見上帝焉。
H01n0001_p0314a02║    (《金史》卷一百六《張暐傳》2328)
H01n0001_p0314a03║
H01n0001_p0314a04║   元成宗以軍五千人供造寺工役
H01n0001_p0314a05║  (至大元年十一月)庚申,太白晝見。以軍五千人供造寺工役。……
H01n0001_p0314a06║中書省臣言:「今銓選、錢糧之法盡壞,廩藏空虛。中都建城,大都建寺,
H01n0001_p0314a07║及為諸貴人營私第,軍民不得休息。邇者用度愈廣,每賜一人,輒至萬錠,
H01n0001_p0314a08║惟陛下矜察。」
H01n0001_p0314a09║    (《元史》卷二十二《武宗紀一》504)
H01n0001_p0314a10║
H01n0001_p0314a11║   三公之職,濫假僧人
H01n0001_p0314a12║  (泰定元年三月庚戌)監察御史宋本、李嘉賓、傅嚴起言:「太尉、司
H01n0001_p0314a13║徒、司空,三公之職,濫假僧人,及會福、殊祥二院,並辱名爵,請罷之。」不
H01n0001_p0314a14║報。    (《元史》卷二十九《泰定帝紀》645)
H01n0001_p0314a15║
H01n0001_p0314a16║   中書省臣言建寺傷農
H01n0001_p0314a17║  (泰定三年十月)庚辰,享太廟。奉安顯宗御容於大天源延聖寺……
H01n0001_p0314a18║賜大天源延聖寺鈔二萬錠,吉安、臨江二路田千頃。中書省臣言:「養給
H01n0001_p0314a19║軍民,必籍地利。世祖建大宣文弘教等寺,賜永業,當時已號虛費。而成
H01n0001_p0314a20║宗復拘天壽萬寧寺,較之世祖,用增倍半。若武宗之崇恩福元、仁宗之承
H01n0001_p0314a21║華普慶,租榷所入,益又甚焉。英宗鑿山開寺,損兵傷農,而卒無益。夫土
H01n0001_p0314a22║地祖宗所有,子孫當共惜之。臣恐茲後藉為口實,妄興工役,徼福利以逞
H01n0001_p0314a23║私慾,惟陛下察之。」帝嘉納焉。
H01n0001_p0314a24║    (《元史》卷三十《泰定帝紀二》674)
H01n0001_p0314a25║
H01n0001_p0314a26║   泰定帝命帝師修佛事,御史建言
H01n0001_p0314a27║  (泰定三年十二月)己亥,命帝師修佛事,釋重囚三人。置大承華普
H01n0001_p0314a28║慶寺總管府,罷規運提點所。御史言:「比年營繕,以衛軍供役,廢武事不
H01n0001_p0314a29║講。請遵世祖舊制,教習五衛親軍,以備扈從。」不報。
H01n0001_p0314a30║    (《元史》卷三十《泰定帝紀二》675)
H01n0001_p0314a31║
H01n0001_p0315a01║   楊倬奏請分僧道儲粟以濟民
H01n0001_p0315a02║  (致和元年四月)己酉,御史楊倬等以民饑,請分僧道儲粟濟之,不
H01n0001_p0315a03║報。    (《元史》卷三十《泰定帝紀二》686)
H01n0001_p0315a04║
H01n0001_p0315a05║   中書省臣言佛事歲費
H01n0001_p0315a06║  (天歷二年正月丁丑)中書省臣言:「朝廷賞賚,不宜濫及罔功。鷹、
H01n0001_p0315a07║鶻、獅、豹之食,舊支肉價二百餘錠,今增至萬三千八百錠;控鶴舊止六百
H01n0001_p0315a08║二十八戶,今增二千四百戶。又,佛事歲費,以今較舊,增多金千一百五十
H01n0001_p0315a09║兩、銀六千二百兩、鈔五萬六千二百錠、幣帛三萬四千餘匹;請悉揀汰。」從之。
H01n0001_p0315a10║    (《元史》卷三十三《文宗紀二》728)
H01n0001_p0315a11║
H01n0001_p0315a12║   中書省臣言帑廩虛空五事
H01n0001_p0315a13║  (至順元年七月己巳)中書省臣言:「近歲帑廩虛空,其費有五:曰賞
H01n0001_p0315a14║賜,曰作佛事,曰創置衙門,曰濫冒支請,曰續增衛士鷹坊。請與樞密院、
H01n0001_p0315a15║御史台、各怯薛官同加汰減。」從之。
H01n0001_p0315a16║    (《元史》卷三十四《文宗紀三》760)
H01n0001_p0315a17║
H01n0001_p0315a18║   釋氏請以金銀幣帛祠其神
H01n0001_p0315a19║  釋氏請以金銀幣帛祠其神,帝難之。不忽木曰:「彼佛以去貪為寶。」
H01n0001_p0315a20║遂弗與。
H01n0001_p0315a21║    (《元史》卷一百三十《不忽木傳》3169)
H01n0001_p0315a22║
H01n0001_p0315a23║   朵羅台上疏請減省供佛飯僧之費
H01n0001_p0315a24║  朵羅檯子之脫歡,初直宿衛,歷御史台譯史,拜監察御史。遷四川行
H01n0001_p0315a25║省左右司員外郎、四川廉訪司僉事、樞密院都事,升斷事官。其在四川時,
H01n0001_p0315a26║嘗上疏曰:「內外修寺,雖支官錢,而一椽一瓦,皆勞民力,百姓嗟怨,感傷
H01n0001_p0315a27║和氣。宜且停罷,仍減省供佛飯僧之費,以紓國用。如此則上應天心,下
H01n0001_p0315a28║合民志,不求福而福自至矣。」
H01n0001_p0315a29║    (《元史》卷一百三十四《朵羅台傳》3265)
H01n0001_p0315a30║
H01n0001_p0316a01║   脫脫選寺並說「地獄」
H01n0001_p0316a02║  脫脫乃以私財造大壽元忠國寺於健德門外,為皇太子祝釐,其費為鈔
H01n0001_p0316a03║十二萬二千錠。
H01n0001_p0316a04║  (至王)四年閏月,領宣政院事。諸山主僧請復僧司,且曰:「郡縣所
H01n0001_p0316a05║苦,如坐地獄。」脫脫曰:「若復僧司,何異地獄中復置地獄邪?」
H01n0001_p0316a06║    (《元史》卷一百三十八《脫脫傳》3344)
H01n0001_p0316a07║
H01n0001_p0316a08║   皇帝建佛塔、董文用言非時役民
H01n0001_p0316a09║  (至元二十二年)有以帝命建佛塔於宋故宮者,有司奉行甚急,天大
H01n0001_p0316a10║雨雪,入山伐木,死者數百人,猶欲並建大寺。文用謂其人曰:「非時役
H01n0001_p0316a11║民,民不堪矣,少徐之如何?」長官者曰:「參政奈何格上命耶?」文用曰:
H01n0001_p0316a12║「非敢格上命,今日之困民力而失民心者,豈上意耶!」其人意沮,遂稍寬
H01n0001_p0316a13║其期。
H01n0001_p0316a14║    (《元史》卷一百四十八《董俊傳附董文用傳》3499)
H01n0001_p0316a15║
H01n0001_p0316a16║   僧道畜妻子,無異常人
H01n0001_p0316a17║  (泰定元年六月張珪奏曰:)僧道出家,屏絕妻孥,蓋欲超出世表,是
H01n0001_p0316a18║以國家優視,無所徭役,且處之官寺;宜清淨絕俗為心,誦經祝壽。比年僧
H01n0001_p0316a19║道往往畜妻子,無異常人,如蔡道泰、班講主之徒,傷人逞欲、壞教干刑者,
H01n0001_p0316a20║何可勝數!俾奉祠典,豈不褻天瀆神!臣等議:僧道之畜妻子者,宜罪以
H01n0001_p0316a21║舊制,罷遣為民。
H01n0001_p0316a22║    (《元史》卷一百七十五《張珪傳》4082)
H01n0001_p0316a23║
H01n0001_p0316a24║   三公之位,封拜釋老
H01n0001_p0316a25║  司空、司徒、太尉,古之三公,自大德以來,封拜繁多;釋、老二教,設官
H01n0001_p0316a26║統治,權抗有司,撓亂政事,僧道尤苦甚擾。(李)孟言:「人君之柄,在賞
H01n0001_p0316a27║與刑,賞一善而天下勸,罰一惡而天下懲,柄乃不失。所施失當,不足勸
H01n0001_p0316a28║懲,何以為治!僧、道士既為出世法,何用官府繩治!」乃奏雪冤死者,復
H01n0001_p0316a29║其官蔭;濫冒名爵者,悉奪之;罷僧道官。天下稱快。
H01n0001_p0316a30║    (《元史》卷一百七十五《李孟傳》4087)
H01n0001_p0316a31║
H01n0001_p0317a01║   李元禮上書言建五臺山佛寺之敝
H01n0001_p0317a02║  李元禮字庭訓,真定人。資性莊重,燕居不妄言笑。歷易州、大都路
H01n0001_p0317a03║儒學教授,遷太常太祝,升博士……元貞元年,擢拜監察御史,彈劾無所回
H01n0001_p0317a04║撓。二年,有旨建五臺山佛寺,皇太后將臨幸,元禮上疏曰:
H01n0001_p0317a05║    古人有言曰:生民之利害,社稷之大計,惟所見聞而不係職
H01n0001_p0317a06║  司者,獨宰相得行之,諫官得言之。今朝廷不設諫官,御史職當
H01n0001_p0317a07║  言路,即諫官也,烏可坐視得失而無一言,以裨益聖治萬分之一
H01n0001_p0317a08║  哉!伏見五臺創建寺宇,土木既興,工匠伕役,不下數萬,附近
H01n0001_p0317a09║  數路州縣,供億煩重,男女廢耕織,百物踴貴,民有不聊生者
H01n0001_p0317a10║  矣。
H01n0001_p0317a11║    伏聞太后親臨五臺,佈施金幣,廣資福利,其不可行者有五:
H01n0001_p0317a12║  時當盛夏,禾稼方茂,百姓歲計,全仰秋成,扈從經過,千乘萬騎,
H01n0001_p0317a13║  不無蹂躪,一也。太后春秋已高,親勞聖體,往復暑途數千里,山
H01n0001_p0317a14║  川險惡,不避風日,輕冒霧露,萬一調養失宜,悔將何及,二也。
H01n0001_p0317a15║  今上登寶位以來,遵守祖宗成法,正當兢業持盈之日,上位舉動,
H01n0001_p0317a16║  必書簡冊,以貽萬世之則,書而不法,將焉用之,三也。夫財不天
H01n0001_p0317a17║  降,皆出於民,今日支持調度,方之曩時百倍,而又勞民傷財,以
H01n0001_p0317a18║  奉土木,四也。佛本西方聖人,以慈悲方便為教,不與物競,雖窮
H01n0001_p0317a19║  天下珍玩奇寶供養,不為喜,雖無一物為獻而一心致敬,亦不為
H01n0001_p0317a20║  怒。今太后為國家、為蒼生崇奉祈福,福未獲昭受,而先勞聖體,
H01n0001_p0317a21║  聖天子曠定省之禮,軫思親之懷,五也。伏願中路回轅,端居深
H01n0001_p0317a22║  宮,儉以養德,靜以頤神,上以循先皇后之懿範,次以盡聖天子之
H01n0001_p0317a23║  孝心,下以慰元元之望。如此,則不祈福而福至矣。
H01n0001_p0317a24║    台臣不敢以聞。
H01n0001_p0317a25║  大德元年,侍御史萬僧與御史中丞崔彧不合,詣架閣庫,取前章封之,
H01n0001_p0317a26║入奏曰:「崔中丞私黨漢人李御史,為大言謗佛,不宜建寺。」帝大怒,遣近
H01n0001_p0317a27║臣賚其章,敕右丞相完澤、平章政事不忽木等鞫問,不忽木以國語譯而讀
H01n0001_p0317a28║之,完澤曰:「其意正與吾同,往吾嘗以此諫,太后曰:『我非喜建此寺,蓋
H01n0001_p0317a29║以先皇帝在時,嘗許為之,非汝所知也。』」彧與萬僧面質於完澤,不忽木抗
H01n0001_p0317a30║言曰:「他御史懼不肯言,惟一御史敢言,誠可賞也。」完澤等以章上聞。
H01n0001_p0318a01║帝沉思良久曰:「御史之言是也。」乃罷萬僧,復元禮職。
H01n0001_p0318a02║    (《元史》卷一百七十六《李元禮傳》4101)
H01n0001_p0318a03║
H01n0001_p0318a04║   有詔起報嚴寺,陳思謙諫之
H01n0001_p0318a05║  有詔起報嚴寺。(陳)思謙曰:「兵荒之餘,當罷土木,以紓民力。」帝
H01n0001_p0318a06║嘉之曰:「此正得祖宗立台憲之意。繼此事有當言者,無隱。」賜縑綺旌
H01n0001_p0318a07║之。
H01n0001_p0318a08║    (《元史》卷一百八十四《陳思謙傳》4239)
H01n0001_p0318a09║
H01n0001_p0318a10║   元文宗建寺,蓋苗諫之
H01n0001_p0318a11║  天歷初,文宗昭以建康潛邸為佛寺,務窮壯麗,毀民居七十餘家,仍以
H01n0001_p0318a12║御史大夫督其役。(蓋)苗上封事曰:「臣聞使民以時,使臣以禮,自古未
H01n0001_p0318a13║有不由斯道而致隆平者。陛下龍潛建業之時,居民困於供給,幸而獲睹今
H01n0001_p0318a14║日之運,百姓跂足舉首,以望非常之恩。今奪農時以創佛寺,又廢民居,使
H01n0001_p0318a15║之家破產蕩,豈聖人御天下之道乎?昔漢高帝興於豐、沛,為復兩縣,光武
H01n0001_p0318a16║中興南陽,免稅三年,既不務此,而隆重佛氏,何以滿斯民之望哉!且佛以
H01n0001_p0318a17║慈悲為心,方便為教,今尊佛氏而害生民,無乃違其方便之教乎?台臣職
H01n0001_p0318a18║專糾察,表正百司,今乃委以修繕之役,豈其禮哉?」書奏,御史大夫果免
H01n0001_p0318a19║督役。
H01n0001_p0318a20║  入為監察御史。文宗幸護國仁王寺,泛舟玉泉,苗進曰:「今頻年不
H01n0001_p0318a21║登,邊隅不靖,政當恐懼修省,何暇逸游,以臨不測之淵乎?」帝嘉納之,賜
H01n0001_p0318a22║以對衣上尊,即日還宮。
H01n0001_p0318a23║    (《元史》卷一百八十五《蓋苗傳》4260)
H01n0001_p0318a24║
H01n0001_p0318a25║   張楨上疏陳十禍
H01n0001_p0318a26║  及毛貴陷山東,(張楨)上疏陳十禍,根本之禍有六,征討之禍有四,
H01n0001_p0318a27║歷數其弊(曰):……「陛下事佛求福,飯僧消禍,以天壽節而禁屠宰,皆虛
H01n0001_p0318a28║名也。今天下殺人矣,陛下泰然不理,而曰吾將以是求福,福何自而至哉。
H01n0001_p0318a29║穎上之寇,始結白蓮,以佛法誘眾,終飾威權,以兵抗拒,視其所向,駸駸可
H01n0001_p0318a30║畏,其勢不至於亡吾社稷、燼吾國家不已也。堂堂天朝,不思靖亂,而反為
H01n0001_p0319a01║階亂,其禍至慘,其毒至深,其關係至大,有識者為之扼腕,有志者為之痛
H01n0001_p0319a02║心,此征討之禍也。」疏奏,不省。權臣惡其訐直。
H01n0001_p0319a03║    (《元史》卷一百八十六《張楨傳》4266)
H01n0001_p0319a04║
H01n0001_p0319a05║   解縉言釋、老之壯者驅之
H01n0001_p0319a06║  臣(解縉)見陛下好觀《說苑》、《韻府》雜書與所謂《道德經》、《心經》
H01n0001_p0319a07║者,臣竊謂甚非所宜也……釋、老之壯者驅之,俾復於人倫。經咒之妄者
H01n0001_p0319a08║火之,俾絕其欺誑。絕鬼巫,破淫祀,省冗官,減細縣,痛懲法外之威刑,永
H01n0001_p0319a09║革京城之工役。
H01n0001_p0319a10║    (《明史》卷一百四十七《解縉傳》4115)
H01n0001_p0319a11║
H01n0001_p0319a12║   西域貢佛舍利
H01n0001_p0319a13║  (永樂元年)三月秋,(鄭賜)代李至剛為禮部尚書。四年正月,西域
H01n0001_p0319a14║貢佛舍利,賜因請釋囚。帝曰:「梁武、元順溺佛教,有罪者不刑,紀綱大
H01n0001_p0319a15║壞,此豈可效!」
H01n0001_p0319a16║    (《明史》卷一百五十一《鄭賜傳》4178)
H01n0001_p0319a17║
H01n0001_p0319a18║   鍾同上疏言「禁僧道之蠹民」
H01n0001_p0319a19║  (景泰)五年五月,(鍾)同因上疏論時政,遂及復儲事,其略曰:……
H01n0001_p0319a20║親庶政以總威權,敦倫理以厚風俗,辨邪正以專委任,嚴賞罰以彰善惡,崇
H01n0001_p0319a21║風憲以正紀綱。去浮費,罷冗員,禁僧道之蠹民,擇賢將以訓士。然後親
H01n0001_p0319a22║率群臣,謝過郊廟,如成湯之六事自責,唐太宗之十漸即改,庶幾天意可
H01n0001_p0319a23║回,國勢可振。
H01n0001_p0319a24║    (《明史》卷一百六十二《鍾同傳》4408)
H01n0001_p0319a25║
H01n0001_p0319a26║   倪敬等上言「罷桑門之供」
H01n0001_p0319a27║  (景泰)六年七月,以時多災異,(倪敬)偕同官吳江盛昶、江陰杜宥、
H01n0001_p0319a28║蕪湖黃讓、安福羅俊、固始汪清上言:「府庫之財,不宜無故而予;遊觀之
H01n0001_p0319a29║事,不宜非時而行。曩以齋僧,屢出帑金易米,不知櫛風沐雨之邊卒,趨事
H01n0001_p0319a30║急公之貧民,又何以濟之?近聞造龍舟,作燕室,營繕日增,嬉游不少,非
H01n0001_p0320a01║所以養聖躬也。章綸、鍾同直言見忤,幽錮逾年,非所以昭聖德也。願罷
H01n0001_p0320a02║桑門之供,輟宴佚之娛,止興作之役,寬直臣之囚。」帝得疏不懌,下之禮
H01n0001_p0320a03║部。
H01n0001_p0320a04║    (《明史》卷一百六十二《倪敬傳》4415)
H01n0001_p0320a05║
H01n0001_p0320a06║   單宇上書言:「尊奉佛氏,卒致禍亂」
H01n0001_p0320a07║  初,王振佞佛,請帝歲一度僧。其所修大興隆寺,日役萬人,糜帑數十
H01n0001_p0320a08║萬,閎麗冠京都。英宗為賜號「第一叢林」,命僧大作佛事,躬自臨幸,以
H01n0001_p0320a09║故釋教益熾。至是(單)宇上書言:「前代人君尊奉佛氏,卒致禍亂。近男
H01n0001_p0320a10║女出家累百千萬,不耕不織,蠶食民間。營構寺宇,遍滿京邑,所費不可勝
H01n0001_p0320a11║紀。請撤木石以建軍營,銷銅鐵以鑄兵仗,罷遣僧尼,歸之民俗,庶皇風清
H01n0001_p0320a12║穆,異教不行。」疏入,為廷議所格。復知侯官。
H01n0001_p0320a13║  而咸陽姚顯以鄉舉入國學,亦上言:「曩者修治大興隆寺,窮極壯麗,
H01n0001_p0320a14║又奉僧楊某為上師,儀從侔王者。食膏梁,被組繡,藐萬乘若弟子。今上
H01n0001_p0320a15║皇被留賊庭,乞令前赴瓦剌,化諭也先。誠能奉駕南還,庶見護國之力。
H01n0001_p0320a16║不然,佛不足信彰彰矣。」
H01n0001_p0320a17║  當景泰時,廷臣諫事佛者甚眾,帝卒不能從。而中官興安最用事,佞
H01n0001_p0320a18║佛甚於振,請帝建大隆福寺,嚴壯與興隆並。四年三月,寺成,帝剋期臨
H01n0001_p0320a19║幸。河東鹽運判官濟寧楊浩切諫,乃止。
H01n0001_p0320a20║    (《明史》卷一百六十四《單宇傳》4457)
H01n0001_p0320a21║
H01n0001_p0320a22║   林聰上言「罷齋醮,汰僧道」等事
H01n0001_p0320a23║  (景泰)五年三月以災異偕同官條上八事,雜引五行諸書,累數千言。
H01n0001_p0320a24║大略以絕玩好,謹嗜欲,為崇德之本,而修人事,在進賢退奸。……餘如罷
H01n0001_p0320a25║齋醮,汰僧道,慎刑獄,禁私役軍士,省輪班工匠,皆深中時弊。帝多採納。
H01n0001_p0320a26║    (《明史》卷一百七十七《林聰傳》4719)
H01n0001_p0320a27║
H01n0001_p0320a28║   岳弘等上書言西天佛子劄實巴佔地多達數十百頃
H01n0001_p0320a29║  岳弘,字寬叔,上杭人。天順末進士。授戶科給事中。數陳時政。成
H01n0001_p0320a30║化四年春,偕同官上言:「洪武、永樂間,以畿輔、山東土曠人稀,詔聽民開
H01n0001_p0321a01║墾,永不科稅。邇者權豪怙勢,率指為閒田,朦朧奏乞。如嘉善長公主求
H01n0001_p0321a02║文安諸縣地,西天佛子劄實巴求靜海縣地,多至數十百頃。夫地逾百頃,
H01n0001_p0321a03║古者百家產也。豈可徇一人之私情,而奪百家恆產哉。」帝納其言,詔自
H01n0001_p0321a04║今請乞,皆不許,著為令。劄實巴所乞地,竟還之民……京師歲歉米貴,而
H01n0001_p0321a05║四方游僧萬數,弘請驅逐,以省冗食。又請發太倉米,減價以糶,給貧民最
H01n0001_p0321a06║甚者。帝悉從之。復言:「在京百獸房及清河寺諸處,所育珍禽野獸,日
H01n0001_p0321a07║飼魚肉米菽,乞並縱放,以省冗費。」報聞。
H01n0001_p0321a08║    (《明史》卷一百八十《丘弘傳》4770)
H01n0001_p0321a09║
H01n0001_p0321a10║   都城佛剎迄無寧工
H01n0001_p0321a11║  當是時,帝耽於燕樂,群小亂政,屢致災譴。至(成化)二十一年正月
H01n0001_p0321a12║朔申刻,有星西流,化白氣,聲如雷。帝頗懼,詔求直言,(李)俊率六科諸
H01n0001_p0321a13║臣上疏曰:……夫爵以待有德,賞以待有功也。今或無故而爵一庸流,或
H01n0001_p0321a14║無功而賞一貴倖。祈雨雪者得美官,進金寶者射厚利。方士獻煉服之書,
H01n0001_p0321a15║伶人奏曼延之戲。掾史胥徒皆叨官祿,俳優僧道亦玷班資。一歲而傳奉
H01n0001_p0321a16║或至千人,數歲而數千人矣。數千人之祿,歲以數十萬計……今都城佛剎
H01n0001_p0321a17║迄無寧工,京營軍士不復遺力。如國師繼曉假術濟私,糜耗特甚,中外切
H01n0001_p0321a18║齒。願陛下內惜資財,外惜人力,不急之役姑賜停罷,則工役不煩而天意
H01n0001_p0321a19║可回矣……陝西、河南、山西赤地千里。屍骸枕籍,流亡日多,萑苻可慮。
H01n0001_p0321a20║願體天心之仁愛,憫生民之因窮,追錄貴倖鹽課,暫假造寺資財,移振饑
H01n0001_p0321a21║民,俾苟存活,則流亡復而天意可回矣……帝優詔答之。降孜省上林丞,
H01n0001_p0321a22║常恩本寺丞,繼曉革國師為民,令巡按御史追其誥敕。制下,舉朝大悅。
H01n0001_p0321a23║    (《明史》卷一百八十《李俊傳》4778)
H01n0001_p0321a24║
H01n0001_p0321a25║   催升、蘇章言宦官妖僧罪
H01n0001_p0321a26║  (催)升、(蘇)章言宦官妖僧罪,請及誅竄,而尚書王恕今伊、傅,不宜
H01n0001_p0321a27║置南京。(彭)綱斥李孜省、繼曉,請誅之以謝天下。……(李)旦陳十事,
H01n0001_p0321a28║且言:「神仙、佛老、外戚、女謁,聲色貨利,奇技淫巧,皆陛下素所惑溺,而
H01n0001_p0321a29║左右近習交相誘之。」言甚切。帝以方修省,皆不罪。
H01n0001_p0321a30║    (《明史》卷一百八十《汪奎傳附》4783)
H01n0001_p0321a31║
H01n0001_p0322a01║  林俊之下獄也,(王)恕言:「天地止一壇,祖宗止一廟,而佛至千餘
H01n0001_p0322a02║寺。一寺立,而移民居且數百家,費內帑且數十萬,此舛也。俊言當,不宜
H01n0001_p0322a03║罪。」帝得疏不懌。    (《明史》卷一百八十二《王恕傳》4834)
H01n0001_p0322a04║
H01n0001_p0322a05║   陳音方「法王、佛子、真人,宜一切罷遣」
H01n0001_p0322a06║  陳音,字師召,莆田人。天順末進士。改庶吉士,授編修。成化六年
H01n0001_p0322a07║三月,以災異陳時政,言:「講學莫先於好問。陛下雖間御經筵,然勢分嚴
H01n0001_p0322a08║絕,上有疑未嘗問,下有見不敢陳。願引儒臣賜坐便殿,從容咨論,仰發聖
H01n0001_p0322a09║聽。異端者,正道之反,法王、佛子、真人,宜一切罷遣。」章下禮部。
H01n0001_p0322a10║    (《明史》卷一百八十四《張元楨傳附陳音傳》4881)
H01n0001_p0322a11║
H01n0001_p0322a12║   詔奪真人、國師、高士等三十餘人名號
H01n0001_p0322a13║  孝宗崩,真人陳應[袖-由+盾]、西番灌頂大國師那卜堅參等以祓除,率其徒
H01n0001_p0322a14║入乾清宮,(張)升請置之法。詔奪真人、國師、高士等三十餘人名號,逐
H01n0001_p0322a15║之。升在部五年,遇災異,輒進直言。亦數為言者所攻,然自守謹飭。
H01n0001_p0322a16║    (《明史》卷一百八十四《張升傳》4883)
H01n0001_p0322a17║
H01n0001_p0322a18║   劉春奏:不得濫營寺宇
H01n0001_p0322a19║  (正德年間)帝崇信西僧,常襲其衣服,演法內廠。有綽吉我些兒者,
H01n0001_p0322a20║出入豹房,封大德法王,遣其徒二人還烏思藏,請給國師誥命如大乘法王
H01n0001_p0322a21║例,歲時入貢,且得繼茶以行,春持不可。帝命再議,(劉)春執奏曰:「烏
H01n0001_p0322a22║思藏遠在西方,性極頑獷。雖設四王撫化,其來貢必有節制,使不為邊患。
H01n0001_p0322a23║若許其繼茶,給之誥敕,萬一假上旨以誘羌人,妄有請乞,不從失異俗心,
H01n0001_p0322a24║從之則滋害。」奏上,罷繼茶,卒與誥命。春又奏:「西番俗信佛教,故祖宗
H01n0001_p0322a25║承前代舊,設立烏思藏諸司,及陝西洮、岷,四川松潘諸寺,令化導番人,許
H01n0001_p0322a26║之朝貢。貢期、人數皆有定制。比緣諸番僻遠,莫辨真偽。中國逃亡罪
H01n0001_p0322a27║人,習其語言,竄身在內,又多創寺請額。番項日增,宴賞繁費。乞嚴其期
H01n0001_p0322a28║限,酌定人數,每寺給勘合十道,緣邊兵備存勘合底簿,比對相同,方許起
H01n0001_p0322a29║送。並禁自後不得濫營寺宇。」報可。
H01n0001_p0322a30║    (《明史》卷一百八十四《劉春傳》4886)
H01n0001_p0322a31║
H01n0001_p0323a01║   侶仲上言:停寺觀齋醮
H01n0001_p0323a02║  (弘治)十五年(侶鍾)上天下會計之數,言:「……今太倉無儲,內府
H01n0001_p0323a03║殫絀,而冗食冗費日加於前。願陛下惕然省憂,力加損節,且敕廷臣共求
H01n0001_p0323a04║所以足用之術。」帝乃下廷臣議。議上十二事,其罷傳奉冗官,汰內府濫
H01n0001_p0323a05║收軍匠,清騰驤四衛勇士,停寺觀齋醮,省內侍、畫工、番僧供應,禁王府及
H01n0001_p0323a06║織造濫乞鹽引,令有司征莊田租,皆權倖所不便者。疏留數月不下,鍾乃
H01n0001_p0323a07║復言之。他皆報可,而事關權幸者終格不行。
H01n0001_p0323a08║    (《明史》卷一百八十五《侶鍾傳》4900)
H01n0001_p0323a09║
H01n0001_p0323a10║   周廣上言:剌麻尤釋教所不齒
H01n0001_p0323a11║  周廣,字克之,崑山人。弘治十八年進士。歷知莆田、吉永二縣。
H01n0001_p0323a12║  正德中,以治最征授御史,疏陳四事,略言:
H01n0001_p0323a13║  三代以前,未有佛法。況剌麻尤釋教所不齒。耳貫銅環,身衣赭服,
H01n0001_p0323a14║殘破禮法,肆為淫邪。宜投四裔,以御魑魅,奈何令近君側,為群盜興兵口
H01n0001_p0323a15║實哉!
H01n0001_p0323a16║    (《明史》卷一百八十八《周廣傳》5000)
H01n0001_p0323a17║
H01n0001_p0323a18║   番僧處禁寺
H01n0001_p0323a19║  劉瑾敗,大臣多以黨附見劾,(喬)宇獨無所染。拜南京禮部尚書。
H01n0001_p0323a20║乾清宮災,率同列言視朝不勤,經筵久輟,國本未建,義子猥多,番僧處禁
H01n0001_p0323a21║寺,優伶侍起居,立皇店,留邊兵,習戰鬥,土木繁興,織造不息,凡十事。
H01n0001_p0323a22║帝不省。
H01n0001_p0323a23║    (《明史》卷一百九十四《劉瑾傳》5131)
H01n0001_p0323a24║
H01n0001_p0323a25║   西內創梵宇
H01n0001_p0323a26║  乾清宮災,詔求直言。(楊)一清上書言視朝太遲,享祀太慢,西內創
H01n0001_p0323a27║梵宇,禁中宿邊兵,畿內皇店之害,江南織造之擾。因引疾乞歸,帝慰留
H01n0001_p0323a28║之。
H01n0001_p0323a29║    (《明史》卷一百九十八《楊一清傳》5228)
H01n0001_p0323a30║
H01n0001_p0324a01║   周用諫迎佛烏斯藏
H01n0001_p0324a02║  (周用)諫迎佛烏斯藏及以中旨遷黜尚書、都給事中等官,且請治鎮
H01n0001_p0324a03║守江西中官黎安罪。
H01n0001_p0324a04║    (《明史》卷二百二《周用傳》5330)
H01n0001_p0324a05║
H01n0001_p0324a06║   鄭一鵬言:僧道靡費
H01n0001_p0324a07║  帝用中官崔文言,建醮乾清、坤寧諸宮,西天、西番、漢經諸廠,五花宮
H01n0001_p0324a08║兩暖閣、東次閣,莫不有之。(鄭)一鵬言:「禱祀繁興,必魏彬、張銳餘黨。
H01n0001_p0324a09║先帝已誤,陛下豈容再誤。臣巡視光祿,見一齋醮蔬食之費,為錢萬有八
H01n0001_p0324a10║千。陛下忍斂民怨,而不忍傷佞倖之心。況今天災頻降,京師道殣相望,
H01n0001_p0324a11║邊境戍卒,日夜荷戈,不得飽食,而為僧道靡費至此,此臣所未解。」報聞。
H01n0001_p0324a12║    (《明史》卷二百六《鄭一鵬傳》5437)
H01n0001_p0324a13║
H01n0001_p0324a14║   敗俗妨農,莫甚釋氏
H01n0001_p0324a15║  顧存仁,字伯剛,太倉人。嘉靖十一年進士。除餘姚知縣,徵為禮科
H01n0001_p0324a16║給事中。十七年冬疏陳五事。首言宜廣曠蕩恩,赦楊慎、馬錄、馮恩、呂經
H01n0001_p0324a17║等。末云:「敗俗妨農,莫甚釋氏。葉凝秀何人,而敢乞度?」帝方崇道家
H01n0001_p0324a18║言。凝秀,道士也。帝以為刺已,且惡其欲釋楊慎等,遂責存仁妄指凝秀
H01n0001_p0324a19║為釋氏,廷杖之六十,編氓口外。往來塞上,幾三十年。穆宗即位,召為南
H01n0001_p0324a20║京通政參議。
H01n0001_p0324a21║    (《明史》卷二百九《顧存仁傳》5516)
H01n0001_p0324a22║
H01n0001_p0324a23║   異言異服列於朝苑
H01n0001_p0324a24║  (楊爵上書曰:)「左道惑眾,聖王必誅。今異言異服列於朝苑,金紫
H01n0001_p0324a25║赤紱賞及方外。夫保傅之職坐而論道,今舉而畀之奇邪之徒。流品之亂
H01n0001_p0324a26║莫以加矣。陛下誠與公卿賢士日論治道,則心正身修,天地鬼神莫不佑
H01n0001_p0324a27║享,安用此妖誕邪妄之術,列諸清禁,為聖躬累耶!臣聞上之所好,下必有
H01n0001_p0324a28║甚。近者妖盜繁興,誅之不息。風聲所及,人起異議。貽四方之笑,取百
H01n0001_p0324a29║世之譏,非細故也。此信用方術,足以失人心而致危亂者,四也。」
H01n0001_p0324a30║    (《明史》卷二百九《楊爵傳》5525)
H01n0001_p0324a31║
H01n0001_p0325a01║   白蓮結社
H01n0001_p0325a02║  (萬曆)二十五年五月(呂坤)疏陳天下安危。其略曰:……一曰無聊
H01n0001_p0325a03║之民。飽溫無由,身家俱困,因懷逞亂之心,冀緩須臾之死。二曰無行之
H01n0001_p0325a04║民。氣高性悍,玩法輕生,居常愛玉帛子女而不得,及有變則淫掠是圖。
H01n0001_p0325a05║三曰邪說之民。白蓮結社,遍及四方,教主傳頭,所在成聚。倘有招呼之
H01n0001_p0325a06║首,此其歸附之人。四曰不軌之民。乘釁蹈機,妄思雄長。惟冀目前有
H01n0001_p0325a07║變,不樂天下太平。陛下約己愛人,損上益下,則四民皆赤子,否則悉為寇
H01n0001_p0325a08║仇。
H01n0001_p0325a09║    (《明史》卷二百二十六《呂坤傳》5937)
H01n0001_p0325a10║
H01n0001_p0325a11║   稅寺產
H01n0001_p0325a12║  (畢)自嚴擇其可者,先列上十二事,日增鹽引,議鼓鑄,括雜稅,核隱
H01n0001_p0325a13║田,稅寺產,核牙行,停修倉廒,止葺公署,南馬協濟,崇文鋪稅,京運撥兌,
H01n0001_p0325a14║板木折價。
H01n0001_p0325a15║    (《明史》卷二百五十六《畢自嚴傳》6610)
H01n0001_p0325a16║
H01n0001_p0325a17║   沈迅請以天下僧人配尼姑
H01n0001_p0325a18║  其年(崇禎十一年)冬,畿輔被兵。(沈)迅請於廣平、河間、定州、蠡
H01n0001_p0325a19║縣各設兵備一人。又請以天下僧人配尼姑,編入里甲,三丁抽一,可得兵
H01n0001_p0325a20║數十萬。他條奏甚多。章下兵部,嗣昌盛稱迅言可用,乃命為兵科給事
H01n0001_p0325a21║中。
H01n0001_p0325a22║    (《明史》卷二百六十七《守玫傳附沈迅傳》6881)
  數位典藏國家型科技計畫----「台北版電子佛典集成之研究與建構」
Tel:(02)2498-0707#2254
E-mail:sraddhabala@gmail.com
Address:20842 台北縣金山鄉西勢湖2-6號 法鼓佛教學院