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【經文資訊】正史佛教資料類編 第一冊 No. 1《正史佛教資料類編》
H01n0001_p0001a01║
H01n0001_p0001a02║
H01n0001_p0001a03║
H01n0001_p0001a04║
H01n0001_p0001a05║
H01n0001_p0001a06║  一通論
H01n0001_p0001a07║
H01n0001_p0001a08║   天竺國佛教
H01n0001_p0001a09║  天竺國,一名身毒,在月氏之東南數千里。俗與月氏同,而卑濕暑熱。
H01n0001_p0001a10║其國臨大水。乘象而戰。其人弱於月氏,修浮圖(1)道,不殺伐,遂以成
H01n0001_p0001a11║俗……和帝時,數遣使貢獻,後西域反叛,乃絕。至桓帝延熹二年、四年,
H01n0001_p0001a12║頻從日南徼外來獻。
H01n0001_p0001a13║  世傳明帝夢見金人,長大,頂有光明,以問群臣。或曰:「西方有神,
H01n0001_p0001a14║名曰佛,其形長丈六尺而黃金色。」帝於是遣使天竺問佛道法,遂於中國
H01n0001_p0001a15║圖畫形像焉。楚王英始信其術,中國因此頗有奉其道者。後桓帝好神,數
H01n0001_p0001a16║祀浮圖、老子,百姓稍有奉者,後遂轉盛。
H01n0001_p0001a17║  (1)浮圖即佛也。
H01n0001_p0001a18║    (《後漢書》卷八十八《西域傳》2921)
H01n0001_p0001a19║
H01n0001_p0001a20║   臨兒國佛教
H01n0001_p0001a21║  臨兒國,《浮屠經》云其國王生浮屠。浮屠,太子也。父曰屑頭邪,母
H01n0001_p0001a22║云莫邪。浮屠身服色黃,髮青如青絲,乳青毛,蛉赤如銅。始莫邪夢白象
H01n0001_p0001a23║而孕,及生,從母左脅出,生而有結,墮地能行七步。此國在天竺城中。天
H01n0001_p0001a24║竺又有神人,名沙律。昔漢哀帝元壽元年,博士弟子景盧受大月氏王使伊
H01n0001_p0001a25║存口受《浮屠經》曰復立者其人也。浮屠所載臨蒲塞、桑門、伯聞、疏問、
H01n0001_p0001a26║白疏間、比丘、晨門,皆弟子號也。浮屠所載與中國《老子經》相出入,蓋
H01n0001_p0001a27║以為老子西出關,過西域之天竺,教胡。浮屠屬弟子別號,合有二十九,不
H01n0001_p0001a28║能詳載,故略之如此。
H01n0001_p0001a29║    (《三國誌》卷三十《烏丸鮮卑東夷傳.史評》注一859)
H01n0001_p0001a30║
H01n0001_p0002a01║   魏書.釋老志
H01n0001_p0002a02║  大人有作,司牧生民,結繩以往,書契所絕,故靡得而知焉。自羲軒已
H01n0001_p0002a03║還,至於三代,其神言秘策,蘊圖緯之文,范世率民,垂墳典之跡。秦肆其
H01n0001_p0002a04║毒,滅於灰燼;漢采遺籍,復若丘山。司馬遷區別異同,有陰陽、儒、墨、名、
H01n0001_p0002a05║法、道德六家之義。劉歆著《七略》,班固志《藝文》,釋氏之學,所未曾紀。
H01n0001_p0002a06║案漢武元狩中,遣霍去病討匈奴,至皋蘭,過居延,斬首大獲。昆邪王殺休
H01n0001_p0002a07║屠王,將其眾五萬來降。獲其金人,帝以為大神,列於甘泉宮。金人率長
H01n0001_p0002a08║丈餘,不祭祀,但燒香禮拜而已。此則佛道流通之漸也。
H01n0001_p0002a09║  及開西域,遣張騫使大夏還,傳其旁有身毒國,一名天竺,始聞有浮屠
H01n0001_p0002a10║之教。哀帝元壽元年,博士弟子秦景憲受大月氏王使伊存口授浮屠經。
H01n0001_p0002a11║中土聞之,未之信了也。後孝明帝夜夢金人,項有日光,飛行殿庭,乃訪群
H01n0001_p0002a12║臣,傳毅始以佛封。帝遣郎中蔡愔、博士弟子秦景等使於天竺,寫浮屠遺
H01n0001_p0002a13║范。愔仍與沙門攝摩騰、竺法蘭東還洛陽。中國有沙門及跪拜之法,自此
H01n0001_p0002a14║始也。愔又得佛經《四十二章》及釋迦立像。明帝令畫工圖佛像,置清涼
H01n0001_p0002a15║台及顯節陵上,經緘於蘭台石室。愔之還也,以白馬負經而至,漢因立白
H01n0001_p0002a16║馬寺於洛城雍門西。摩騰、法蘭咸卒於此寺。
H01n0001_p0002a17║  浮屠正號曰佛陀,佛陀與浮圖聲相近,皆西方言,其來轉為二音。華
H01n0001_p0002a18║言譯之則謂淨覺,言滅穢成明,道為聖悟。凡其經旨,大抵言生生之類,皆
H01n0001_p0002a19║因行業而起。有過去、當今、未來,歷三世,識神常不滅。凡為善惡,必有
H01n0001_p0002a20║報應。漸積勝業,陶冶粗鄙,經無數形,澡練神明,乃致無生而得佛道。其
H01n0001_p0002a21║間階次心行,等級非一,皆緣淺以至深,藉微而為著。率在於積仁順,蠲嗜
H01n0001_p0002a22║欲,習虛靜而成通照也。故其始修心則依佛、法、僧,謂之三歸,若君子之
H01n0001_p0002a23║三畏也。又有五戒,去殺、盜、淫、妄言、飲酒,大意與仁、義、禮、智、信同,
H01n0001_p0002a24║名為異耳。云奉持之,則生天人勝處,虧犯則墜鬼畜諸苦。又善惡生處,
H01n0001_p0002a25║凡有六道焉。
H01n0001_p0002a26║  諸服其道者,則剃落鬚髮,釋累辭家,結師資,遵律度,相與和居,治心
H01n0001_p0002a27║修淨,行乞以自給。謂之沙門,或曰桑門,亦聲相近,總謂之僧,皆胡言也。
H01n0001_p0002a28║僧,譯為和命眾,桑門為息心,比丘為行乞。俗人之信憑道法者,男曰優婆
H01n0001_p0002a29║塞,女曰優婆夷。其為沙門者,初修十誡,曰沙彌,而終於二百五十,則具
H01n0001_p0002a30║足成大僧。婦入道者曰比丘尼。其誡至於五百,皆以□為本,隨事增數,
H01n0001_p0003a01║在於防心、攝身、正口。心去貪、忿、癡,身除殺、淫、盜,口斷妄、雜、諸非正
H01n0001_p0003a02║言,總謂之十善道。能具此,謂之三業清淨。凡人修行粗為極。云可以達
H01n0001_p0003a03║惡善報,漸階聖跡。初階聖者,有三種人,其根業各差,謂之三乘,聲聞乘、
H01n0001_p0003a04║緣覺乘、大乘。取其可乘運以至道為名。此三人惡跡已盡,但修心蕩累,
H01n0001_p0003a05║濟物進德。初根人為小乘,行四諦法;中根人為中乘,受十二因緣;上根人
H01n0001_p0003a06║為大乘,則修六度。雖階三乘,而要由修進萬行,拯度億流,彌歷長遠,乃
H01n0001_p0003a07║可登佛境矣。
H01n0001_p0003a08║  所謂佛者,本號釋伽文者,譯言能仁,謂德充道備,堪濟萬物也。釋迦
H01n0001_p0003a09║前有六佛,釋迦繼六佛而成道,處今賢劫。文言將來有彌勒佛,方繼釋迦
H01n0001_p0003a10║而降世。釋迦即天竺迦維衛國王之子。天竺其總稱,迦維別名也。初,釋
H01n0001_p0003a11║迦於四月八日夜,從母右脅而生。既生,姿相超異者三十二種。天降嘉瑞
H01n0001_p0003a12║以應之,亦三十二。其《本起經》說之備矣。釋迦生時,當周莊王九年。
H01n0001_p0003a13║《春秋》魯莊公七年夏四月,恆星不見,夜明,是也。至魏武定八年,凡一
H01n0001_p0003a14║千二百三十七年云。釋迦年三十成佛,導化群生,四十九載,乃於拘尸那
H01n0001_p0003a15║城娑羅雙樹間,以二月十五日而入般涅槃。涅槃譯云滅度,或言常樂我
H01n0001_p0003a16║淨,明無遷謝及諸苦累也。
H01n0001_p0003a17║  諸佛法身有二種義,一者真實,二者權應。真實身,謂至極之體,妙絕
H01n0001_p0003a18║拘累,不得以方處期,不可以形量限,有感斯應,體常湛然。權應身者,謂
H01n0001_p0003a19║和光六道,同塵萬類,生滅隨時,修短應物,形由感生,體非實有。權形雖
H01n0001_p0003a20║謝,真體不遷,但時無妙感,故莫得常見耳。明佛生非實生,滅非實滅也。
H01n0001_p0003a21║佛既謝世,香木焚屍。靈骨分碎,大小如粒,擊之不壞,焚亦不焦,或有光
H01n0001_p0003a22║明神驗,胡言謂之「舍利」。弟子收奉,置之寶瓶,竭香花,致敬慕,建宮
H01n0001_p0003a23║宇,謂為「塔」。塔亦胡言,猶宗廟也,故世稱塔廟。於後百年,有王阿育,
H01n0001_p0003a24║以神力分佛舍利,役諸鬼神,造八萬四千塔,布於世界,皆同日而就。今洛
H01n0001_p0003a25║陽、彭城、姑臧、臨淄皆有阿育王寺,蓋承其遺跡焉。釋迦雖般涅槃,而留
H01n0001_p0003a26║影跡爪齒於天竺,於今猶在。中土來往,並稱見之。
H01n0001_p0003a27║  初,釋迦所說教法,既涅槃後,有聲聞弟子大迦葉、阿難等五百人,撰
H01n0001_p0003a28║集著錄。阿難親承囑授,多聞總持,蓋能綜核深致,無所漏失。乃綴文字,
H01n0001_p0003a29║撰載三藏十二部經,如九流之異統,其大歸終以三乘為本。後數百年,有
H01n0001_p0003a30║羅漢、菩薩相繼著論,贊明經義,以破外道,《摩訶衍》、《大、小阿毗曇》、
H01n0001_p0004a01║《中論》、《十二門論》、《百法論》、《成實論》等是也。皆傍諸藏部大義,假
H01n0001_p0004a02║立外問,而以內法釋之。
H01n0001_p0004a03║  漢章帝時,楚王英喜為浮屠齋戒,遣郎中令奉黃縑白紈三十匹,詣國
H01n0001_p0004a04║相以贖愆。詔報曰:「楚王尚浮屠之仁祠,潔齋三月,與神為誓,何嫌何
H01n0001_p0004a05║疑,當有悔吝。其還贖,以助伊蒲塞、桑門之盛饌。」因以班示諸國。桓帝
H01n0001_p0004a06║時,襄楷言佛陀、黃老道以諫,欲令好生惡殺,少嗜欲,去奢泰,尚無為。魏
H01n0001_p0004a07║明帝曾欲壞宮西佛圖。外國沙門乃金盤盛水,置於殿前,以佛舍利投之於
H01n0001_p0004a08║水,乃有五色光起,於是帝歎曰:「自非靈異,安得爾乎?」遂徙於道東,為
H01n0001_p0004a09║作周閣百間。佛圖故處,鑿為濛氾池,種芙蓉於中。後有天竺沙門曇柯迦
H01n0001_p0004a10║羅入洛,宣譯誡律,中國誡律之始也。自洛中構白馬寺,盛飾佛圖,畫跡甚
H01n0001_p0004a11║妙,為四方式。凡宮塔制度,猶依天竺舊狀而重構之,從一級至三、五、七、
H01n0001_p0004a12║九。世人相承,謂之「浮圖」,或云「佛圖」。晉世,洛中佛圖有四十二所
H01n0001_p0004a13║矣。漢世沙門,皆衣赤布,後乃易以雜色。
H01n0001_p0004a14║  晉元康中,有胡沙門支恭明譯佛經《維摩》、《法華》、三《本起》等。
H01n0001_p0004a15║微言隱義,未之能究。後有沙門常山衛道安性聰敏,日誦經萬餘言,研求
H01n0001_p0004a16║幽旨。慨無師匠,獨坐靜室十二年,覃思構精,神悟妙賾,以前所出經,多
H01n0001_p0004a17║有舛駁,乃正其乖謬。石勒時,有天竺沙門浮圖澄,少於烏萇國就羅漢入
H01n0001_p0004a18║道,劉曜時到襄國。後為石勒所宗信,號為大和尚,軍國規謨頗訪之,所言
H01n0001_p0004a19║多驗。道安曾至鄴侯澄,澄見而異之。澄卒後,中國紛亂,道安乃率門徒,
H01n0001_p0004a20║南遊新野。欲令玄宗在所流布,分遣弟子,各趣諸方。法汰詣揚州,法和
H01n0001_p0004a21║入蜀,道安與慧遠之襄陽。道安後入苻堅,堅素欽德問,既見,宗以師禮。
H01n0001_p0004a22║時西域有胡沙門鳩摩羅什,思通法門,道安思與講釋,每勸堅致羅什。什
H01n0001_p0004a23║亦承安令問,謂之東方聖人,或時遙拜致敬。道安卒後二十餘載而羅什至
H01n0001_p0004a24║長安,恨不及安,以為深慨。道安所正經義,與羅什譯出,符會如一,初無
H01n0001_p0004a25║乖舛。於是法旨大著中原。
H01n0001_p0004a26║  魏先建國於玄朔,風俗淳一,無為以自守,與西域殊絕,莫能往來。故
H01n0001_p0004a27║浮圖之教,未之得聞,或聞而未信也。及神元與魏、晉通聘,文帝久在洛
H01n0001_p0004a28║陽,昭成又至襄國,乃備究南夏佛法之事。太祖平中山,經略燕趙,所逕郡
H01n0001_p0004a29║國佛寺,見諸沙門、道士,皆致精敬,禁軍旅無有所犯。帝好黃老,頗覽佛
H01n0001_p0004a30║經。但天下初定,戎車屢動,庶事草創,未建圖宇,招延僧眾也。然時時旁
H01n0001_p0005a01║求。先是,有沙門僧朗,與其徒隱於泰山之琨王而谷。帝遣使致書,以繒、
H01n0001_p0005a02║素、旃罽、銀缽為禮。今猶號曰朗公谷焉。天興元年,下詔曰:「夫佛法之
H01n0001_p0005a03║興,其來遠矣。濟益之功,冥及存沒,神蹤遺軌,信可依憑。其敕有司,於
H01n0001_p0005a04║京城建飾容範,修整宮舍,令信向之徒,有所居止。」是歲,始作五級佛圖、
H01n0001_p0005a05║耆闍崛山及須彌山殿,加以繢飾。別構講堂、禪堂及沙門座,莫不嚴具焉。
H01n0001_p0005a06║太宗踐位,遵太祖之業,亦好黃老,又崇佛法,京邑四方,建立圖像,仍令沙
H01n0001_p0005a07║門敷導民俗。
H01n0001_p0005a08║  初,皇始中,趙郡有沙門法果,誡行精至,開演法籍。太祖聞其名,詔
H01n0001_p0005a09║以禮征赴京師。後以為道人統,綰攝僧徒。每與帝言,多所愜允,供施甚
H01n0001_p0005a10║厚。至太宗,彌加崇敬,永興中,前後授以輔國、宜城子、忠信侯、安成公之
H01n0001_p0005a11║號,皆固辭。帝常親幸其居,以門小狹,不容輿輦,更廣大之。年八十餘,
H01n0001_p0005a12║泰常中卒。未殯,帝三臨其喪,追贈老壽將軍、趙胡靈公。初,法果每言,
H01n0001_p0005a13║太祖明睿好道,即是當今如來,沙門宜應盡禮,遂常致拜。謂人曰:「能鴻
H01n0001_p0005a14║道者人主也,我非拜天子,乃是禮佛耳。」法果四十,始為沙門。有子曰
H01n0001_p0005a15║猛,詔令襲果所加爵。帝后幸廣宗,有沙門曇證,年且百歲。邀見於路,奉
H01n0001_p0005a16║致果物。帝敬其年老志力不衰,亦加以老壽將軍號。
H01n0001_p0005a17║  是時,鳩摩羅什為姚興所敬,於長安草堂寺集義學八百人,重譯經本。
H01n0001_p0005a18║羅什聰辯有淵思,達東西方言。時沙門道肜、僧略、道恆、道褾、僧肇、曇影
H01n0001_p0005a19║等,與羅什共相提挈,發明幽致。諸深大經論十有餘部,更定章句,辭義通
H01n0001_p0005a20║明,至今沙門共所祖習。道肜等皆識學洽通,僧肇尤為其最。羅什之撰
H01n0001_p0005a21║譯,僧肇常執筆,定諸辭義,注《維摩經》,又著數論,皆有妙旨,學者宗之。
H01n0001_p0005a22║  又沙門法顯,慨律藏不具,自長安游天竺。歷三十餘國,隨有經律之
H01n0001_p0005a23║處,學其書語,譯而寫之。十年,乃於南海師子國,隨商人泛舟東下。晝夜
H01n0001_p0005a24║昏迷,將二百日。乃至青州長廣郡不其勞山,南下乃出海焉。是歲,神瑞
H01n0001_p0005a25║二年也。法顯所逕諸國,傳記之,今行於世。其所得律,通譯未能盡正。
H01n0001_p0005a26║至江南,更與天竺禪師跋陀羅辯定之,謂之《僧祇律》,大備於前,為今沙
H01n0001_p0005a27║門所持受。先是,有沙門法領,從揚州入西域,得《華嚴經》本。定律後數
H01n0001_p0005a28║年,跋陀羅共沙門法業重加譯撰,宣行於時。
H01n0001_p0005a29║  世祖初即位,亦遵太祖、太宗之業,每引高德沙門,與共談論。於四月
H01n0001_p0005a30║八日,輿諸佛像,行於廣衢,帝親御門樓,臨觀散花,以致禮敬。
H01n0001_p0006a01║  先是,沮渠蒙遜在涼州,亦好佛法。有罽賓沙門曇摩讖,習諸經論。
H01n0001_p0006a02║於姑臧,與沙門智嵩等,譯《涅槃》諸經十餘部。又曉術數、禁咒,歷言他
H01n0001_p0006a03║國安危,多所中驗。蒙遜每以國事諮之。神嘉中,帝命蒙遜送讖詣京師,
H01n0001_p0006a04║惜而不遣。既而,懼魏威責,遂使人殺讖。讖死之日,謂門徒曰:「今時將
H01n0001_p0006a05║有客來,可早食以待之。」食訖而走使至。時人謂之知命。智嵩亦爽悟,
H01n0001_p0006a06║篤志經籍。後乃以新出經論,於涼土教授。辯論幽旨,著《涅槃義記》。
H01n0001_p0006a07║戒行峻整,門人齊肅。知涼州將有兵役,與門徒數人,欲往胡地。道路饑
H01n0001_p0006a08║謹,絕糧積日,弟子求得禽獸肉,請嵩強食。嵩以戒自誓,遂餓死於酒泉之
H01n0001_p0006a09║西山。弟子積薪焚其屍,骸骨灰燼,唯舌獨全,色狀不變。時人以為誦說
H01n0001_p0006a10║功報。涼州自張軌後,世信佛教。敦煌地接西域,道俗交得其舊式,村塢
H01n0001_p0006a11║相屬,多有塔寺。太延中,涼州平,徙其國人於京邑,沙門佛事皆俱東,象
H01n0001_p0006a12║教彌增矣。尋以沙門眾多,詔罷年五十已下者。
H01n0001_p0006a13║  世祖初平赫連昌,得沙門惠始,姓張。家本清河,聞羅什出新經,遂詣
H01n0001_p0006a14║長安見之,觀習經典。坐禪於白渠北,晝則入城聽講,夕則還處靜坐。三
H01n0001_p0006a15║輔有識多宗之。劉裕滅姚泓,留子義真鎮長安,義真及僚佐皆敬重焉。義
H01n0001_p0006a16║真之去長安也,赫連屈丐追敗之,道俗少長咸見坑戮。惠始身被白刃,而
H01n0001_p0006a17║體不傷。眾大怪異,言於屈丐。屈丐大怒,召惠始於前,以所持寶劍擊之,
H01n0001_p0006a18║又不能害,乃懼而謝罪。統萬平,惠始到京都,多所訓導,時人莫測其跡。
H01n0001_p0006a19║世祖甚重之,每加禮敬。始自習禪,至於沒世,稱五十餘年,未嘗寢臥。或
H01n0001_p0006a20║時跣行,雖履泥塵,初不污足,色愈鮮白,世號之曰白腳師。太延中,臨終
H01n0001_p0006a21║於八角寺,齋潔端坐,僧徒滿側,凝泊而絕。停屍十餘日,坐既不改,容色
H01n0001_p0006a22║如一,舉世神異之。遂瘞寺內。至真君六年,制城內不得留瘞,乃葬於南
H01n0001_p0006a23║郊之外。始死十年矣,開殯儼然,初不傾壞。送葬者六千餘人,莫不感慟。
H01n0001_p0006a24║中書監高允為其傳,頌其德跡。惠始塚上,立石精舍,圖其形像。經毀法
H01n0001_p0006a25║時,猶自全立。
H01n0001_p0006a26║  世祖即位,富於春秋。既而銳志武功,每以平定禍亂為先。雖歸宗佛
H01n0001_p0006a27║法,敬重沙門,而未存覽經教,深求緣報之意。及得寇謙之道,帝以清淨無
H01n0001_p0006a28║為,有仙化之證,遂信行其術。時司徒崔浩,博學多聞,帝每訪以大事。浩
H01n0001_p0006a29║奉謙之道,尤不信佛,與帝言,數加非毀,常謂虛誕,為世費害。帝以其辯
H01n0001_p0006a30║博,頗信之。會蓋吳反杏城,關中騷動,帝乃西伐,至於長安。先是,長安
H01n0001_p0007a01║沙門種麥寺內,御騶牧馬於麥中,帝入觀馬。沙門飲從官酒,從官入其便
H01n0001_p0007a02║室,見大有弓矢矛盾,出以奏聞。帝怒曰:「此非沙門所用,當與蓋吳通
H01n0001_p0007a03║謀,規害人耳!」命有司案誅一寺,閱其財產,大得釀酒具及州郡牧守富人
H01n0001_p0007a04║所寄藏物,蓋以萬計。又為屈室,與貴室女私行淫亂。帝既忿沙門非法,
H01n0001_p0007a05║浩時從行,因進其說。詔誅長安沙門,焚破佛像,敕留台下四方,令一依長
H01n0001_p0007a06║安行事。又詔曰:「彼沙門者,假西戎虛誕,妄生妖孽,非所以一齊政化,
H01n0001_p0007a07║布淳德於天下也。自王公已下,有私養沙門者,皆送官曹,不得隱匿。限
H01n0001_p0007a08║今年二月十五日,過期不出,沙門身死,容止者誅一門。」
H01n0001_p0007a09║  時恭宗為太子監國,素敬佛道。頻上表,陳刑殺沙門之濫,又非圖像
H01n0001_p0007a10║之罪。今罷其道,杜諸寺門,世不修奉,土木丹青,自然毀滅。如是再三,
H01n0001_p0007a11║不許。乃下詔曰:「昔後漢荒君,信惑邪偽,妄假睡夢,事胡妖鬼,以亂天
H01n0001_p0007a12║常,自古九州之中無此也。夸誕大言,不本人情。叔季之世,暗君亂主,莫
H01n0001_p0007a13║不眩焉。由是政教不行,禮義大壞,鬼道熾盛,視王者之法,蔑如也。自此
H01n0001_p0007a14║以來,代經亂禍,天罰亟行,生民死盡,五服之內,鞠為丘墟,千里蕭條,不
H01n0001_p0007a15║見人跡,皆由於此。朕承天緒,屬當窮運之弊,欲除偽定真,復羲農之治。
H01n0001_p0007a16║其一切蕩除胡神,滅其蹤跡,庶無謝於風氏矣。自今以後,敢有事胡神及
H01n0001_p0007a17║造形像泥人、銅人者,門誅。雖言胡神,問今胡人,共云無有。皆是前世漢
H01n0001_p0007a18║人無賴子弟劉元真、呂伯強之徒,接乞胡之誕言,用老莊之虛假,附而益
H01n0001_p0007a19║之,皆非真實。至使王法廢而不行,蓋大奸之魁也。有非常之人,然後能
H01n0001_p0007a20║行非常之事。非朕孰能去此歷代之偽物!有司宣告征鎮諸軍、刺史,諸有
H01n0001_p0007a21║佛圖形像及胡經,盡皆擊破焚燒,沙門無少長悉坑之。」是歲,真君七年三
H01n0001_p0007a22║月也。恭宗言雖不用,然猶緩宣詔書,遠近皆豫聞知,得各為計。四方沙
H01n0001_p0007a23║門,多亡匿獲免,在京邑者,亦蒙全濟。金銀寶像及諸經論,大得秘藏。而
H01n0001_p0007a24║土木宮塔,聲教所及,莫不畢毀矣。
H01n0001_p0007a25║  始謙之與浩同從車駕,苦與浩諍,浩不肯,謂浩曰:「卿今促年受戮,
H01n0001_p0007a26║滅門戶矣。」後四年,浩誅,備五刑,時年七十。浩既誅死,帝頗悔之。業
H01n0001_p0007a27║已行,難中修復。恭宗潛欲興之,未敢言也。佛淪廢終帝世,積七八年。
H01n0001_p0007a28║然禁稍寬弛,篤信之家,得密奉事,沙門專至者,猶竊法服誦習焉。唯不得
H01n0001_p0007a29║顯行於京都矣。
H01n0001_p0007a30║  先是,沙門曇曜有操尚,又為恭宗所知禮。佛法之滅,沙門多以餘能
H01n0001_p0008a01║自效,還俗求見。曜誓欲守死,恭宗親加勸喻,至於再三,不得已,乃止。
H01n0001_p0008a02║密持法服器物,不暫離身,聞者歎重之。
H01n0001_p0008a03║  高宗踐極,下詔曰:「夫為帝王者,必祗奉明靈,顯彰仁道,其能惠著
H01n0001_p0008a04║生民,濟益群品者,雖在古昔,猶序其風烈。是以《春秋》嘉崇明之禮,祭
H01n0001_p0008a05║典載功施之族。況釋迦如來功濟大千,惠流塵境,等生死者歎其達觀,覽
H01n0001_p0008a06║文義者貴其妙明,助王政之禁律,益仁智之善性,排斥群邪,開演正覺。故
H01n0001_p0008a07║前代已來,莫不崇尚,亦我國家常所尊事也。世祖太武皇帝,開廣邊荒,德
H01n0001_p0008a08║澤遐及。沙門道士善行純誠,惠始之倫,無遠不至,風義相感,往往如林。
H01n0001_p0008a09║夫山海之深,怪物多有,姦淫之徒,得容假托,講寺之中,致有凶黨。是以
H01n0001_p0008a10║先朝因其瑕釁,戮其有罪。有司失旨,一切禁斷。景穆皇帝每為慨然,值
H01n0001_p0008a11║軍國多事,未遑修復。朕承洪緒,君臨萬邦,思述先志,以隆斯道。今制諸
H01n0001_p0008a12║州郡縣,於眾居之所,各聽建佛圖一區,任其財用,不制會限。其好樂道
H01n0001_p0008a13║法,欲為沙門,不問長幼,出於良家,性行素篤,無諸嫌穢,鄉里所明者,聽
H01n0001_p0008a14║其出家。率大州五十,小州四十人,其郡遙遠台者十人。各當局分,皆足
H01n0001_p0008a15║以化惡就善,播揚道教也。」天下承風,朝不及夕,往時所毀圖寺,仍還修
H01n0001_p0008a16║矣。佛像經論,皆復得顯。
H01n0001_p0008a17║  京師沙門師賢,本罽賓國王種人,少入道,東遊涼城,涼平赴京。罷佛
H01n0001_p0008a18║法時,師賢假為醫術還俗,而守道不改。於修復日,即反沙門,其同輩五
H01n0001_p0008a19║人。帝乃親為下發。師賢仍為道人統。是年,詔有司為石像,令如帝身。
H01n0001_p0008a20║既成,顏上足下,各有黑石,冥同帝體上下黑子。論者以為純誠所感。興
H01n0001_p0008a21║光元年秋,敕有司於五級大寺內,為太祖已下五帝,鑄釋迦立像五,各長一
H01n0001_p0008a22║丈六尺,都用赤金二十五萬斤。太安初,有師子國胡沙門邪奢遺多、浮陀
H01n0001_p0008a23║難提等五人,奉佛像三,到京都。皆云,備歷西域諸國,見佛影跡及肉髻,
H01n0001_p0008a24║外國諸王相承,咸遣工匠,摹寫其容,莫能及難提所造者,去十餘步,視之
H01n0001_p0008a25║炳然,轉近轉微。又沙勒胡沙門,赴京師致佛缽並畫像跡。
H01n0001_p0008a26║  和平初,師賢卒。曇曜代之,更名沙門統。初曇曜以復佛法之明年,
H01n0001_p0008a27║自中山被命赴京,值帝出,見於路,御馬前銜曜衣,時以為馬識善人。帝后
H01n0001_p0008a28║奉以師禮。曇曜白帝,於京城西武州塞,鑿山石壁,開窟五所,鐫建佛像各
H01n0001_p0008a29║一。高者七十尺,次六十尺,雕飾奇偉,冠於一世。曇曜奏:平齊戶及諸
H01n0001_p0008a30║民,有能歲輸谷六十斛入僧曹者,即為「僧祇戶」,粟為「僧祇粟」,至於儉
H01n0001_p0009a01║歲,賑給饑民。又請民犯重罪及官奴以為「佛圖戶」,以供諸寺掃灑,歲兼
H01n0001_p0009a02║營田輸粟。高宗並許之。於是僧祇戶、粟及寺戶,遍於州鎮矣。曇曜又與
H01n0001_p0009a03║天竺沙門常那邪舍等,譯出新經十四部。又有沙門道進、僧超、法存等,並
H01n0001_p0009a04║有名於時,演唱諸異。
H01n0001_p0009a05║  顯祖即位,敦信尤深,覽諸經論,好老莊。每引諸沙門及能談玄之士,
H01n0001_p0009a06║與論理要。初,高宗太安末,劉駿於丹陽中興寺設齋。有一沙門,容止獨
H01n0001_p0009a07║秀,舉眾往目,皆莫識焉。沙門惠璩起問之,答名惠明。又問所住,答云,
H01n0001_p0009a08║從天安寺來。語訖,忽然不見。駿君臣以為靈感,改中興為天安寺。是後
H01n0001_p0009a09║七年而帝踐祚,號天安元年。是年,劉彧徐州刺史薛安都始以城地來降。
H01n0001_p0009a10║明年,盡有淮北之地。其歲,高祖誕載。於時起永寧寺,構七級佛圖,高三
H01n0001_p0009a11║百餘尺,基架博敞,為天下第一。又於天宮寺,造釋迦立像。高四十三尺,
H01n0001_p0009a12║用赤金十萬斤,黃金六百斤。皇興中,又構三級石佛圖。榱棟楣楹,上下
H01n0001_p0009a13║重結,大小皆石,高十丈。鎮固巧密,為京華壯觀。
H01n0001_p0009a14║  高祖踐位,顯祖移御北苑崇光宮,覽習玄籍。建鹿野佛圖於苑中之西
H01n0001_p0009a15║山,去崇光右十里,巖房禪堂,禪僧居其中焉。
H01n0001_p0009a16║  延興二年夏四月,詔曰:「比丘不在寺舍,游涉村落,交通姦猾,經歷
H01n0001_p0009a17║年歲。令民間五五相保,不得容止。無籍之僧,精加隱括,有者送付州鎮,
H01n0001_p0009a18║其在畿郡,送付本曹。若為三寶巡民教化者,在外繼州鎮維那文移,在台
H01n0001_p0009a19║者繼都維那等印牒,然後聽行。違者加罪。」又詔曰:「內外之人,興建福
H01n0001_p0009a20║業,造立圖寺,高敞顯博,亦足以輝隆至教矣。然無知之徒,各相高尚,貧
H01n0001_p0009a21║富相競,費竭財產,務存高廣,傷殺昆蟲含生之類。苟能精緻,累土聚沙,
H01n0001_p0009a22║福鍾不朽。欲建為福之因,未知傷生之業。朕為民父母,慈養是務。自今
H01n0001_p0009a23║一切斷之。」又詔曰:「夫信誠則應遠,行篤則感深,歷觀先世靈瑞,乃有禽
H01n0001_p0009a24║獸易色,草木移性。濟州東平郡,靈像發輝,變成金銅之色。殊常之事,絕
H01n0001_p0009a25║於往古;熙隆妙法,理在當今。有司與沙門統曇曜令州送像達都,使道俗
H01n0001_p0009a26║咸睹實相之容,普告天下,皆使聞知。」
H01n0001_p0009a27║  三年十二月,顯祖因田鷹獲鴛鴦一,其偶悲鳴,上下不去。帝乃惕然,
H01n0001_p0009a28║問左右曰:「此飛鳴者,為雌為雄?」左右對曰:「臣以為雌。」帝曰:「何以
H01n0001_p0009a29║知?」對曰:「陽性剛,陰性柔,以剛柔推之,必是雌矣。」帝乃慨然而歎曰:
H01n0001_p0009a30║「雖人鳥事別,至於資識性情,竟何異哉!」於是下詔,禁斷鷙鳥,不得畜
H01n0001_p0010a01║焉。
H01n0001_p0010a02║  承明元年八月,高祖於永寧寺,設太法供,度良家男女為僧尼者百有
H01n0001_p0010a03║餘人,帝為剃髮,施以僧服,令修道戒,資福於顯祖。是月,又詔起建明寺。
H01n0001_p0010a04║太和元年二月,幸永寧寺設齋,赦死罪囚。三月,又幸永寧寺設會,行道聽
H01n0001_p0010a05║講,命中、秘二省與僧徒討論佛義,施僧衣服、寶器有差。又於方山太祖營
H01n0001_p0010a06║壘之處,建思遠寺。自興光至此,京城內寺新舊且百所,僧尼二千餘人,四
H01n0001_p0010a07║方諸寺六千四百七十八,僧尼七萬七千二百五十八人。四年春,詔以鷹師
H01n0001_p0010a08║為報德寺。九年秋,有司奏,上谷郡比丘尼惠香,在北山松樹下死,屍形不
H01n0001_p0010a09║壞。爾來三年,士女觀者有千百。於時人皆異之。十年冬,有司又奏:
H01n0001_p0010a10║「前被敕以勒籍之初,愚民僥倖,假稱入道,以避輸課,其無籍僧尼罷遣還
H01n0001_p0010a11║俗。重被旨,所檢僧尼,寺主、維那當寺隱審。其有道行精勤者,聽仍在
H01n0001_p0010a12║道;為行凡粗者,有籍無籍,悉罷歸齊民。今依旨簡遣,其諸州還俗者,僧
H01n0001_p0010a13║尼合一千三百二十七人。」奏可。十六年詔:「四月八日、七月十五日,聽
H01n0001_p0010a14║大州度一百人為僧尼,中州五十人,下州二十人,以為常准,著於令。」十
H01n0001_p0010a15║七年,詔立《僧制》四十七條。十九年四月,帝幸徐州白塔寺。顧謂諸王
H01n0001_p0010a16║及侍官曰:「此寺近有名僧嵩法師,受《成實論》於羅什,在此流通。後授
H01n0001_p0010a17║淵法師,淵法師授登、紀二法師。朕每玩《成實論》,可以釋人染情,故至
H01n0001_p0010a18║此寺焉。」時沙門道登,雅有義業,為高祖眷賞,恆侍講論。曾於禁內與帝
H01n0001_p0010a19║夜談,同見一鬼。二十年卒,高祖甚悼惜之,詔施帛一千匹。又設一切僧
H01n0001_p0010a20║齋,並命京城七日行道。又詔:「朕師登法師奄至徂背,痛怛摧慟,不能已
H01n0001_p0010a21║已。比藥治慎喪,未容即赴,便准師義,哭諸門外。」緇素榮之。又有西域
H01n0001_p0010a22║沙門名跋陀,有道業,深為高祖所敬信。詔於少室山陰,立少林寺而居之,
H01n0001_p0010a23║公給衣供。二十一年五月,詔曰:「羅什法師可謂神出五才,志入四行者
H01n0001_p0010a24║也。今常住寺,猶有遺地,欽悅修蹤,情深遐遠,可於舊堂所,為建三級浮
H01n0001_p0010a25║圖。又見逼昏虐,為道殄軀,既暫同俗禮,應有子胤,可推訪以聞,當加敘
H01n0001_p0010a26║接。」
H01n0001_p0010a27║  先是,立監福曹,又改為昭玄,備有官屬,以斷僧務。高祖時,沙門道
H01n0001_p0010a28║順、惠覺、僧意、惠紀、僧范、道弁、惠度、智誕、僧顯、僧義、僧利,並以義行
H01n0001_p0010a29║知重。
H01n0001_p0010a30║  世宗即位,永平元年秋,詔曰:緇素既殊,法律亦異。故道教彰於互
H01n0001_p0011a01║顯,禁勸各有所宜。自今已後,眾僧犯殺人已上罪者,仍依俗斷,餘犯悉付
H01n0001_p0011a02║昭玄,以內律僧制治之。二年冬,沙門統惠深上言:「僧尼浩曠,清濁混
H01n0001_p0011a03║流,不遵禁典,精粗莫別。輒與經律法師群議立制:諸州、鎮、郡維那、上
H01n0001_p0011a04║坐、寺主,各令戒律自修,咸依內禁,若不解律者,退其本次。又,出家之
H01n0001_p0011a05║人,不應犯法,積八不淨物。然經律所制,通塞有方。依律,車牛淨人,不
H01n0001_p0011a06║淨之物,不得為己私畜。唯有老病年六十以上者,限聽一乘。又,比來僧
H01n0001_p0011a07║尼,或因三寶,出貸私財。緣州外。又,出家捨著,本無凶儀,不應廢道從
H01n0001_p0011a08║俗。其父母三師,遠聞凶問,聽哭三日。若在見前,限以七日。或有不安
H01n0001_p0011a09║寺舍,游止民間,亂道生過,皆由此等。若有犯者,脫服還民。其有造寺
H01n0001_p0011a10║者,限僧五十以上,啟聞聽造。若有輒營置者,處以違敕之罪,其寺僧眾擯
H01n0001_p0011a11║出外州。僧尼之法,不得為俗人所使。若有犯者,還配本屬。其外國僧尼
H01n0001_p0011a12║來歸化者,求精檢有德行合三藏者聽住,若無德行,遣還本國,若其不去,
H01n0001_p0011a13║依此僧制治罪。」詔從之。
H01n0001_p0011a14║  先是,於恒農荊山造玟玉丈六像一。三年冬,迎置於洛濱之報德寺,
H01n0001_p0011a15║世宗躬觀致敬。
H01n0001_p0011a16║  四年夏,詔曰:「僧祇之粟,本期濟施,儉年出貸,豐則收入。山林僧
H01n0001_p0011a17║尼,隨以給施;民有窘弊,亦即賑之。但主司冒利,規取贏息,及其征責,不
H01n0001_p0011a18║計水旱,或償利過本,或翻改券契,侵蠹貧下,莫知紀極。細民嗟毒,歲月
H01n0001_p0011a19║滋深。非所以矜此窮乏,宗尚慈拯之本意也。自今已後,不得專委維那、
H01n0001_p0011a20║都尉,可令刺史共加監括。尚書檢諸有僧祇谷之處,州別列其元數,出入
H01n0001_p0011a21║贏息,賑給多少,並貸償歲月,見在未收,上台錄記。若收利過本,及翻改
H01n0001_p0011a22║初券,依律免之,勿復征責。或有私債,轉施償僧,即以丐民,不聽收檢。
H01n0001_p0011a23║後有出貸,先盡貧窮,征債之科,一准舊格。富有之家,不聽輒貸。脫仍冒
H01n0001_p0011a24║濫,依法治罪。」
H01n0001_p0011a25║  又尚書令高肇奏言:「謹案:故沙門統曇曜,昔於承明元年,奏涼州軍
H01n0001_p0011a26║戶趙苟子等二百家為僧祇戶,立課積粟,擬濟饑年,不限道俗,皆以拯施。
H01n0001_p0011a27║又依內律,僧祇戶不得別屬一寺。而都維那僧暹、僧頻等,進違成旨,退乖
H01n0001_p0011a28║內法,肆意任情,奏求逼召,致使吁嗟之怨,盈於行道,棄子傷生,自縊溺
H01n0001_p0011a29║死,五十餘人。豈是仰贊聖明慈育之意,深失陛下歸依之心。遂令此等,
H01n0001_p0011a30║行號巷哭,叫訴無所,至乃白羽貫耳,列訟宮闕。悠悠之人,尚為哀痛,況
H01n0001_p0012a01║慈悲之士,而可安之。請聽苟子等還鄉課輸,儉乏之年,周給貧寡,若有不
H01n0001_p0012a02║虞,以擬邊捍。其暹等違旨背律,謬奏之愆,請付昭玄,依僧律推處。」詔
H01n0001_p0012a03║曰:「暹等特可原之,餘如奏。」
H01n0001_p0012a04║  世宗篤好佛理,每年常於禁中,親講經論,廣集名僧,標明義旨。沙門
H01n0001_p0012a05║條錄,為《內起居》焉。上既崇之,下彌企尚。至延昌中,天下州郡僧尼
H01n0001_p0012a06║寺,積有一萬三千七百二十七所,徒侶逾眾。
H01n0001_p0012a07║  熙平元年,詔遣沙門惠生使西域,采諸經律。正光三年冬,還京師。
H01n0001_p0012a08║所得經論一百七十部,行於世。
H01n0001_p0012a09║  二年春,靈太后令曰:「年常度僧,依限大州應百人者,州郡於前十日
H01n0001_p0012a10║解送三百人,其中州二百人,小州一百人。州統、維那與官及精練簡取充
H01n0001_p0012a11║數。若無精行,不得濫采。若取非人,刺史為首,以違旨論,太守、縣令、綱
H01n0001_p0012a12║僚節級連坐,統及維那移五百里外異州為僧。自今奴婢悉不聽出家,諸王
H01n0001_p0012a13║及親貴,亦不得輒啟請。有犯者,以違旨論。其僧尼輒度他人奴婢者,亦
H01n0001_p0012a14║移五百里外為僧。僧尼多養親識及他人奴婢子,年大私度為弟子,自今斷
H01n0001_p0012a15║之。有犯還俗,被養者歸本等。寺主聽容一人,出寺五百里,二人千里。
H01n0001_p0012a16║私度之僧,皆由三長罪不及己,容多隱濫。自今有一人私度,皆以違旨論。
H01n0001_p0012a17║鄰長為首,里、黨各相降一等。縣滿十五人,郡滿三十人,州鎮滿三十人,
H01n0001_p0012a18║免官,僚吏節級連坐。私度之身,配當州下役。」時法禁寬褫,不能改肅
H01n0001_p0012a19║也。
H01n0001_p0012a20║  景明初,世宗詔大長秋卿白整准代京靈巖寺石窟,於洛南伊闕山,為
H01n0001_p0012a21║高祖、文昭皇太后營石窟二所。初建之始,窟頂去地三百一十尺。至正始
H01n0001_p0012a22║二年中,始出斬山二十三丈。至大長秋卿王質,謂斬山太高,費功難就,奏
H01n0001_p0012a23║求下移就平,去地一百尺,南北一百四十尺。永平中,中尹劉騰奏為世宗
H01n0001_p0012a24║復造石窟一,凡為三所。從景明元年至正光四年六月已前,用功八十萬二
H01n0001_p0012a25║千三百六十六。肅宗熙平中,於城內太社西,起永寧寺。靈太后親率百
H01n0001_p0012a26║僚,表基立剎。佛圖九層,高四十餘丈,其諸費用,不可勝計。景明寺佛
H01n0001_p0012a27║圖,亦其亞也。至於官私寺塔,其數甚眾。
H01n0001_p0012a28║  神龜元年冬,司空公、尚書令、任城王澄奏曰:
H01n0001_p0012a29║  仰惟高祖,定鼎嵩瀍,卜世悠遠。慮括終始,制洽天人,造物開符,垂
H01n0001_p0012a30║之萬葉。故都城制云,城內唯擬一永寧寺地,郭內唯擬尼寺一所,餘悉城
H01n0001_p0013a01║郭之外。欲令永遵此制,無敢逾矩。逮景明之初,微有犯禁。故世宗仰修
H01n0001_p0013a02║先志,爰發明旨,城內不造立浮圖、僧尼寺舍,亦欲絕其希覬。文武二帝,
H01n0001_p0013a03║豈不愛尚佛法,蓋以道俗殊歸,理無相亂故也。但俗眩虛聲,僧貪厚潤,雖
H01n0001_p0013a04║有顯禁,猶自冒營。至正始三年,沙門統惠深有違景明之禁,便云:「營就
H01n0001_p0013a05║之寺,不忍移毀,求自今已後,更不聽立。」先旨含寬,抑典從請。前班之
H01n0001_p0013a06║詔,仍卷不行,後來私謁,彌以奔競。永平二年,深等復立條制,啟云:「自
H01n0001_p0013a07║今已後,欲造寺者,限僧五十已上,聞徹聽造。若有輒營置者,依俗違敕之
H01n0001_p0013a08║罪,其寺僧眾,擯出外州。」爾來十年,私營轉盛,罪擯之事,寂爾無聞。豈
H01n0001_p0013a09║非朝格雖明,恃福共毀,僧制徒立,顧利莫從者也。不俗不道,務為損法,
H01n0001_p0013a10║人而無厭,其可極乎!
H01n0001_p0013a11║  夫學跡沖妙,非浮識所辯;玄門曠寂,豈短辭能究。然淨居塵外,道家
H01n0001_p0013a12║所先,功緣冥深,匪尚華遁。苟能誠信,童子聚沙,可邁於道場;純陀儉設,
H01n0001_p0013a13║足薦於雙樹。何必縱其盜竊,資營寺觀。此乃民之多幸,非國之福也。然
H01n0001_p0013a14║比日私造,動盈百數。或乘請公地,輒樹私福;或啟得造寺,限外廣制。如
H01n0001_p0013a15║此期罔,非可稍計。臣以才劣,誠忝工務,奉遵成規,裁量是總。所以披尋
H01n0001_p0013a16║舊旨,研究圖格,輒遣府司馬陸昶、屬崔孝芬,都城之中及郭邑之內檢括寺
H01n0001_p0013a17║舍,數乘五百,空地表剎,未立塔宇,不在其數。民不畏法,乃至於斯!自
H01n0001_p0013a18║遷都已來,年逾二紀,寺奪民居,三分且一。高祖立制,非徒欲使緇素殊
H01n0001_p0013a19║途,抑亦防微深慮。世宗述之,亦不錮禁營福,當在杜塞未萌。今之僧寺,
H01n0001_p0013a20║無處不有。或比滿城邑之中,或連溢屠沽之肆,或三五少僧,共為一寺。
H01n0001_p0013a21║梵唱屠音,連簷接響,像塔纏於腥臊,性靈沒於嗜欲,真偽混居,往來紛雜。
H01n0001_p0013a22║下司因習而莫非,僧曹對制而不問。其於污染真行,塵穢練僧,薰蕕同器,
H01n0001_p0013a23║不亦甚歟!往在北代,有法秀之謀;近日冀州,遭大乘之變。皆初假神教,
H01n0001_p0013a24║以惑眾心,終設奸誑,用逞私悖。太和之制,因法秀而杜遠;景明之禁,慮
H01n0001_p0013a25║大乘之將亂。始知祖宗睿聖,防遏處深。履霜堅冰,不可不慎。
H01n0001_p0013a26║  昔如來闡教,多依山林,今此僧徒,戀著城邑。豈湫隘是經行所宜,浮
H01n0001_p0013a27║喧必棲禪之宅,當由利引其心,莫能自止。處者既失其真,造者或損其福,
H01n0001_p0013a28║乃釋氏之糟糠,法中之社鼠,內戒所不容,王典所應棄矣。非但京邑如此,
H01n0001_p0013a29║天下州、鎮僧寺亦然。侵奪細民,廣占田宅,有傷慈矜,用長嗟苦。且人心
H01n0001_p0013a30║不同,善惡亦異。或有棲心真趣,道業清遠者;或外假法服,內懷悖德者。
H01n0001_p0014a01║如此之徒,宜辨涇渭。若雷同一貫,何以勸善。然睹法贊善,凡人所知;矯
H01n0001_p0014a02║俗避嫌,物情同趣。臣獨何為,孤議獨發。誠以國典一廢,追理至難,法綱
H01n0001_p0014a03║暫失,條綱將亂。是以冒陳愚見,兩願其益。
H01n0001_p0014a04║  臣聞設令在於必行,立罰貴能肅物。令而不行,不如無令。罰不能
H01n0001_p0014a05║肅,孰與亡罰。頃明詔屢下,而造者更滋,嚴限驟施,而違犯不息者,豈不
H01n0001_p0014a06║以假福托善,幸罪不加。人殉其私,吏難苟劾。前制無追往之辜,後旨開
H01n0001_p0014a07║自今之恕,悠悠世情,遂忽成法。今宜加以嚴科,特設重禁,糾其來違,懲
H01n0001_p0014a08║其往失。脫不峻檢,方垂容借,恐今旨雖明,復如往日。又旨令所斷,標榜
H01n0001_p0014a09║禮拜之處,悉聽不禁。愚以為,樹榜無常,禮處難驗,欲云有造,立榜證公,
H01n0001_p0014a10║須營之辭,指言嘗禮。如此則徒有禁名,實通造路。且徙御已後,斷詔四
H01n0001_p0014a11║行,而私造之徒,不懼制旨。豈是百官有司,怠於奉法?將由綱漏禁寬,容
H01n0001_p0014a12║托有他故耳。如臣愚意,都城之中,雖有標榜,營造粗功,事可改立者,請
H01n0001_p0014a13║依先制。在於郭外,任擇所便。其地若買得,券證分明者,聽其轉之。若
H01n0001_p0014a14║官地盜作,即令還官。若靈像既成,不可移撤,請依今敕,如舊不禁,悉令
H01n0001_p0014a15║坊內行止,不聽毀坊開門,以妨里內通巷。若被旨者,不在斷限。郭內准
H01n0001_p0014a16║此商量。其廟像嚴立,而逼近屠沽,請斷旁屠殺,以潔靈居。雖有僧數,而
H01n0001_p0014a17║事在可移者,令就閒敞,以避隘陋。如今年正月赦後造者,求依僧制,案法
H01n0001_p0014a18║科治。若僧不滿五十者,共相通容,小就大寺,必令充限。其地賣還,一如
H01n0001_p0014a19║上式。自今外州,若欲造寺,僧滿五十已上,先令本州表列,昭玄量審,奏
H01n0001_p0014a20║聽乃立。若有違犯,悉依前科。州郡已下,容而不禁,罪同違旨。庶仰遵
H01n0001_p0014a21║先皇不朽之業,俯奉今旨慈悲之令,則繩墨可全,聖道不墜矣。
H01n0001_p0014a22║  奏可。未幾,天下喪亂,加以河陰之酷,朝士死者,其家多舍居宅,以
H01n0001_p0014a23║施僧尼,京邑第舍,略為寺矣。前日禁令,不復行焉。
H01n0001_p0014a24║  元象元年秋,詔曰:「梵境幽玄,義歸清曠,伽藍淨土,理絕囂塵。前
H01n0001_p0014a25║朝城內,先有禁斷,自聿來遷鄴,率由舊章。而百辟士民,屆都之始,城外
H01n0001_p0014a26║新城,並皆給宅。舊城中暫時普借,更擬後須,非為永久。如聞諸人,多以
H01n0001_p0014a27║二處得地,或捨舊城所借之宅,擅立為寺。知非己有,假此一名。終恐因
H01n0001_p0014a28║習滋甚,有虧恆式。宜付有司,精加隱括。且城中舊寺及宅,並有定帳,其
H01n0001_p0014a29║新立之徒,悉從毀廢。」冬,又詔:「天下牧守令長,悉不聽造寺。若有違
H01n0001_p0014a30║者,不問財之所出,並計所營功庸,悉以枉法論。」興和二年春,詔以鄴城
H01n0001_p0015a01║舊宮為天平寺。
H01n0001_p0015a02║  世宗以來至武定末,沙門知名者,有惠猛、惠辨、惠深、僧暹、道欽、僧
H01n0001_p0015a03║獻、道晞、僧深、惠光、惠顯、法榮、道長,並見重於當世。
H01n0001_p0015a04║  魏有天下,至於禪讓,佛經流通,大集中國,凡有四百一十五部,合一
H01n0001_p0015a05║千九百一十九卷。正光已後,天下多虞,王役尤其,於是所在編民,相與入
H01n0001_p0015a06║道,假慕沙門,實辟調役,猥濫之極,自中國之有佛法,未之有也。略而計
H01n0001_p0015a07║之,僧尼大眾二百萬矣,其寺三萬有餘。流弊不歸,一至於此,識者所以歎
H01n0001_p0015a08║息也。
H01n0001_p0015a09║    (《魏書》卷一百一十四《釋老志》3025)
H01n0001_p0015a10║
H01n0001_p0015a11║   佛道自後漢明帝法始東流
H01n0001_p0015a12║  佛道自後漢明帝法始東流,自此以來,其教稍廣,別為一家之學。元
H01n0001_p0015a13║嘉十二年,丹陽尹蕭摹之奏曰:「佛化被於中國,已歷四代,而自頃以來,
H01n0001_p0015a14║更以奢兢為重。請自今以後有欲鑄銅像者,悉詣台自聞;興造塔寺精舍,
H01n0001_p0015a15║皆先列言,須許報然後就功。」詔可。又沙汰沙門罷道者數百人。孝武大
H01n0001_p0015a16║明二年,有曇標道人與羌人高闍謀反,上因是下詔,所在精加沙汰,後有違
H01n0001_p0015a17║犯,嚴其誅坐。於是設諸條禁,自非戒行精苦,並使還俗,而諸寺尼出入宮
H01n0001_p0015a18║掖,交關妃後,引制竟不能行。先是,晉世庾冰始創議欲使沙門敬王者,後
H01n0001_p0015a19║桓玄復述其義,並不果行。大明六年,孝武使有司奏沙門接見皆盡敬,詔
H01n0001_p0015a20║可。前廢帝初復舊。
H01n0001_p0015a21║  孝武寵姬殷貴妃薨,為之立寺,貴妃子子鸞封新安王,故以新安為寺
H01n0001_p0015a22║號。前廢帝殺子鸞,乃毀廢新安寺,驅斥僧徒,尋又毀中興、天寶諸寺。明
H01n0001_p0015a23║帝定亂,下令修復。
H01n0001_p0015a24║  宋世名僧有道生道人,彭城人,父為廣戚令。道生為沙門法大弟子,
H01n0001_p0015a25║幼而聰悟。年十五便能講經,及長有異解,立頓悟義,時人推服。元嘉十
H01n0001_p0015a26║一年,卒於廬山,沙門慧琳之為之誄。
H01n0001_p0015a27║  慧琳者,秦郡秦縣人,姓劉氏。少出家,信冶城寺。有才章,兼內外之
H01n0001_p0015a28║學,為廬陵王義真所知。嘗著《均善論》,頗貶裁佛法,云:「有白學先生,
H01n0001_p0015a29║以為中國聖人經綸百世,其德弘矣,知周萬變,天人之理盡矣。道無隱旨,
H01n0001_p0015a30║教罔遣筌,總睿迪哲,保負於殊論哉。有黑學道士陋之,謂不照幽冥之塗,
H01n0001_p0016a01║弗及來生之化,雖尚虛心,未能虛事,不逮西域之深也。」為客主酬答,其
H01n0001_p0016a02║歸以為「六度與五教並行,信順與慈悲齊立」。論行於世。舊蓋僧謂其敗
H01n0001_p0016a03║黜釋氏,欲加擯斥。文帝見論賞之,元嘉中,遂參權要,朝廷大事皆與議
H01n0001_p0016a04║焉。賓客輻湊,門車常有數十兩。四方贈賂相係,勢傾一時。方筵七八,
H01n0001_p0016a05║座上恆滿。琳著高屐,披貂裘,置通呈書佐,權侔宰輔。會稽孔覬嘗詣之,
H01n0001_p0016a06║遇賓客填咽,暄涼而已。覬慨然曰:「遂有黑衣宰相,可謂冠履失所矣。」
H01n0001_p0016a07║注《孝經》及《莊子逍遙篇》文論傳於世。
H01n0001_p0016a08║  又有慧嚴、慧議道人,並住東安寺。學行精整,為道俗所推。時鬥場
H01n0001_p0016a09║寺多禪僧,都下為之語曰:「鬥場禪師窟,東安談義林。」
H01n0001_p0016a10║  孝武大明四年,於中興寺設齋,有一異僧,眾莫之識,問名,答言名明
H01n0001_p0016a11║慧,從天安寺來。忽然不見。天下無此寺名,乃改中興曰天安寺。大明
H01n0001_p0016a12║中,外國沙門摩訶衍苦節有精理,於都下出新經《勝鬘經》,尤見重釋學。
H01n0001_p0016a13║    (《南史》卷七十八《夷貊上.天竺迦毗黎國傳》1962)
H01n0001_p0016a14║
H01n0001_p0016a15║   元史.釋老傳
H01n0001_p0016a16║  釋、老之教,行乎中國也,千數百年,而其盛衰,每繫乎時君之好惡。
H01n0001_p0016a17║是故,佛於晉、宋、梁、陳,黃、老於漢、魏、唐、宋,而其效可睹矣。
H01n0001_p0016a18║  元興,崇尚釋氏,而帝師之盛,尤不可與古昔同語。維道家方士之流,
H01n0001_p0016a19║假禱祠之說,乘時以起,曾不及其什一焉。宋舊史嘗志老、釋,厥有旨哉。
H01n0001_p0016a20║乃本其意,作《釋老傳》。
H01n0001_p0016a21║  帝師八思巴者,土番薩斯迦人,族款氏也。相傳自其祖朵栗赤,以其
H01n0001_p0016a22║法佐國主霸西海者十餘世。八思巴生七歲,誦經數十萬言,能約通其大
H01n0001_p0016a23║義,國人號之聖童,故名曰八思巴。少長,學富五明,故又稱曰班彌怛。歲
H01n0001_p0016a24║癸丑,年十有五,謁世祖於潛邸,與語大悅,日見親禮。
H01n0001_p0016a25║  中統元年,世祖即位,尊為國師,授以玉印。命制蒙古新字,字成上
H01n0001_p0016a26║之。其字僅千餘,其母凡四十有一。其相關紐而成字者,則有韻關之法;
H01n0001_p0016a27║其以二合三合四合而成字者,則有語韻之法;而大要則以諧聲為宗也。至
H01n0001_p0016a28║元六年,詔頒行於天下。詔曰:「朕惟字以書言,言以紀事,此古今之通
H01n0001_p0016a29║制。我國家肇基朔方,俗尚簡古,未遑製作,凡施用文字,因用漢楷及畏吾
H01n0001_p0016a30║字,以達本朝之言。考諸遼、金,以及遐方諸國,例各有字,今文治浸興,而
H01n0001_p0017a01║字書有闕,於一代制度,實為未備。故特命國師八思巴創為蒙古新字,譯
H01n0001_p0017a02║為一切文字,期於順言達事而已。自今以往,凡有璽書頒降者,並用蒙古
H01n0001_p0017a03║新字,仍各以其國字副之。」遂升號八思巴曰大寶法王,更賜玉印。
H01n0001_p0017a04║  十一年,請告西還,留之不可,乃以其弟亦憐真嗣焉。十六年,八思巴
H01n0001_p0017a05║卒,(1)訃聞,賻贈有加,賜號皇天之下一人之上〔開教〕宣文輔治大聖至德
H01n0001_p0017a06║普覺真智佑國如意大寶法王(2)、西天佛子、大元帝師。至治間,特詔郡縣
H01n0001_p0017a07║建廟通祀。泰定元年,又以繪像十一,頒各行省,為之塑像云。
H01n0001_p0017a08║  亦憐真嗣為帝師,凡六歲,至元十九年卒。答兒麻八剌剌吉塔嗣(3),
H01n0001_p0017a09║二十三年卒。亦攝思連真嗣,三十一年卒。乞剌斯八斡節兒嗣,成宗特造
H01n0001_p0017a10║寶玉五方佛冠賜之。元貞元年,又更賜雙龍盤紐白玉印,文曰「大元帝師
H01n0001_p0017a11║統領諸國僧尼中興釋教之印」。大德七年卒。明年,以輦真監藏嗣,又明
H01n0001_p0017a12║年卒。(都)〔相〕家班嗣(4),皇慶二年卒。相兒加思〔巴〕嗣(5),延佑元年
H01n0001_p0017a13║卒。二年,以公哥羅古羅思監藏班藏卜嗣,至治三年卒。旺出兒監藏嗣,
H01n0001_p0017a14║泰定二年卒。公哥列思八丘沖納思監藏班藏卜嗣,賜玉印,降璽書諭天
H01n0001_p0017a15║下,其年卒。天歷二年,以輦真吃剌失思嗣。
H01n0001_p0017a16║  八思巴時,又有國師膽巴者,一名功嘉葛剌思,西番突甘斯旦麻人。
H01n0001_p0017a17║幼從西天竺古達麻失利傳習梵秘,得其法要。中統間,帝師八思巴薦之。
H01n0001_p0017a18║時懷孟大旱,世祖命禱之,立雨。又嘗咒食投龍湫,頃之奇花異果上尊湧
H01n0001_p0017a19║出波面,取以上進,世祖大悅。至元末,以不容於時相桑哥,力請西歸。既
H01n0001_p0017a20║復召還,謫之潮州。時樞密副使月的迷失鎮潮,而妻得奇疾,膽巴以所持
H01n0001_p0017a21║數珠加其身,即愈。又嘗為月的迷失言異夢及己還朝期,後皆驗。
H01n0001_p0017a22║  元貞間,海都犯西番界,成宗命禱於摩訶葛剌神,已而捷書果至;又為
H01n0001_p0017a23║成宗禱疾,遄愈,賜與甚厚,且詔分御前校尉十人為之導從。成宗北巡,命
H01n0001_p0017a24║膽巴以象輿前導。過雲州,語諸弟子曰:「此地有靈怪,恐驚乘輿,當密持
H01n0001_p0017a25║神咒以壓之。」未幾,風雨大至,眾咸震懼,惟幄殿無虞,復賜碧鈿杯一。
H01n0001_p0017a26║大德七年夏,卒。皇慶間,追號大覺普惠廣照無上膽巴帝師。(6)
H01n0001_p0017a27║  其後又有必蘭納識里者,初名只剌瓦彌的理,北庭噶瑪拉國人。幼熟
H01n0001_p0017a28║畏兀兒及西天書,長能貫通三藏暨諸國語。大德六年,奉旨從帝師授戒於
H01n0001_p0017a29║廣寒殿,代帝出家,更賜今名。皇慶中,命翻譯諸梵經典。延佑間,特賜銀
H01n0001_p0017a30║印,授光祿大夫。
H01n0001_p0018a01║  是時諸番朝貢,表箋文字無能識者,皆令必蘭納識理譯進。嘗有以金
H01n0001_p0018a02║刻字為表進者,帝遣視之,廷中愕眙,觀所以對。必蘭納識理隨取案上墨
H01n0001_p0018a03║汁塗金葉,審其字,命左右執筆,口授表中語及使人名氏,與貢物之數,書
H01n0001_p0018a04║而上之。明日,有司閱其物色,與所賚重譯之書無少差者。眾無不服其博
H01n0001_p0018a05║識,而竟莫測其何所從授,或者以為神悟云。授開府儀同三司,仍賜三台
H01n0001_p0018a06║銀印,兼領功德使司事,厚其廩氣,俾得以養母焉。
H01n0001_p0018a07║  至治三年,改賜金印,特授沙(律)〔津〕愛護持(7),且命為諸國引進
H01n0001_p0018a08║使。至順二年,又賜玉印,加號普覺圓明廣照弘辯三藏國師。三年,與安
H01n0001_p0018a09║西王子月魯帖木兒等謀為不軌,坐誅。其所譯經,漢字則有《楞嚴經》,西
H01n0001_p0018a10║天字則有《大乘莊嚴寶度經》、《乾陀般若經》、《大涅槃經》、《稱讚大乘功
H01n0001_p0018a11║德經》,西番字則有《不思議禪觀經》,通若千卷。
H01n0001_p0018a12║  元起朔方,固已崇尚釋教。及得西域,世祖以其地廣而險遠,民獷而
H01n0001_p0018a13║好鬥,思有以因其俗而柔其人,乃郡縣土番之地,設官分職,而領之於帝
H01n0001_p0018a14║師。乃立宣政院,其為使位居第二者,必以僧為之,出帝師所辟舉,而總其
H01n0001_p0018a15║政於內外者,帥臣以下,亦必僧俗並用,而軍民通攝。於是帝師之命,與詔
H01n0001_p0018a16║敕並行於西土。百年之間,朝廷所以敬禮而尊信之者,無所不用其至。雖
H01n0001_p0018a17║帝后妃主,皆因受戒而為之膜拜。正衙朝會,百官班列,而帝師亦或專席
H01n0001_p0018a18║於坐隅。且每帝即位之始,降詔褒護,必敕章佩監絡珠為字以賜,蓋其重
H01n0001_p0018a19║之如此。其未至而迎之,則中書大臣馳驛累百騎以往,所過供億送迎。比
H01n0001_p0018a20║至京師,則敕大府假法駕半仗,以為前導,詔省、台、院官以及百司庶府,並
H01n0001_p0018a21║服銀鼠質孫。用每歲二月八日迎佛,威儀往迓,且命禮部尚書、郎中專督
H01n0001_p0018a22║迎接。及其卒而歸葬舍利,又命百官出郭祭餞。大德九年,專遣平章政事
H01n0001_p0018a23║鐵木兒乘傳護送,賻金五百兩、銀千兩、幣帛萬匹、鈔三千錠。皇慶二年,
H01n0001_p0018a24║加至賻金五千兩、銀一萬五千兩、錦綺雜彩共一萬七千匹。雖其昆弟子姓
H01n0001_p0018a25║之往來,有司亦供億無乏。泰定間,以帝師弟公哥亦思監將至,詔中書持
H01n0001_p0018a26║羊酒郊勞;而其兄瑣南藏卜遂尚公主,封白蘭王,賜金印,給圓符。其弟子
H01n0001_p0018a27║之號司空、司徒、國公,佩金玉印章者,前後相望。
H01n0001_p0018a28║  為其徒者,怙勢恣睢,日新月盛,氣焰熏灼,延於四方,為害不可勝言。
H01n0001_p0018a29║有楊璉真加者,世祖用為江南釋教總統,發掘故宋趙氏諸陵之在錢唐、紹
H01n0001_p0018a30║興者及其大臣塚墓凡一百一所,戕殺平民四人;受人獻美女寶物無算;且
H01n0001_p0019a01║攘奪盜取財物,計金一千七百兩、銀六千八百兩、玉帶九、玉器大小百一十
H01n0001_p0019a02║有一、雜寶貝百五十有二、大珠五十兩、鈔一十一萬六千二百錠、田二萬三
H01n0001_p0019a03║千畝;私庇平民不輸公賦者二萬三千戶。他所藏匿未露者不論也。
H01n0001_p0019a04║  又至大元年,上都開元寺西僧強市民薪,民訴諸留守李璧。璧方詢問
H01n0001_p0019a05║其由,僧已率其黨持白梃突入公府,隔案引璧發,捽諸地,捶撲交下,拽之
H01n0001_p0019a06║以歸,閉諸空室,久乃得脫,奔訴於朝,遇赦以免。二年,復有僧龔柯等十
H01n0001_p0019a07║八人,與諸王合兒八剌妃忽禿赤的斤爭道,拉妃墮車毆之,且有犯上等語,
H01n0001_p0019a08║事聞,詔釋不問。而宣政院臣方奏取旨:凡民毆西僧者,截其手;詈之者,
H01n0001_p0019a09║斷其舌。時仁宗居東宮,聞之,亟奏寢其令。
H01n0001_p0019a10║  泰定二年,西台御史李昌言:「嘗經平涼府、靜、會、定西等州(8),見西
H01n0001_p0019a11║番僧佩金字圓符,絡繹道途,馳騎累百,傳舍至不能容,則假館民舍,因迫
H01n0001_p0019a12║逐男子,姦污女婦。奉元一路,自正月至七月,往者百八十五次,用馬至八
H01n0001_p0019a13║百四十餘匹,較之諸王、行省之使,十多六七。驛戶無所控訴,台察莫得誰
H01n0001_p0019a14║何。且國家之制圓符,本為邊防警報之虞,僧人何事而輒佩之?乞更正僧
H01n0001_p0019a15║人給驛法,且令台憲得以糾察。」不報。必蘭納識里之誅也,有司籍之,得
H01n0001_p0019a16║其人畜土田、金銀貨貝錢幣、邸舍、書畫器玩,以及婦人七寶裝具,價直鉅
H01n0001_p0019a17║萬萬云。
H01n0001_p0019a18║  若歲時祝釐禱祠之常,號稱好事者,其目尤不一。有曰鎮雷阿藍納
H01n0001_p0019a19║四,華言慶贊也。有曰亦思滿藍,華言藥師壇也。有曰搠思串卜,華言護
H01n0001_p0019a20║城也。有曰朵兒禪,華言大施食也。有曰朵兒只列朵四,華言美妙金剛迴
H01n0001_p0019a21║遮施食也。(9)有曰察兒哥朵四,華言迴庶也。有曰籠哥兒,華言風輪也。
H01n0001_p0019a22║有曰喒朵四,華言作施食也。有曰出朵兒,華言出水濟六道也。有曰黨剌
H01n0001_p0019a23║朵四,華言迴遮施食也。有曰典朵兒,華言常川施食也。有曰坐靜,有曰
H01n0001_p0019a24║魯朝,華言獅子吼道場也。有曰黑牙蠻答哥,華言黑獄帝主也。有曰搠思
H01n0001_p0019a25║江朵兒麻,華言護(江)〔法〕神施食也。(10)有曰赤思古林搠,華言自受主
H01n0001_p0019a26║戒也。有曰鎮雷坐靜,有曰吃剌察坐靜,華言秘密坐靜也。有曰斟惹,華
H01n0001_p0019a27║言文殊菩薩也。有曰古林朵四,華言至尊大黑神迴遮施食也。有曰歇白
H01n0001_p0019a28║咱剌,華言大喜樂也。有曰必思禪,華言無量壽也。有曰睹思哥兒,華言
H01n0001_p0019a29║白傘蓋咒也。有曰收札沙剌,華言《五護陀羅尼經》也。(11)有曰阿昔答撒
H01n0001_p0019a30║(答)〔哈〕昔里,華言《八(十)〔千〕頌般若經》也。(12)有曰撒思納屯,華言
H01n0001_p0020a01║《大理天神咒》也。有曰闊兒魯弗卜屯,華言《大輪金剛咒》也。有曰且八
H01n0001_p0020a02║迷屯,華言《無量壽經》也。有曰亦思羅八,華言《最勝王經》也。有曰撒
H01n0001_p0020a03║思納屯,華言《護神咒》也。有曰南占屯,華言(懷)《〔壞〕相金剛》也。(13)
H01n0001_p0020a04║有曰卜魯八,華言咒法也。又有作擦擦者,以泥作小浮屠也。又有作答兒
H01n0001_p0020a05║剛者。其作答兒剛者,或一所二所以至七所;作擦擦者,或十萬二十萬以
H01n0001_p0020a06║至三十萬。又嘗造浮屠二百一十有六,實以七寶珠玉,半置海畔,半置水
H01n0001_p0020a07║中,以鎮海災。
H01n0001_p0020a08║  延祐四年,宣徽使會每歲內廷佛事所供,其費以斤數者,用面四十三
H01n0001_p0020a09║萬九千五百、油七萬九千、酥二萬一千八百七十、蜜二萬七千三百。自至
H01n0001_p0020a10║元三十年間,醮祠佛事之目,僅百有二。大德七年,再立功德司,遂增至五
H01n0001_p0020a11║百有餘。僧徒貪利無已,營結近侍,欺昧奏請,佈施莽齋,所需非一,歲費
H01n0001_p0020a12║千萬,較之大德,不知幾倍。又每歲必因好事奏釋輕重囚徒,以為福利,雖
H01n0001_p0020a13║大臣如阿里,閫帥如別沙兒等,莫不假是以逭其誅。宣政院參議李良弼,
H01n0001_p0020a14║受賕鬻官,直以帝師之言縱之。其餘殺人之盜,作奸之徒,夤緣倖免者多。
H01n0001_p0020a15║至或取空名宣敕以為佈施,而任其人,可謂濫矣。凡此皆有關乎一代之治
H01n0001_p0020a16║體者,故今備著焉。
H01n0001_p0020a17║  若夫天下寺院之領於內外宣政院,曰禪,曰教,曰律,則固各守其業,
H01n0001_p0020a18║惟所謂白雲宗、白蓮宗者,亦或頗通姦利去。
H01n0001_p0020a19║  原書校勘(1)~(13)
H01n0001_p0020a20║    (《元史》卷二百二《釋老傳》4517)
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